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Full text of "Dictionary of National Biography Volume 42"

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Dictionary of 

national 

biography 



Sir Sidney Lee 




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DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

O'Duinn Owen 



DICTIONARY • 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 



SIDNEY LEE 



VOL. XLII. 



O'Duinn Owen 



3tett> 3?ork 
MACMILLAN AND CO. 

LONDON : SMITH, ELDER, & CO. 
1895 



% 



LIST OF WEITEES 



IN THE FORTY-SECOND VOLUME. 



G. A. A. . . G. A. Aitken. 

W. A. J. A. . W. A. J. Archbold. 

B. B-l. . . . Richard Bagwell. 

G. F. R. B. . G. F. Bussell Barker. 

M. B Miss Bateson. 

R. B The Rev. Ronald Batnb. 

T. B Thomas Batne. 

C. R. B. . . C. R. Beazlet. 

H. E. D. B. The Bey. H. E. D. Blakiston. 
G. C. B. . . G. C. Boase. 

T. G. B. . . The Rev. Professor Bonney, 

F.R.S. 
W. C-r. . . William Carr. 

H. M. G. . . The late H. Manners Chi- 
chester. 

A. M. C-e.. Miss A. M. Cooke. 

T. C Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. Courtney. 

W. H. C. . . Profrssor W. H. Cdmminos. 

L. C Lionel Cubt, F.S.A. 

J. A. D. . . J. A. Doyle. 

R. D Robert Dunlop. 

C. H. F. . . C. H. Firth. 
J. D. F.. . . J. D. Fitzgerald. 
W. J. F. . . W. J. Fitzpatrick, F.S.A, 
W. H. F-r. Sir William H. Flower, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 



T. F. . . 

S. R. G. 
R. G. . . 
J. T. G. 
I. G. . . 
G. G. . . 
A. G. . . 
R. E. G. 
W. A. G. 

J. C. H. 
J. A. H. 
T. F. H. 
J. J. H. 
W. H.. . 
W. H. H. 
R. J. J. . 
C. L. K. 
J. K. . . 
W. W. K. 
J. K. L. 
T. G. L. 
E. L. . . 
S. L. . . 
R. H. L. 



. . The Rev. the President op 
Corpus Christi Colleoe, 
Oxford. 

. . S. R. Gardiner, LL.D. 

. . Richard Garnett, LL.D., C.B. 

. J. T. Gilbert, LL.D., F.S.A. 
. . Israel Gollancz. 

. Gordon Goodwin. 

. The Rev. Alexander Gordon. 

. R. E. Graves. 

. . The late W. A. Greenhill, 
M.D. 

. J. Cuthbert Hadden. 

. J. A. Hamilton. 

. T. F. Henderson. 
, . J. J. Hornby. 

. The Rev. William Hunt. 

. The Rev. W. H. Hutton, B.D. 
, . The Rev. R. Jenkin Jones. 

. C. L. KlNOSFORD. 

. Joseph Knight, F.S.A. 
. Colonel W. W. Knollyb. 
. Professor J. K. Laughton. 
. T. G. Law. 
. . Miss Elizabeth Lee. 
. Sidney Lee. 
. Robin H. Leoge. 



350290 



VI 



List of Writers. 



A. G. L. . 


. A. G. Little. 


S. L.P.. . 


. Stanley Lane-Poole. 


J. E. L. . 


. John Edwabd Lloyd. 


B. P. . . . 


. Miss Porter. 


J. H. L. . 


. The Rev. J. H. Lupton, B.D. 


D'A. P. . . 


. D'Arcy Power, F.R.C.S. 


M. MacD.. 


. M. MacDonagh. 


R. B. P. . 


. R. B. Prosser. 


J. R. M. . 


. J. R. MacDonald. 


J. M. R. . 


. J. M. RlGG. 


J. M. . . . 


. The Rey. James Mackinnon, 


H. R. . . . 


. Herbert Rix. 




Ph.D. 


L. C. S. . 


. Lloyd C. Sanders. 


W. D. M. . 


. The Rev. W. D. Macbay. 


T. S. . . . 


. Thomas Sbccombe. 


E. H. M. . 


. E. H. Marshall. 


W. A. S. . 


. W. A. Shaw. 


L. M. M. . 


. Miss Middleton. 


C. F. S. . 


. Miss C. Fell Smith. 


A. H. M. . 


. A. H. Millar. 


G. G. S. . 


. G. Gregory Smith. 


CM.... 


. Cosmo Monkhouse. 


L. S. . . . 


. Leslie Stephen. 


N. M. . . . 


Norman Moore, M.D. 


G. S-h.. . 


. George Stronach. 


G. P. M-y. 


. G. P. Moriarty. 


C. W. S. . 


. C. W. Sutton. 


J. B. M. . 


. J. Bass Mollingrr. 


J. T-T. . . 


. James Tait. 


A. N. . . . 


. Albert Nicholson. 


H. R. T. . 


. H. R. Tedder, F.S.A. 


P. L. N. . 


. P. L. Nolan. 


D. Ll. T.. 


. D. Lleufer Thomas. 


G. Le G. N 


. G. Le Grys Noroate. 


T. F. T. . 


. Professor T. F. Tout. 


D. J. O'D. 


. D. J. O'Donoghue. 


E. V. . . . 


. The Rev. Canon Vbnables. 


J. S. O'H. 


. J. S. O'Halloran. 


R. H. V. . 


. Colonel R. H. Vetch, R.E., 


T. 0. . . . 


. The late Rev. Thomas Olden. 




CB. 


J. O'L. . . 


. John O'Leary. 


A. W. W.. 


. A. W. Wabd, LL.D., Litt.D. 


J. H. 0. . 


The Rev. Canon Overton. 


C. W-h. . 


. Chable8 Welch, F.S.A. 


H. P. . . . 


. Henry Paton. 


H. T. W. . 


. Sir Henry Trueman Wood. 


C. P. . . . 


. The Rev. Charles Platts. 


W. W. . . 


. Warwick Wroth, F.S.A. 


A. P. P. . 


A. F. Pollard. 







DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



O'Duinn 



O'Farrelly 



O'DUINN, GILLANANAEMH (1102- 
1160), Irish historian, was born in 1102, and 
belonged to a tribe which possessed, from the 
eleventh century to the reign of James I, the 
district now called Dooregan, from their 
tribe-name of Ui Riaccain,and the Irish word 
duthaidh, inheritance. They were one of the 
septs of the old Irish kingdom of Ui Failghe, 
now Offaly; the present barony of Tma- 
hinch, Queen's County, includes their terri- 
tory, where many of them still remain under 
the anglicised names of Dunn, O'Dunn, and 
Doyne. Gillananaemh became chief poet of 
the king of Leinster, and composed historical 
poems of the same character as those of 
Flann [q. v.] and of Gillacoemhin. Five 
poems undoubtedly his are extant: (1) Of 
328 verses, beginning ' Aibhinn sin Eire ard : 
a chrich mac Miledh morgarg ' (' Oh ! plea- 
sant noble Ireland : land of the sons of valiant 
Milesius'). This celebrates the Milesian 
conquest; and a copy made in 1712 by the 
well-known scribe John MacSolaidh is ex- 
tant, as well as one in the Cambridge Uni- 
versity Library of earlier date. (2) Of 280 
verses on the kings of Leinster, beginning 
' Coigeadh Laighean na leacht an riogh ' 
(' Fifth of Ireland, Leinster of the tombs of 
the kings '). There is a copy in the ' Book of 
Ballymote/ a manuscript of the fifteenth 
century (fol. 56, col. 4, line 8). (3) Of 128 
verses on the tribes descended from Colla 
Meann, Colla Uais, and Colla Dachrioch, the 
three sons of Cairbre Liffeachair, king of Ire- 
land. It begins 'Airghialla a hEamhain 
Macha' (' Oh ! men of Oriel, from the Navan 
fort'). A copy made in 1708 by James 
Maguire was in the collection of Edward 
O'Reilly [q. v.] (4) Of 296 verses on the 
kings of Connaught, beginning ' Findaidh 
seanchaidhe fir Fail* (' Witness the historians 
of the men of Ireland *). There is a copy in 

vol. xui. 



the Cambridge University Library. (5) Of 
296 verses on the kings of Connaught, be- 
ginning, ' Cruacha Conacht rath co raith ' 
(' Rathcroghan, prosperous earthwork '). 
There is a copy in the * Book of Ballymote ' 
(fol. 56, col. 1, line 18). The libraries of the 
Royal Irish Academy and of Trinity College, 
Dublin, contain in their Irish manuscript col- 
lections further copies of these poems, and of 
others written by him. He died on the 
island of Lough Ree, co. Longford, called 
Inisclothran, on 17 Dec. 1160. 

[Book of Billyraote, Faca. Dublin, 1887, 
MS. Reeves, 388, in Cambridge Univ. Library; 
E. O'Reilly in Transactions of the Iberno-Celtic 
Soc vol. i. Dublin, 1820; local information from 
Michael Dunn of Mountrath, Queen's County, in 
1 860 ; O'Donovan's Note in Annals of the Four 
Masters, iv. 957.] N. M. 

OTARRELLY, FEARDORCHA (/*. 
1736), Irish poet, belonged to a family, of 
whom one member was abbot of Drumlane, 
co. Cavan, in 1025, and another canon of 
Drumlane in 1484. They had long been 
settled on the shores of the lake of Mullagh, 
co. Cavan, and Feardorcha was born in the 
village of Mullagh. He was son of John 
O'FarrellyjSonof Feidlimidh O'Farrelly, and 
was brought up in a literary house, for his 
father wrote ' Seanchas an da Bhreifne ' (' The 
history of the two Brefhys '), most of which 
his mother burnt in anger because the book 
deprived her of her husband's society. He 
wrote a poem on this incident and several 
others. Feardorcha was intended for the 
church, but, according to local tradition, was 
excluded owing to some sacrilegious act of 
his family in the war of 1641. He became 
a farmer, and lived all his life in hi9 native 
district, where he enjoyed the friendship of 
Cathaoir MacCabe [q. v.], of Torlogh 0*Ca- 
rolan [q. v.] the harper, and other men of 

B 



O'Ferrall 



Ofifa 



letters who flourished in that district early • 
in the last century. He wrote a poem in i 
Irish in praise of William Peppard of Kings- | 
court, oi which there is a copy in the Cam- 
bridge University Library, made by Peter j 
Galligan on 19 Dec. 1827 ; ' Beir beannacht 
uaim sios go baile na ccraobh ' (' A blessing I 
from me onBallynacree'); * Suibhal me cuig j 
coige na Fodla ' (* I walk the five provinces | 
of Ireland ') ; ' Bhidh me la deas ' (' I was I 
one fine day ') ; and others preserved in the | 
manuscript books which formed the chief 
literature of farmhouses in Meath and Cavan | 
in the last century. He was often entertained I 
by the Mortimers of Cloghwallybeg and their I 
kin, the chief landowners of the district. I 

[Works; Transactions of the Iberno-Celtic 
Society, Dublin, 1820 ; local information.] 

N. M. 

O'FERRALL, RICHARD MORE (1797- 
1880), governor of Malta, born in 1797 at 
Balyna, co. Kildare— the ancient seat of his 
race — was eldest son of Ambrose O'Ferrall 
(1752-1835), by his first wife, Anne, daugh- 
ter of John Bagot. Unlike his brother John 
Lewis More, afterwards commissioner of 
police (d. 1881), he declined, as a conscientious 
catholic, to enter the protestant university of 
Dublin. From an early age he joined in the 
struggle in Ireland for civil and religious 
liberty, and long corresponded with James 
Warren Doyle fq. v.], the patriot-prelate of 
Kildare. Afterthe Catholic Relief Bill passed 
in 1828, he became in 1831 member of parlia- 
ment for Kildare, his native county, which he 
represented without interruption for seven- 
teen years (1830-46), and afterwards for six 
years ( 1 859-65). He also sat for a short time 
in 1850-1 for co. Longford, in which his family 
held property. He supported Daniel O'Con- 
nell, who wrote to his confidential friend P. V. 
Fitzpatrick,on 3 June 1834: 'I do not believe 
that More O'Ferrall will accept office.' In this 
opinion, however, the Liberator was wrong. 
In 1835, under the Melbourne administra- 
tion, O'Ferrall became a lord of the treasury; 
in 1839 secretary to the admiralty, and in 
1841 secretary to the treasury. On 1 Oct. 
1847 he severed his connection with Kildare 
to assume the governorship of Malta. On 
22 Nov. 1847 he was made a privy councillor. 
He resigned the governorship of Malta in 
1851, on the ground that he declined to serve 
under Lord John Russell, the prime minister, 
who in that year carried into law the Eccle- 
siastical Titles Bill, in opposition to the papal 
bull which created a catholic hierarchy in 
England. 

O'Ferrall died at Kingstown, near Dublin, 
at the age of eighty-three, on 27 Oct. 1880. 



He had been a magistrate, grand juror, and 
deputy-lieutenant tor his native county, and 
at his death was the oldest member of the Irish 
privy council. He married, on 28 Sept. 1839, 
Matilda (d. 1882), second daughter of Thomas 
Anthony, third viscount Southwell, K.P. By 
her he left a son, Ambrose, and a daughter, 
Maria Anne, who married in 1860 Sir Walter 
Nugent, bart., of Donore, co. Westmeath. 

[Life, Times, and Correspondence of Bishop 
Doyle ; Private Correspondence of Daniel O'Con- 
nell; Leinster Leader, 30 Oct. 1880; Burke's 
Landed Gentry, ii. 1516 ; Lingard's England, 
with marginal notes in manuscript by Bishop 
Doyle ; personal knowledge.] W. J. F. 

OFFA ( fi. 709), king of the East-Saxons, 
was son of Sighere, king of the East-Saxons, 
whose overlord was Wulf here, king of the 
Mercians. Sighere was succeeded on his 
throne by his brother Sebbi,who, dying in 694, 
was himself succeeded by his sons Sigheard 
and Swefred. It is possible that Offa shared 
the rule with both his uncle and cousin; 
but it was not until the death of the latter 
that he became sole king of the East-Saxons 
(Bede, iii. 30, iv. 11 ; Flor. Wig. Genealogies, 
i. 263). Being a young man of most lovable 
appearance, he was joyfully received as king 
by the whole people. He is said to have been 
in love with Kineswyth, daughter of Penda, 
king of the Mercians, though, as Penda died in 
655, she must have been too old for so young 
a lover. She incited him to give up kingdom 
and land and wife — probably some other lady 
— for the Gospel's sake. In 709 he made a 
pilgrimage to Rome in the company of Coenred 
of Mercia and Ecgwine, bishop of Worcester. 
At Rome he was received by Pope Constan- 
tine, and, in common with Coenred, is repre- 
sented as attesting a spurious letter of the 
pope to Archbishop Brihtwald [q. v.l He 
seems to be wrongly described in one charter 
as king of the Mercians, and in another as 
king of the East-Angles. He took the ton- 
sure and died at Rome. 

[BedVs Eccl. Hist, iii. 30, iv. 11, v. 19 (Engl. 
Hist. Soc.) ; Flor. Wiar. Genealogies, i. 250, 263 
(Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Will, of Malmesbury's Gesta 
Regum, i. 99 (Rolls Ser.), and Gesta Pontiff, 
pp. 296, 317 (RollsSer ); Kemble's Codex Dipl. 
l. Nos. 65, 61, 64 ; Haddan and Stubbs's Ecol. 
Documents, iii. 279-83 ; Diet. Chr. Biogr. iii. 68, 
art. ' Offa ' (3), by Bishop Stubbs.] W. H. 

OFFA (d. 796), king of the Mercians, was 
son of Thingferth, who was descended from 
Eoppa or Eowa, brother of Penda, king of 
the Mercians. In 757 Offa's cousin Ethelbald 
or ^Ethelbald (d. 757) [q. v.], king of the 
Mercians, was slain by rebels, led probably by 
Beornraed, who usurped Ethelbald's throne. 



Offa 



Ofifa 



But Beomreed was at once either slain by 
Offa or driven into exile by the people, and 
before the year closed Offa succeeded to the 
Mercian kingship (Flor. Wig. i. 56; Will. 
Malm. Qesta Regum, i. 79 ; Chronica Ma- 
jora, i. 342). Internal troubles had greatly 
weakened the power of Mercia since the 

Sriod of iEthelbald's supremacy south of the 
umber, which had been lost through his 
defeat by the West-Saxons at Burford in 754. 
Wessex had firmly established its indepen- 
dence, and the East-Angles, East-Saxons, 
and Kentish men were no longer subject to 
the Mercian king, while it is evident that 
the Welsh had grown formidable on his 
western frontier (Green). For fourteen 
years after his accession nothing is known 
of OflVs doings ; those years were apparently 
spent in making good his position and re- 
ducing his kingdom to order. At the end of 
that tune, in 771, he began a career of con- 
quest by the forcible subjugation of the 
Hestingi (Symeon, ifwfortaifeywm, ap. Opp. 
i. 44). Who these people were is not known ; 
it is suggested that they were the East- Angles 
(the two names might easily be confused by 
a copyist) (Stxjbbs), and on the other hand 
that they were a people who have given their 
name to the town of Hastings (Stmeon, u.s. n.) 
On the latter assumption Offa's campaign im- 
plies a triumphant march through the terri- 
tory of the East-Saxons, and would have to be 
reckoned as an early attempt at the conquest 
of Kent. It is with that kingdom that Offa 
is next found at war; he defeated the Kentish 
army in 775 at Otford, and his victory seems 
to have made Kent subject to him. At this 
time, too, the East-Saxons were no doubt 
brought under his supremacy, and their sub- 
jection would imply that he gained London, 
where he is said, though on no good autho- 
rity, to have built himself a residence. Hav- 
ing brought the south-eastern part of Eng- 
land under his dominion, he made war on 
the West-Saxons, and in 779 fought with 
their king, Cynewulf [q. v.], at Bensington, 
or Benson, in Oxfordshire, and took the town 
(Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, an. 777). This vic- 
tory gave him Oxford and the territory north 
of the Thames that had been lost to Mercia 
by the battle of Burford, and south of the 
Thames the country between the Thames and 
the Berkshire hills as far west as Ashbury 
(Hietoria de Abingdon, i. 14 ; Parker, Early 
History of Oxford, p. 109). Offa next at- 
tacked the Welsh, and under him the Eng- 
lish for the first time obtained a permanent 
increase of territory west of the Severn. In 
the same year as that of his victory at Ben- 
sington he began a series of incursions across 
the river, and finally, in order to check the 



retaliatory raids of the Welsh, defined and 
defended his frontier by an earthwork drawn 
from the mouth of the Wye to the mouth of 
the Dee. Offa's dyke, as this earthwork is 
called, is, roughly speaking and reckoning 
Monmouthshire as Welsh, still the boundary 
between England and Wales, though the 
traces now left of it are few. Offa thus 
added to Mercia a large part of Powys, to- 
gether with the town of Pengwern, the mo- 
dern Shrewsbury (Rhys, Celtic Britain, p. 
141; Annates Uambrenaes, ann. 778-784; 
Asser, ap. Monumenta Historica Britannica, 
p. 471). The native population remained in 
the conquered land, and lived side by side 
with their conquerors. An opportunity of es- 
tablishing amicable relations with the West- 
Saxon kingdom occurred on the accession of 
Beorhtric or Brihtric [q. v.], when Egbert or 
Ecgberht (d. 839) [q. v.], afterwards King of 
the West-Slaxons, a member of the royal line 
who had claims to the throne, fled for shelter 
to the Mercian court. Beorhtric desired that 
he should be expelled, and in 789 Offa gave 
Beorhtric his daughter Eadburga or Eadburh 
[<j. v.] in marriage, and drove Egbert from 
his kingdom. 

The commandingposition that Offa ob- 
tained south of the Humber was recognised 
on the continent, for Pope Hadrian I, writ- 
ing to the Frankish king Charles, or Charle- 
magne, described him as king of the English 
nation, spoke of a baseless rumour that Offa 
had proposed to Charles that they should 
depose the pope, and declared that he had 
received ambassadors from him with pleasure 
(Monumenta Carolina, pp. 279-282). Offa 
soon had need of the pope's assistance in a 
scheme for the consolidation of the Mercian 

S)wer. His conquests tended to impress on 
ngland a threefold political division into 
Northumbria, Mercia, and Wessex, and he 
desired to complete the independent organi- 
sation of his kingdom by the institution of a 
third and Mercian archbishopric, to the pre- 
judice of the rights of the see of Canterbury ; 
while it can scarcely be doubted that he saw 
that to weaken Canterbury would strengthen 
the hold of Mercia upon Kent. His plan was 
rendered possible by the fact that the con- 

?uest of Kent had made Archbishop Jaenbert 
q. v.] his subject. In accordance with his 
request the pope sent to England two legates 
named George and Theophylact, who, in a 
synod held at Celchyth, or Chelsea, in 787, 
sanctioned the surrender by Jaenbert of his 
rights over the sees of Worcester, Leicester, 
Lindsay, Elmham, and Dunwich, in order 
to form an archbishopric for the see of Lich- 
field, then held by Higbert [q. v.] This ar- 
rangement received the papal approval, and 

b2 



S 



Offa 



Offa 



was completed in the course of the next 
year (Ecclesiastical Documents, iii. 444 seq.) 
At this synod OftVs son Ecgferth was nomi- 
nated king in conjunction with his father 
(not specially king of Kent, as Hen. Hunt. 
p. 128), though it is probable that his as- 
sumption of royalty was delayed until, in 
common with the erection of tne new arch- 
bishopric, it received the express sanction of 
the pope. Moreover, at this synod Offa 
granted to the see of Rome a yearly payment 
of 365 mancuses for the relief of the poor and 
the maintenance of lights in St. Peter's 
Church (Ecclesiastical Documents, iii. 445, 
624). This grant seems to have been the 
origin of Peter's pence. The trade between 
England and Germany received the atten- 
tion of both Offa and Charles, and Offa was 
on terms of close friendship with Gerwold, 
abbot of St. Wandrille, who was several 
times sent to him on embassies by the Frank- 
ish king, and was employed by Charles to 
collect the customs at different ports, and 
specially at Quentavic, or Etaples, at the 
mouth of the Canche. On one occasion the 
friendly relations between the two kings were 
for a time interrupted. It is said that Charles 
asked for one of Offa's daughters in mar- 
riage for his eldest son, that Offa refused 
unless Charles would give his daughter in 
marriage to Offa's son, and that Charles was 
deeply angered by this assumption of equality 
by the Mercian king. Whatever the cause 
may have been, the fact of the disagreement 
between the kings is certain. In 790 both 
of them stopped all trade between their coun- 
tries. Gerwold used his influence to arrange 
matters, and Alcuin [q. v.] wrote that he 
thought it likely that he should be sent to 
England to that end (Gesta Abbatum Fon- 
tanellensium, c. 16 ; Monumenta Alcuiniana, 
p. 167). The two kings soon became friends 
again. Letters from Charles to Offa request 
the recall to England of a Scottish priest re- 
siding at Cologne, promise immunity to pil- 
grims on their way to Rome and protection 
to merchants, and announce that gifts had 
been sent by the Frankish king to Offa and 
to Mercian and Northumbrian sees (Monu- 
menta Carolina, pp. 351, 357, 358 ; the letter 
from which Lingard, Freeman, and others 
derive the assertion that Charles addressed 
Offa as the * most powerful of the Christian 
kings of the west/ in Recueil des llistoriens, 
v. 620, is an obvious forgery, and as such 
has not been included by JafJe in his Monu- 
menta Carolina). 

Offa was a liberal benefactor to monas- 
teries, and a large number of extant charters 
purport to be grants from him to Christ 
Church and St. Augustine's at Canterbury, 



to Worcester, Peterborough, Evesham, St. 
Alban's, Rochester, and other churches. Some 
of these charters are forgeries ; but, setting 
aside their authenticity, their number alone 
seems to prove that his benefactions were 
numerous, for otherwise so many would not 
have been attributed to him (all the refer- 
ences to these charters in Kemble's Codex 
Diplomaticus are given, and some of them are 
criticised by Bishop Stubbs in his article on 
* Offa, king of the Mercians/ in the Diction- 
ary of Christian Biography, iv. 68 seq.) He 
is said to have founded the abbeys of St. 
Albans and Bath (Hen. Hunt. p. 124; 
Will. Malm. Gesta Pontiff, pp. 196, 316). 
Bath monastery he received in exchange from 
Heathored, bishop of Worcester, in 781, and 
he may perhaps have raised new buildings 
there ; but there were monks there when he 
received it (see Codex DipL No. 143). He is 
also credited with having restored Westmin- 
ster (Monasticon, i. 266), and with having 
granted land to the abbey of St. Denys at 
Paris (Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum, i. 360). 
On the other hand, William of Malmesbury 
asserts that he despoiled many churches, 
Malmesbury, from which he took an estate to 
give to the see of Worcester, being among the 
number ( Gesta Pontiff, p. 388 ; Gesta Retjum, 
i. 86). In the latter years of his reign he made 
an alliance with JSthelred, king of North um- 
bria (murdered in 796), and gave him one of 
his daughters in marriage in 792. In 794 
he caused Ethelbert or ^Ethelberht [q. v.], 
king of the East-Angles, to be beheaded, 
probably on account of some sign of impa- 
tience of the Mercian supremacy among nis 
people, and subdued his kingdom. This act is 
generally condemned as cruel and treacherous 
[see under Ethelbert or /Ethelberht, 
Saint]. He is said to have again made war 
on the Welsh and to have ravaged Rienuch 
in 795 (Annates Cambrenses, sub ann.) Dur- 
ing his last days the Kentish nobles made 
some attempts to shake off the Mercianyoke, 
and resisted the strenuous efforts of Ethel- 
hard or jEthelheard [q. v.], archbishop of 
Canterbury, who was devoted to the Mercian 
cause, to keep them in order (Ecclesiastical 
j Documents, iii. 495, 496). Offa died on 
I 29 July 796 (comp. Flor. Wig. i. 63, and 
| Monumenta Carolina, p. 357), and immedi- 
ately on his death Kent openly revolted 
under Eadbert Preen [q. v.] Save as regards 
the death of ^Ethelberht and W T illiam of Mal- 
mesbury 's probably exaggerated accusation 
with respect to certain dealings with church 
lands, Offa left behind him a high character. 
He was certainly religious, and was a remark- 
ably able and active ruler. The correspondence 
between him and Charles the Great proves 



Offa 

that he was worthy of respect, both person- 
ally and as a powerful king. Offa put forth 
laws for his people ; they are not extant, but 
King Alfred, in the preface to his laws, de- 
clares that he used them in common with the 
laws of others of his predecessors (Thorpe, 
Ancient Laws and Institutes, i. 58). His 
queen was Kynethryth, who is said to have 
been concerned in the death of -^Ethelberht. 
His only son, Ecffferth or Egfrith, succeeded 
him, and reigned only a few months, being 
succeeded in the same year by Cenwulf. His 
daughters were Eadburga, Eadburgh, orlSad- 
burh (/?. 802) [q. v.], wife of Beorhtric, king 
of the West-Saxons; Elfleda or ^Elfleed, wife 
of JSthelred of Northumbria; Ethelburga 
or iEthelburh, an abbess ; ^Elfthryth, per- 
haps the Elfrida said to have been promised 
to ^Ethelberht, died a virgin (Flor. Wig.) ; 
and JEthelswyth. 

Offa is the subject of legends. Some are 
connected with the death of iEthelberht [see 
under Ethelbert]. Others are contained 
in the * Vitas duorum Offarum,' falsely attri- 
buted to Matthew Paris, which gives, first, 
a wholly legendary life of one of his ances- 
tors, also named Offa, fifth in descent from 
Woden; and, secondly, a life of the Mercian 
king, whose name, so the writer asserts, was 
originally Winfrith, and was changed to Offa 
on account of his likeness to an ancestor of 
that name. The story is of no historic value. 
It was believed at St. Albans and elsewhere 
that, after Offa had translated the relics of St. 
Alban, he journeyed to Rome, was received 
by Pope Hadrian, obtained from him a privi- 
lege for the monastery that he was about to 
build in honour of the saint, and granted 
the Roman see St. Peter's pence, to be paid 
by every family for ever to the English school 
at Rome, which was then flourishing or 
which he then founded (Chronica Majora, i. 
858-60; Oesta Abbatum S. Albani, i. 45; 
Vita duorum Offarum, pp. 984, 985 ; Hen. 
Hunt. p. 124). This belief, which was mis- 
taken, was no doubt derived from the king's 
actual yearly grant to the pope begun in 787. 
Offa is further said to have been buried in 
a chapel on the Ouse, near Bedford. The 
place of his burial was not known, and the 
St. Albans historian comforts himself, when 
writing of this calamity, with the reflection 
that it was not otherwise with Moses. A 
German legend connects Offa with the town 
of Offenburg, in the grand-duchy of Baden. 

[Anglo-Sax. Chron. aim. 777, 792, 794, 796, 
§ym. Dunelm. i. 353, ii. 41, 44, 48, Henry of 
Huntingdon, pp. 123, 124, 126, 128-31, Will. 
of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum, i. 84-6, 91, 95, 
105, 109, and Gesta Pontiff, pp. 66, 194, 305, 
388; Hist.de Abingdon, i. 14, 18, MatUParis's 



Offley 



Chron. Maj. i. 342, 354-63, Gesta Abb. S. Albani, 
i. 4-9 (all in the Roils Ser.); Flor. Wig. i. 56, 
59, 62, 63, 266 (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Ann. Camb. 
ann. 778, 784, 795 (Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 835); 
Jaffa's Monumenta Carolina, pp. 279-82, 351, 
352, 357, and Mon. Alcuin. p. 167 ; Gesta Abb. 
Fontanell. c. 16, ed. Pertz; Kemble's Codex Dipl. 
Nos. 105-67 passim (Engl. Hist. Soc); Haddan 
and Stubbs's Eccl. Documents, iii. 440-7, 462, 
478-88, 496-9; Dugdale's Monast. i. 266, ii. 214; 
Thorpe's Ancient Laws and Institutes, i. 58 (8vo 
edit.) ; Vitae duorum Offarum, ap. Matt. Paris, 
pp. 969 seq. (ed. Wats) ; Diet. Chr. Biogr. iv. 
68-71, art. 'Offa' (4) by Bishop Stubbs; Green's 
Making of England, pp. 418-22, 424 ; Rhys's 
Celtic Britain, p. 141 ; Parker's Early Hist, of 
Oxford, p. 109, Oxford Hist. Soc.] W. H. 

OFFALEY, Baroness. [See Digby, 
Letticb, Lady, 1688 P-1658.] 

OFFALY, Lords or Barons op. [See 
Fitzgerald, Gerald, d. 1204; Fitzgerald, 
Maurice, 1194P-1257; Fitzthomas, John, 
first Earl of Kildare,*?. 1316 ; Fitzgerald, 
Thomas, tenth EarlofKildare, 1513-1537 .] 

OFFLEY, Sir THOMAS (1505 P-1582), 
lord mayor of London, born at Stafford, ap- 
parently about 1505, was eldest son of Wil- 
liam Otiley, a native of Staffordshire, who 
afterwards migrated to Chester, and became 
sheriff there in 1517. His mother's maiden 
name was Cradock. He was sent up to Lon- 
don at the age of twelve, and went to school 
under William Lily [a. v.], ' then newly 
elected schoolmaster of Jesus School in Pauls 
Church Yard ' (Hunter, Chorus Vatum, v. 
542). Under Lily he became proficient in 
grammar, and, having a good voice, * was put 
to learn pricksong among the choristers of 
Pauls* (ib.) He was apprenticed at an early 
age to a merchant-taylor and merchant of the 
staple, named John Mechels, described as an 
intimate friend of Lily. Taking up his free- 
dom, he rose in time to be master (1547^ of 
the Merchant Taylors' Company. In 1549 he 
was chosen alderman of Portsoken Ward ; 
in 1553 he was sheriff, and in 1556 lord mayor. 
The year of his mayoralty was memorable 
for its * burning fevers ' (Grafton, Chronicle, 
1569, p. 1351), seven aldermen dying within 
two months. The useful institution of night- 
bellmen originated with Offley (Stow, Survey, 
ed. Strype, n. 133). On 7 Feb. 1556-7 he was 
knighted by the queen at Greenwich. About 
the same time he was mayor of the staple, and 
corresponded in this capacity with SirW. Cecil 
(Cal. State Papers, 1547-80, pp. 241,312, &c.) 
His residence was at first in Lime Street, but 
afterwards in the parish of St. Dionis Back- 
church. He died on 29 Aug. 1582, and was 
buried, at his own request, in the church of 
St. Andrew Undershaft, where his monu- 



Offor 



Offor 



ment still remains. By his will, dated 5 Aug. 
1580, he made many charitable bequests. In 
public life he was so generous that he is called 
t>y Fuller ' the Zacchseus of London, not for his 
low stature, but for his high charity/ But the 
simplicity of his private tastes was the subject 
of a popular rhyme (Machyn, Diary, p. 363) : 

Offley three dishes had of daily rost, 

An egge, an apple, and (the third) a toast. 

By his wife Joan (d. 1578), daughter of 
John Nichells or Nichols (perhaps the same 

Serson as the John Mechels above mentioned),' 
e had three sons, of whom one only, Henry, 
survived him. It was to a son of this Henry 
Offley, Sir John Offley of Madeley, that Izaak 
Walton dedicated his ' Compleat Angler ' in 
1653. 

[Hunter's Chorus Vatum, as above, quoting a 
manuscript History of the Family of Offley in 
possession of Mr. Martin of Worsborough ; Clode's 
Early Hist, of the Guild of the Merchant Taylors' 
Company, pt. ii. pp. 172-3, and Addenda, p. v 
(where, in the epitaph, • Stafford ' is a mistake 
for ' Stratford ' ) ; Index to the Remembrancia, 
by W. H. and H. C. Overall, p. 37 ; H. B. Wil- 
son's Parish of St. Lawrence Pountney, p. 230 ; 
Visitation of London, 1 668, p. 64 ; Erdeswicke's 
Survey of Staffordshire, p. 1 7 ; Harwood's Sur- 
vey of Staffordshire, p. 87; information from 
C. Welch, esq., librarian of the Guildhall.] 

J. H. L. 
OFFOR, GEORGE (1787-1864), bio- 
grapher, born in 1787, was son of George 
Offor. lie started in business as a dook- 
seller at 2 Postern Row, Tower Hill, from 
which he retired with a competency. By 
the advice of his friend, J. S. C. F. Frey, he 
learnt Hebrew, and afterwards studied Greek 
and Latin, while his knowledge of English 
black-letter literature, especially of theology, 
became very extensive. For a long period 
his collection of early printed English bible's, 
psalters, and testaments, was one of the com- 
pletest in the kingdom. In religion a baptist, 
Offor was an enthusiastic admirer of John 
Bunyan, and gathered together a unique col- 
lection of Bunyan's scattered writings and 
of the early editions of the * Pilgrim s Pro- 
gress.' In his zeal for the memory of Wil- 
liam Tindal he visited Brussels in the hope 
of discovering among the archives accurate 
particulars of his martyrdom, and while pur- 
suing his researches in the neighbourhood at 
Vilvoord, during the revolution at Brussels 
in 1830, he was taken prisoner by a detach- 
ment of Dutch troops, and for a short time 
was detained in the prison built on the 
ruins of the castle at Vilvoord, where Tindal 
was confined. Offor died at Grove House, 
South Hackney, on 4 Aug. 1864, and was 
buried in Abney Park cemetery. 



His fine library, in which the ' Bunyaniana' 
extended to five hundred lots, was to have been 
disposed of at an eleven days' sale at Sotheby's, 
from 27 June to 8 July 1866 ; but the greater 
part was consumed by fire in the auction- 
rooms on 29 June. The residue was sold as 
salvage to an American agent for 300/. 

Offor's best work was the biography prefixed 
to a collected edition of Bunyan's * Works/ 
3 vols, large 8vo, 1863 (another edit. 1862). 
The works were unfortunately not printed in 
chronological order. Although he was the 
earliest to realise the wealth of material 
which lay hid in the State Paper Office, his 
biography was marred by a cumbrous style 
and bitter polemical spirit, while the edify- 
ing introductions prefixed to the works are 
crowded with wearisome platitudes. The bio- 
graphy of Bunyan's writings is, however, 
admirable. Through the Hanserd Knollys 
Society, he issued in 1848 an accurate re- 
print of the* first edition of the * Pilgrim's 
Progress,' with notices of all the subsequent 
additions and alterations made by the author. 
Two other editions of the * Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress,' with memoir and notes, * principally 
selected fromBunyan's works,' were published 
by him in 1856 and 1861. He also edited 
Bunyan's ' Profitable Meditations,' a poem, 
4to, 1860. 

Offor's contributions to biblical literature 
comprise a revised edition of the ' Hebrew 
Psalter,' 12mo, 1820, and a reprint of the 
' New Testament,' published in 1526 by Wil- 
liam Tindal, with a memoir of his life and 
writings, 8vo, 1836 (another edit, by J. P. 
Dabney, 8vo, Andover, U.S.A., 1837>. He 
likewise contemplated a reprint of the first 
English version of the entire bible, by Miles 
Coverdale, for which the Duke of Sussex 
offered to lend his copy; and he left un- 
finished a history of tne English Bible, il- 
lustrated with numerous facsimiles of the 
earlier editions. 

His other works are : 1. * An Easy Intro- 
duction to reading the Hebrew Language/ 
8vo, London, 1814. 2. 'The Triumph of 
Henry VIII over the Usurpations ot the 
Church, and the Consequences of the Papal 
Supremacy/ 8vo, London, 1846. He edited 
Increase Mather's ' Remarkable Providences ' 
in the ' Library of Old Authors ' series, 8vo, 
1856. 

In the British Museum Library are many 
books, chiefly bibles or books dealing with 
scriptural bibliography, with copious anno- 
tations by Offor. 

[Gent. Mag. 1864, pt. ii. pp. 396, .528; Athe- 
naeum, 24 June 1865, p. 831, 3 April 1886, p. 
449; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. vi. 150, 485, 
viii. 20, 85, 160.] G. G. 



Offord 



Offord 



OFFORD, ANDREW (d. 1358), clerk or 
master in chancery, was a brother of John de 
Offord [q. v.] He probably owed his post to his 
brother's influence, though he does not occur 
in this position till after John Offord's death. 
The first mention of Andrew Offord is on 
24 May 1343, when he was one of the com- 
missioners appointed to treat with the French 
ambassadors before the pope (Murimuth, 
p. 137 ; Foedera, ii. 1224) ; he is there de- 
scribed as doctor of civil law. The original 
commission was not despatched, but Andrew 
Offord was sent to the pope in September, 
and early in November returned with im- 
portant news of the negotiations. After 
making his report, he was once more sent to 
Avignon on 8 Dec. to obtain letters of conduct 
for Edward Ill's commissioners (Murimuth, 
pp. 147-9, 152-3). He was still at Avignon 
in August 1344 (Foedera, iii. 19), but re- 
turned to England not long after. On 
30 March 1345 he received the prebends of 
Netherbury and Berminster, Salisbury, from 
the king, and when Edward went abroad in 
July was one of the council for Lionel, who 
was regent in his father's absence (ib. iii. 50). 
In August, however, he was sent on a mission 
to treat for a marriage between the king's 
daughter Joanna and Alfonso of Castile (ib. 
iii. 58) ; in November he was further directed 
to negotiate a marriage between the Prince 
of Wales and one oi the daughters of the 
king of Portugal (Newcourt, i. 79). On 
27 Aug. 1347 he received, with some other 
preferments, the prebend of South Newbold, 
York, and on 24 Jan. 1348 was made sub- 
dean of York; he was afterwards papally 
provided to the archdeaconry of Middlesex 
m 1349, was appointed provost of Wells on 
26 Feb. 1350, and prebendary of Masham, 
York, on 24 May 1350 ; he likewise held a 
prebend at Beverley. 

Offord was one of the persons appointed 
to accompany Joanna on her journey to 
Castile in January 1348. He was present 
at his brother's death on 20 May 1349, and 
next day delivered up the seal to the king 
at Woodstock. In August 1349 he was em- 
ployed to treat for a truce with France, and 
m the autumn of 1350 and spring of 1351 
was engaged in the negotiations with Louis 
of Flanders and the French king. On 1 Dec. 
1352 he was sent to treat with William of 
Bavaria (Fcedera, iii. 147, 150, 153, 185, 188, 
205, 207, 216, 250). In August 1353 he was 
for a short time in charge of the great seal, 
and in the parliaments of 1354 and 1355 was 
a trier of petitions (Rolls of Parliament, ii. 
254, 264). On 8 July 1355 he was sent to 
treat with Peter, archbishop of Rouen, and 
Peter, duke of Bourbon (Foedera, iii. 306). 



Andrew Offord appears to have died about 
the end of 1358. 

[Foedera (Record ed.) ; Murimuth (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. ii. 327, iii. 128, 201 ; 
Jones's Fasti Eccles. Salisb. p. 406 ; Newcourt's 
Repertorium,i. 79, 145; Foss's Judges of England, 
iii. 472-3.] C. L. K. 

OFFORD or UFFORD, JOHN de (d. 
1349), chancellor and archbishop-elect of 
Canterbury, has erroneously been called a 
son of Robert de Ufford, first earl of Suffolk ; 
in point of fact it is extremely doubtful 
whether there was any relationship whatever. 
John de Offord's own family no doubt be- 
longed to Offord in Huntingdonshire, where 
in 1275 a John de Offord held the estate of 
Offord Dameys. Of this estate the future 
chancellor had custody in 1332, till the legi- 
timate age of the heir. It is therefore pro- 
bable that he was a son or grandson of the 
earlier John de Offord j but the only positive 
fact known as to his family is that he was 
a brother of Andrew Offora [a. v.] Offord 
was a doctor of civil law in 1334, and was 
no doubt educated at Oxford or Cambridge, 
probably at the latter, since he is commemo- 
rated among the benefactors of the university. 
He became a clerk in the royal service, and 
on 6 Nov. 1328 was appointed a commis- 
sioner to visit the free chapel in Hastings 
Castle; on 26 April 1330 he received the 
archdeaconry of Chester, but on 10 Dec. the 
appointment was revoked, as the post proved 
to be already filled (Cal. Pat. Rolls Ed- 
ward III, i. 354, 514, ii. 26). He received 
the prebend of Liddington, Lincoln, in 1- 3'\ 
and of Tottenhall, St. Paulson 17 Oct. I 31 ; 
other minor preferments held by Offord were 
the rectory oi Boughton, Kent, which he had 
in December 1331 (IAtteree Cantuarienses, i. 
416, Roils Ser.), a canonry at Wells before 
1336 (Report on Manuscripts of Wells Ca~ 
thedral, p. 103), the prebends of Masham, 
York, from 1340 to 1348, and of Warham 
and Ayleston, Hereford, on 28 Jan. 1344. 
In January 1333 Offord was one of the com- 
missioners appointed by the Bishop of Lincoln 
to inquire into the infirmity of Abbot Richard 
of St. Albans (Gesta Abbatum, ii. 285-6). 
He was at this time dean of the court of 
arches, London, an office which he still held 
in November 1333, when he was consulted 
by the prior of Christchurch, Canterbury 
(Litt. Cant. ii. 530), and in 1336, when his 
assistance was asked for by the dean and 
chapter of Wells in a suit before the papal 
nuncio. 

Oftbrd was constantly employed by Ed- 
ward HI in negotiations with the French 
and papal courts, for the first time on 5 Nov. 
1334, when he was one of the commissioners 



Offord 



8 



O'Fihely 



for the renewal of the truce with France 
(Foedera, ii. 898). On 26 Nov. 1336 he was 
made archdeacon of Ely. On 15 Nov. 1338 
he was again a commissioner to treat with 
France, and in 1339-40 was employed on a 
mission to the pope to obtain a dispensation 
for the marriage of Hugh le Despenser (ib. 
ii. 1065, 1119). On 16 July 1341 Offord 
was once more a commissioner to treat with 
France, and in this capacity was ordered to 
attend at Aunteyn, near Tournay, on 3 Feb. 
1342; later in the same year he was em- 
ployed in Flanders and Brabant to conduct 
the negotiations with France in conjunction 
with Edward's allies in those quarters (ib. ii. 
1168, 1185, 1191, 1196, 1199, 1228). Pre- 
viously to 4 Oct. 1342 Offord was appointed 
keeper of the privy seal, in which capacity 
he had on that date charge of the great seal 
{ib. ii. 1213). On 29 Aug. 1343 he was ap- 
pointed to treat for peace before the pope, 
out on 29 Nov. the mission was postponed 
(ib. ii. 1232, 1239). On 2 Dec. Andrew Offord 
was despatched to the French and Roman 
courts to procure safe-conducts for his brother | 
and the other commissioners who were going 
abroad about Easter (Mubimuth, pp. 152-3). 
On 11 April 1844 John Offord was made 
dean of Lincoln by the pope, who had been 
induced to confer the post on him by William 
Bateman, bishop of Norwich [^q. v.] (ib. p. 1 57 ; 
Lb Neve, ii. 32) ; he was admitted on 28 Aug. 
1344, but was not installed till 11 Sept. 1345. 
On 3 Aug. Offord was again nominated one of 
the commissioners to go to the pope (Fcedera, 
iii. 18, 19), though from the account given by 
Murimuth (Chronicle, pp. 168-9) it would 
seem it was finally decided in a council held 
at London on 11 Aug. to send Offord and Sir 
Hugh Neville to the Roman court. They 
must have started immediately, for earlv in 
October despatches arrived from Offord at 
Avignon as to proposed ways of arranging 
peace (ib. p. 159). On 26 Oct. instructions 
were sent to Offord, who is now described 
as the king's secretary, to procure a dispensa- 
tion for the Prince of Wales's marriage with 
a daughter of the Duke of Brabant (Fcedera, 
iii. 25). Neville returned to England at 
Christmas, but Offord remained at Avignon 
till the end of Lent, when, seeing that their 
negotiations would be fruitless, he and his 
colleague, William Bateman, left the papal 
court abruptly. Murimuth says that their 
departure was due to a suspicion that the pro- 
posed expedition of Luis de la Cerda to the 
Canary Islands was intended to be diverted 
against England. Offord reached England 
soon after Easter. At Michaelmas letters 
arrived from the pope, and a council, at which 
Offord was present, was summoned at West- 



I :-• 



minster on 16 Oct. to consider them. In the 
midst of the deliberations on 26 Oct. Offord 
was appointed chancellor, a post which for 
seven years previously had been held by lay- 
men (Mubimuth, p. 177). On 8 Nov. Offord 
was appointed to treat with the papal nuncio 
(Fcedera, iii. 62). On 1 July 1346 he was 
appointed to arrange with the merchants for 
loans for Edward's expedition to France (ib. 
iii. 84). After the death of Archbishop Strat- 
ford, Offord was papally provided to the see of 
Canterbury on 24 Sept. 1348. He received 
custody of the temporalities on 27 Nov., but 
before he had received the pall or consecra- 
tion he died of the plague at Tottenham on 
20 May 1349. He had retained the chancel- 
lorship till his death ; the seal was surrendered 
by his brother Andrew on 21 May (Fcedera, iii. 
185). Offord was buried by night at Christ- 
church, Canterbury, on 7 June. Birchington 
describes him as a man of great eloquence and 
wary in counsel (Anglia Sacra, i. 42). William 
Dene says that at the time of his appointment 
to the archbishopric he was weak and para- 
lytic, and that ne owed his preferment to 
lavish bribery (ib. i. 118). 

[Murimuth'8 Chronicle (Rolls Ser.) ; Whar- 
ton's Anglia Sacra, i. 42, 60, 1 18, 794 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti Ecclesise Anglicanse ; Foedera (Record ed.) ; 
Foss's Judges of England, iii. 473-6 ; other 
authorities quoted.] C. L. K. 

O'FIHELY, MAURICE (d. 1513), arch- 
bishop of Tuam, is generally known as Mau- 
ritius de Portu. He was a native of co. Cork, 
a Franciscan friar, and Wood and others say 
that he studied at Oxford. As he describes 
himself as ' Master of Arts/ he may have 
taken that degree at Oxford before enter- 
ing the Minorite order. He became regent 
of the Franciscan schools at Milan in 1488, 
and regent doctor of theology in 1491 at 
Padua, where he was still lecturing publicly 
on theology in 1499, 1504, and 1505. He 
is said to have acted for some years as prin- 
cipal superintendent of the press set up by 
Ottaviano Scotto at Venice, but of this no 
satisfactory evidence is forthcoming. He was 
minister in Ireland in 1506, and took part in 
deposing the general minister, yEgidius Del- 
phinus, in the first capitxdum generali&simum 
at Rome in that year. In 1506 also he 
was made archbishop of Tuam by Julius II. 
He continued to reside in Italy, and was 
present at the Lateran council in 1512. He 
at length departed to Ireland, but died at 
Gal way in 1513, and was buried among the 
Grey friars there. 

He is chiefly known as the editor of many 
of the works of Duns Scotus. He edited, 
with omissions, expansions, and explanatory 
notes, the following treatises of the subtle 



O'Flaherty 



O'Flaherty 



doctor : ' De primo principio/ ' Theoremata/ 
'Expositio in XII libros Metaphysicorum/ 
'Quaestiones in metaphysicam Aristotelis,' 
Venice, 1497, and elsewhere ; ' Comment, in 
lib. i. Sententiarum/ Venice, 1606 ; ' Com- 
ment, in lib. i. et ii. Sententiarum, 1 Paris, 
1513 ; ' De Formalitatibus/ Venice, 1605, 
1517; ' Collationes/ Paris, 1513. He was 
the author of an 'Expositio quaestionum 
Doctoris Subtilis in quinque universalia Por- 
phyria or ' Expositio in quaestiones dialec- 
ticas J. Duns Scoti/ begun at Padua and 
finished at Ferrara, 1499 (Venice, 1500, 
1519) ; of critical treatises on the same 
doctor's 'Quaestiones in Metaphysicam/ 'De 
Primo Principle/ and ' Theoremata ' (Venice, 
1497 ; Paris, 1513), and of a short treatise en- 
titled 'Enchyridion fidei/or 'De rerum con- 
tingentiaet aivina predestinatione/ dedicated 
to Gerald Fitzgerald, the ' great earl ' of Kil- 
dare (Venice, 1505). He also edited, while 
lecturing at Padua, a version of the four 
books oi the sentences in hexameters called 
4 Compendium Veritatum* (Venice, 1605^, 
and began an edition of the works of Francis 
de Mayronis (Venice, 1520). The ' Distinc- 
tions ordine alphabetico ' sometimes attri- 
buted to him were the work of a Friar 
Maurice of the thirteenth century. 

A relative, Domhnall O'Fihely (Jl. 
1605), wrote ' Irish Annals/ in Irish, dedi- 
cated to Florence O'Mahony, which were 
seen in manuscript in London in 1626 by 
Sir James Ware, but are now lost (O'Dono- 
xjlk, The Genealogy of CorcaLaidhe\ Wabe, 
Irish Writers, 1704, p. 23). 

[Wadding's Annales and Scrfptore* ; Sbaralea, 
Supplementum ad Scriptores; J. Duns Scoti 
Opera Omnia, Lyons, 1639 ; Wood's Athene 
Oxon. ; Tanner's Bibliotheca ; Cotton's Fasti 
Eccles. Hibern. ; The Grey Friars in Oxford 
(Oxford Hist. Soc.) ; Brady's Episcopal Succes- 
sion ; Gams's Series Episcoporum ; .Sardinian's 
Hist, of Galway, p. 265 ».] A. G. L. 

O'FLAHERTY, RODERIC (1629-1718), 
historiographer, born in 1629 in the castle 
of Moycullen, co. Galway, the ruins of which 
are still standing, was the only son of Hugh 
O'Flaherty by his wife Elizabeth Darcy. His 
family, whose tribe name was Muintir Mur- 
chadha, traced their descent from Flaibhear- 
tach, twenty-second in descent from Eochaidh 
Muighmeadhon, king of Ireland, who died in 
366. They were at first settled in Magh 
Seola, to the east of Lough Corrib, but in the 
thirteenth century were driven from their 
original home by the O'Connors, and con- 
quered a new territory in West Connaught 
from Lough Corrib to the sea. There were 
several septs of the clan, and Hugh O'Flaherty 
was head of that of Gnomore and Gnobeg in 



the barony of Moycullen. On the death of 
Hugh in 1631, his son Roderic, then in his 
second year, was the acknowledged heir, and 
became a ward of the crown. 

Under the government established for Ire- 
land by the parliament of England after the 
civil war, O'Flaherty was deprived of much 
of his property. Through an appeal at law 
in 1658 he obtained restitution of a consider- 
able portion of his patrimonial lands, which, 
however, became of little value in conse- 
quence of heavy taxations and the general 
impoverishment of the country. O'Flaherty 
was educated in Galway, at the excellent 
school of Alexander Lynch, with whose son, 
John Lynch [q. v.], author of * Cambrensis 
E versus/ he formed a lifelong friendship; 
and also came to know the learned Capuchin, 
Francis Brown (Ogygia, p. 30), Bishop Kir- 
wan of Killala, and other learned men. He 
studied Irish literature and history under 
Duald MacFirbis [q. v.], then resident in the 
college of St. Nicholas in Galway. 

In 1677 he recovered by legal proceed- 
ings a further small part of the lands of 
which he had been dispossessed, and in 1685 
he published at London a quarto volume 
with the following title, ' Ogygia, seu rerum 
Hibernicarum chronologia. 1 The book was 
printed by R.Everingham,and the Irish type 
used in it (in quotations and in giving the true 
forms of names) is that in which the sermons 
1 Seanmora ar na Priom Phoncibh na Crei- 
deamh/ translated into Irish by Philip Mac- 
Brady [q. vj and John O'Mulchonn, were 
printed in 1711 by Elinor Everingham. In 
this work the author treats of the history of 
Ireland from the earliest times to the year 
1684, with synchronisms and chrono-genea- 
logical catalogues of the kings of England, 
Scot land, and Ireland to the time of Charles II. 
He shows a thorough acquaintance with the 
chronicle of Tighearnacn O'Braein [q. v.], 
with the manuscript known as the ' Book of 
Lecan/ with the ' Liber Migrationum ' of 
Michael O'Clery [q. v.], and with much 
mediaeval Irish literature. He had also read 
Baeda, Higden, and Hector Boece. He dis- 
plays scrupulous accuracy throughout, and 
is a trustworthy guide to the history of the 
Irish kings. His work was the first in which 
Irish history was placed in a scholarlike way 
before readers in England, and it found its 
way into many good English libraries of its 
period. In a dedicatory epistle to James, duke 
of York, O'Flaherty mentions the old connec- 
tion between Ireland and Scotland, and traces 
the descent of the royal family of England to 
the ancient monarchs of Ireland. He refers 
to his own misfortunes after the death of 
Charles I, and laments that the restoration 



OTlaherty 



IO 



Ogborne 



of the monarchy in England has not had the 
effect of redressing his wrongs. 

A Latin poem by OTlaherty on the birth 
of James, prince of Wales, was published at 
Dublin in 1688, under the title of * Serenis- 
simi Walli® Principis, Magnae Britanniee et 
Hiberni8B,cum appendicibusdominiis hseredis 
conspicui Genethliacon/ 

Eaward Lhuyd [q. v.] of Oxford, who 
visited OTlaherty in 1700, described him as 
' affable and learned;' but, added Lhuyd, the 
late revolutions in Ireland had ' reduced him 
to great poverty, and destroyed his books and 
papers/ In ' Archeeologia Britannica,' pub- 
lisned in 1707, Lhuyd bore testimony to the 
erudition of OTlaherty. 

SirThomasMolyneux [q.v.] saw OTlaherty 
in April 1709 living ' in a miserable condition 
at Park, some three hours to the west of 
Galway.' 'I expected/ wrote Molyneux, 
1 to have seen here some old Irish manu- 
scripts, but his ill-fortune has stripped him 
of tnese as well as his other goods, so that 
he has nothing now left but some few pieces 
of his own writing, and a few old rummish 
books of history, printed.' OTlaherty died 
on 8 April 1718, and was buried within his 
house at Parke, co. Galway. His treatise, left 
in manuscript, entitled ' Ogygia vindicated 
against the Objections of Sir George Mac- 
kenzie/ was published at Dublin in 1775 by 
Charles O'Conor [q. v.] It formed an octavo 
volume, divided into twenty-one chapters, 
the last of which was unfinished in the 
manuscript. 

Of the * Ogygia' an inaccurate English 
version by the Kev. James Hely of Trinity 
College, Dublin, appeared in two volumes in 
1793. 

OTlaherty's ' Chorographical Description 
of West or H-Iar Connaught' was edited by 
James Hardiman [q. v.] for the Irish Archaeo- 
logical Society in 1846. The book gives an 
interesting account of the chief features of 
the country and of the islands off the coast, 
and of much of the local history. In this 
volume were printed original memoranda by 
OTlaherty on Borlase's account of Ireland, 
written in 1682; on Chinese chronology, and 
on the relations of prelates in Ireland with 
Canterbury. A reproduction of a letter from 
OTlaherty to Edward Lhuyd in 1706 was in- 
cluded among the * Facsimiles of National 
Manuscripts of Ireland/ edited by the present 
writer, pt. iv. p. 2, plate xcv. 

No vestiges have been found of a work 
entitled * Ogygia Christiana/ which O'Fla- 
herty was supposed to have compiled. A 
collection of unpublished letters of OTla- 
herty is now being prepared for the press by 
the author of the present notice. 



[Nicholson's Irish Historical Library, 1724 ; 
Ware's Writers of Ireland, 1746 ; Dissertation* 
on History of Ireland, 1766; Miscellany of Irish 
Archseol. Soc. Dublin, 1846.] J. T. G. 

O'FLYN, FIACHA (d. 1266), archbishop 
of Tuam. [See MacFlynn, Florence or 

Flan*.] 

OFTFOR (d. 692), bishop of Worcester, 
also known as Oftoforis, Ostfor, Osto- 
forus, Osteor, Ostfortus, was a pupil of the 
abbess Hilda [q. v.] ; he studied the scrip- 
tures in both her monasteries, Hartlepool 
and Whitby (BiEDJS Hist . Eccl. iv. 23), and 
at Whitby he discharged the office of the 
priesthood (FloR- Wig. s.a. 691 ). He studied 
also under Theodore of Canterbury, and jour- 
neyed to Rome ; on his return he preached to 
the Huiccii in Worcestershire, and led an 
exemplary life. He was chosen bishop by 
unanimous consent, and was consecrated by 
Wilfrid at the command of King ^Ethelred of 
Mercia in 692 (Stubbs, Registr. Sacr. Angl. ; 
not 691, as in Flor. Wie.) His signature is 
appended to a genuine charter of 692, by 
which jEthelred granted him the village of 
Hanbury in Worcestershire (Kemble, Codex 
Dipl. No. 32). Another charter, in which he 
signs himself Oftoforis, must belong to the 
same year (ib. No. 36), for he died in 692. Bale 
says he wrote homilies {Script. Illustr. No. 
86), but the statement is not trustworthy. 

[Baedse Hist. Eccl. iv. 23 ; Flor. Wig. sub 
anno, pp. 691, 692.] M. B. 

OGBORNE, DAVID (ft. 1740-1764), 
artist, married and settled before 1740 at 
Chelmsford, Essex, where he is described in 
the register as a * painter ' or * limner/ He 
gained a certain reputation by his portraits of 
local provincial monsters, such as a winged 
fish taken at Battle Bridge, and a calf with 
six legs produced at Great Baddow; but he 
painted also a portrait of Edward Bright, a 
grocer of Maldon, Essex, who weighed 43J 
stone, and died 10 Nov. 1750, aged 29 [see 
under Lambert, Daniel]. This portrait was 
engraved by James MacArdell [q. v.], and 
published 1 Jan. 1750. Another of his por- 
traits was of Thomas Wood, the miller of 
Billericay (see Trans. Royal Coll. of Phys. 
ii. 259-74, and Mayo, Philosophy of Living, 
1837, pp. 85-7). 

Ogborne is better known as the artist of 
' An exact Perspective View of Dunmow, 
late the Priory in the County of Essex. 
With a Representation of the Ceremony and 
Procession in that Manor, on Thursday the 
20 June 1751. Engraved from an Original 
Painting taken on the Spot by David Og- 
borne, published January 1752. Engraved by 
C. Mosley.' This presents the well-known 



Ogborne 



ii 



Ogden 



4 flitch of bacon ' ceremony, and shows in the 
foreground a portrait, more or less caricatured, 
of the then vicar of Dunmow. Another well- 
known Essex print by Ogborne is ' A Per- 
spective View of the County Town of Chelms- 
ford in Essex. With the Judges Procession 
on the Day of Entrance attended by the 
High Sheriff and his Officers,' published 
2 Aug. 1762, engraved by T. Ryland. 

Ogborne also wrote some poetry and plays* 
Of these the only piece printed was ' The 
Merry Midnight's Mistake, or Comfortable 
Conclusion: a new Comedy. Chelmsford: 

frinted and sold for the author by T. Toft/ 
765. The prologue and epilogue are by 
George Saville Carey. The piece was pro- 
duced, with indifferent success, by a company 
of ladies and gentlemen at the Saracens 
Head Inn, Chelmsford. 

After 1764 Ogborne appears to have left 
Chelmsford, and the register there contains 
no record of his death. 

By his wife Ruth, Ogborne had at least 
three sons. It is possible that John [q. v.], 
the engraver, and Elizabeth [q. v.], the his- 
torian of Essex, were his children by a second 
wife. 

[Baker's Biogr. Dramatica, i. 547, iii. 37; 
Albert Magazine and Home Counties Mis- 
cellany, Chelmsford, December 1865, p. 78; 
Smith's Brit. Mezzotint Portraits ; register at 
Chelmsford, por F. Chancellor, F.R.I.B.A.] 

C. F. S. 

OGBORNE, ELIZABETH (1759-1863), 
historian of Essex, born at Chelmsford and 
baptised 16 May 1759, was daughter of 
David Ogborne [q. v.] In 1814 sue com- 
menced a* History of Essex/ her elder brother, 
John Ogborne [q. v.], who was an able line- 
engraver, contributing the plates. She was 
assisted by Thomas LemanYq. v.], who con- 
tributed ' a Slight Sketch of the Antiquities 
of Essex ' (printed at pp. i-iv), and by her 
relative Joseph Strutt [q. v.], the antiquary. 
The book was printed in quarto, but, owing 
to want of encouragement and the impaired 
means of the family, only the first volume was 

Sublished (in 1817, though the title-page is 
ated 1814). This contains twenty-two 
parishes in the hundreds of Becontree, Walt- 
ham, Ongar, and the liberty of Havering. 
Miss Ogborne died in Great Portland Street, 
London, on 22 Dec. 1853, in her ninety-fifth 
year. Some of her manuscripts fell into the 
hands of her servant, the wife of a marine- 
store dealer in Somers Town. Many of them 
were used as waste paper (Notes and Queries, 
1st ser. ix. 322). The remainder was pur- 
chased in March 1854 by Mr. Edward J. 
Sage, an Essex antiquary, who happened to 
be passing the shop at the time. 



[Gent. Mag. 1854, pt. i. p. 220 ; Trans, of 
Essex Archaeolog. Soc. ii. 153; London Mag. iii. 
552, xiii. 411 ; Parish Register of Chelmsford, 
per F. Chancellor, F.R.LB.A.; Lowndes's BibL 
Manual (Boon).] G. G. 

OGBORNE, JOHN {JL 177O-1790), en- 
graver, possibly the son of David Ogborne 
fa. v.], who was baptised at Chelmsford on 
6 Aug. 1755, was a pupil of Francesco Barto- 
lozzi [q. v.] He was one of the band of stipple- 
engravers who worked under that artist. He 
produced some excellent specimens of engrav- 
ing in this branch of art, and later, by com- 
bining a certain amount of work in line with 
that in stipple, produced a variety of effect. 
He engraved some plates after J. Boy dell, R. 
Smirke, and T. Stothard for BoydelPs ' Shake- 
speare Gallery ,' and a great number of plates 
after Angelica Kauflmann, W. Hamilton, 
W. R. Bigg, R. Westall, T. Stothard, and 
others. He was also largely employed in 
engraving portraits, including those for J. 
Thane's * Illustrious British Characters/ He 
engraved a portrait of Thane, in the line 
manner, after W. R. Bigg. The name of 
Mary Ogborne, who may have been his wife, 
appears on two plates after W. Hamilton. 
A number of his prints were published by 
himself at 58 Great Portland Street, London. 
Ogborne is stated to have died about 1795, 
but in 1828 John Ogborne, at the same ad- 
dress, exhibited a picture at the British In- 
stitution, and in 1837 another at the British 
Artists in Suffolk Street. This may have been 
a son of the same name. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Dodd's manuscript 
Hist, of English Engravers (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 
33403) ; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880.] 

L. C. 

OGDEN, JAMES (1718-1802), author, 
born at Manchester in 1718, was a fustian 
cutter or shearer who in his early manhood 
travelled on the continent, resided for a year 
at the Hague or Ley den, and was a witness 
of the battle of Dettingen (1743). For a 
time he acted as master of a school in connec- 
tion with the Manchester Collegiate Church, 
and in the course of years published a number 
of volumes of turgid verse, some of which 
have a local interest, besides an interesting 
and useful prose description of his native 
town. His intelligent assistance in the com- 
pilation of the * Description of the Country 
from Thirty to Forty Miles round Manches- 
ter/ 1793, is acknowledged by Dr. John 
Aikin in the preface to that work. By his 
fellow-townsmen he was usually styled ' Foet ' 
Ogden, and is so designated in the 'Man- 
chester Directory 1 for 1797. He died at 
Manchester on 13 Aug. 1802, aged 83, and 



Ogden 

was buried at the collegiate church. The 
poet's son William (1753-1822), also an 
author, was an ardent radical reformer, and 
was imprisoned for sedition in 1817. A peti- 
tion which he presented to parliament, con- 
taining a complaint of the narsh treatment 
he had experienced in gaol, led to a debate 
in the House of Commons, in the course of 
which Canning is alleged, but apparently 
without good ground, to have described the 
prisoner as the ' revered and ruptured Ogden ' 
(cf. Notes and Queries, 4th ser. iii. 431, May 
1889). 

James Ogden wrote : 1. ' The British Lion 
Rous'd; or, Acts of the British Worthies: a 
Poem in Nine Books/ Manchester, 1762, 8vo. 
2. * An Epistle on Poetical Composition/ Lon- 
don, 1762. 3. * On the Crucifixion and Resur- 
rection : a Poem/ 1762. 4. ' A Poem on the 
Museum at Alkrington, belonging to Ashton 
Lever/ 1774. 6. ' A Description of Man- 
chester/ 1783 (anon.) This has been several 
times reprinted in the present century, the 
last edition, dated 1887, containing a prefa- 
tory memoir by Mr. W. E. A. Axon. 6. ' A 
Poem, Moral, Philosophical, Religious, in 
which is considered the Nature of Man, &c./ 
Manchester, 1788 (anon.) 7. ' The Revolution : 
an Epic Poem/ London, 1790. 8. * Archery: 
a Poem/ 1793. 9. ' Emanuel ; or, Paradise 
Regained : an Epic Poem/ Manchester, 1797. 
10. 'A Concise Narrative of all the Actions 
. . . during the Present War ' (Nos. 9 and 
10 were published in one volume. ) ll. 1 Sans 
Culotte and Jacobine, an Hudibrastic Poem/ 
1800. 

[Axon's Memoir, mentioned above ; Procter's 
Literary Reminiscences and Gleanings, 1860; 
Proceedings of Manchester Literary Club, 1873- 
1874, p. 67; Raines's Vicars of Rochdale, ii. 
288.] C. W. S. 

OGDEN, JONATHAN ROBERT (1806- 
1882), musical composer, son of Robert Ogden 
(d. 1816), was born at Leeds on 13 June 
1806. His father while living at Leeds was 
in partnership with Thomas Bolton, a Liver- 

E)ol merchant. Ogden was educated at 
eeds, partly under Joseph Hutton, LL.D., 
minister of Mill Hill Unitarian Chapel. He 
became a unitarian, though his parents were 
members of the church of England. For a 
short time he was placed in the office of 
Thomas Bolton at Liverpool, but had no 
taste for mercantile life, and showed an early 
bent for music. When very young he played 
the violoncello at a concert, but his instru- 
ment was the piano. To forward his musical 
education, his mother (whose maiden name 
was Glover) removed to London. Here 
Ogden became a pupil of Ignaz Moscheies, 
and later of August Kollman [q. v.] He 



12 



Ogden 



studied for a year at Paris under Pixis, and 
for three years at Munich under Stuntz ; in 
1827 he visited Vienna. 

After his marriage (1834), he settled in the 
lake district, at Lakefield, Sawrey, Lanca- 
shire. Here he lived the life of a country gen- 
tleman ; he was fond of angling, and deve- 
loped a considerable talent for drawing. 
James Martineau, D.D., when compiling his 
* Hymns for the Christian Church and Home/ 
1840, invited Ogden to supply tunes of un- 
usual metre. Ogden, after much persuasion, 
assented. The result was his * Holy Songs 
and Musical Prayers/ published by Novello 
in 1842. A feature of the volume which 
evoked criticism was the adaptation as hymn 
tunes of pieces by Beethoven and others. 
From the seventh and much enlarged edition 
(1872) the adaptations are omitted. The style 
of Ogaen's original music is not ecclesiastical, 
nor are his compositions well adapted for 
ordinary congregational use; but they possess 
great beauty, and their spirit is rightly indi- 
cated in the title of the volume. 

Ogden, though a shy man in society, was 
beloved by his friends, and a most congenial 
host. He was methodical in his habits, and, 
as a J.P. for Lancashire, made an excellent 
magistrate. He had a keen sense of humour, 
and could 'stand an examination in Dickens/ 
He died at Lakefield on 26 March 1882, and 
was buried on 31 March in Hawkshead 
churchyard. He married in 1834 Frances, 
daughter of Thomas Bolton, who survives 
him; his son died before him, leaving a 
daughter. 

[Inquirer, 1 April 1882 p. 207, 22 April pp. 
261 seq. (memoir by William Thornely).] 

A. G. 

OGDEN, SAMUEL (1626 P-1697), pres- 
by terian divine, born at Oldham, Lancasnire, 
about 1626, was educated at Oldham gram- 
mar school and Christ's College, Cambridge. 
After graduating B. A., he was for some time 
master of Oldham grammar school. In 1 662, 
having married, he was put in charge of Bux- 
ton Chapel , Derbyshire. He applied on 19 July 
1653 to the Wirksworth classis for ordination, 
and was ordained on 27 Sept. 1653. Next year 
he was presented by the Earl of Rutland to 
the donative curacy of Fairfield, a mile from 
Buxton. No meeting of Wirksworth classis 
is recorded between 21 Feb. 1654 and 16 Jan. 
1655 (the minute-book has twelve blank 
leaves). For admission to Fairfield, Ogden 
went up to London to the ' triers/ and ob- 
tained an approbation, 23 Oct. 1654, under 
their seal. He held Buxton and Fairfield 
Chapels till 1657, when he obtained the 
vicarage of Mackworth, Derbyshire, from 



Ogden 



13 



Ogden 



which he was ejected by the Uniformity Act 
of 1662. During the whole of his ministry 
he kept a boarding school. 

He did not at once continue his ministry, 
and was an occasional communicant, though 
not a ' fixed member/ of the established 
church. Till the Five Mile Act came into 
force, 25 March 1666, he kept on his school at 
Mackworth. He then went into Yorkshire, 
but returned and had a flourishing school at 
Derby. Under the indulgence of 1672 he 
took out a license on 8 May as a presbyterian 
teacher in the house of Thomas Saunders, at 
Little Ireton, Derbyshire. In 1685 the master 
of the Derby grammar school began a suit 
against him for competing with his school ; 
Ogden took the case to the court of arches, 
and spent 100/. on it, urging that there 
was room for two schools ; he lost his 
case in 1686. Sir John Gell of Hopton, 
Derbyshire, at once put him into the Wirks- 
worth grammar school, of which he remained 
master till his death. After the Toleration 
Act, 1689, he preached regularly to noncon- 
formist congregations. He was seized with 
paralysis in the pulpit, and died on 25 May 
1697, ' aged upward of seventy ; ' he was 
buried on 27 May in Wirksworth Church. 
He married a daughter of Burnet, perpetual 
curate of Oldham. Samuel Ogden, D.D. [q.v.], 
was his great-grandson. ' 

Ogden was a good hebraist, conversed in 
Greek with ' the pretended archbishop of 
Samos,' and wrote Latin verse in his old age. 
He delighted in mathematics, and main- 
tained that * very few good mathematicians 
were lewd and scandalous.' He was versed 
also in physics, and an excellent practical 
botanist, and was fond of music. He seems 
to have published nothing except, perhaps, a 
political pamphlet which he wrote at the 
time of the Rye-house plot, but of which no 
copy is known to be extant ; he left manu- 
script treatises on predestination and the in- 
termediate state. 

[Calamy's Account, I7l3,pp. 189 8eq., and Con- 
tinuation, 1727, i. 234 (the certificates of his 
augmentation, ordination, approbation, and li- 
cense are given in full, a nearly unique collec- 
tion) ; Minute-Book of Wirksworth Classis, in 
Journal of Derbyshire Archaeol. and Nat. Hist. 
Soc. January 1880, pp. 174 seq.] A. G. 

OGDEN, SAMUEL (1716-1778), popular 
preacher, born at Manchester on 28 July 
1716, was the only son of Thomas Ogden, a 
dyer of Manchester, who died in 1766, aged 
75, leaving a widow, who lived to be eighty- 
five. Ogden erected in the collegiate church 
of Manchester, to the memory of his father, 
a marble tablet with an inscription in Latin. 
He was educated at Manchester school, 



and admitted at King's College, Cambridge, 
as ' poor scholar ' in March 1733, but ' very 
happily escaped,' in August 1736, to St. 
John's College, with the prospect of enjoying 
a Manchester exhibition. He graduatea 
B.A. in January 1737-8, M.A. 1741, B.D. 
1748, and D.D. 1753 ; was elected a fellow of 
St. John's College on the Ashton foundation 
on 25 March 1739-40, became senior fellow 
on 22 Feb. 1758, and remained in that posi- 
tion until 1768. He was incorporated at 
Oxford on 11 July 1758. In June 1740 he 
was ordained deacon in the English church 
by the Bishop of Chester, and was advanced 
to the priesthood by the Bishop of Lincoln 
in November 1741. From that date until 
1747 he held the curacy of Coley in Halifax, 
and he was master of the free school at 
Halifax, communicating to his pupils 'his 
own exact grammatical mode of institution/ 
from 1744 until March 1753, when he re- 
turned to Cambridge, although he retained 
the curacy at Eland, in his old parish, down 
to 1762. 

Ogden accepted the sequestration of the 
round church of the Holy Sepulchre at 
Cambridge, and preached there for about 
eighteen years to crowded congregations, 
consisting mostly of members of the uni- 
versity. He performed his exercise for ' D.D.' 
against John Green [q. v.], afterwards bishop 
of Lincoln, in the presence of the Duke of 
Newcastle, the chancellor of the university, 
who was much gratified at the contest of 
intellect, and conferred on him, in 1754, the 
vicarage of Damerham in Wiltshire, which 
was tenable with his fellowship. The duke 
would have bestowed still further prefer- 
ment upon him, but Ogden did not prove a 
'produceable man; for he was singularly 
uncouth in his manner, and spoke his mind 
very freely upon all occasions.' In 1764 he 
was appointed to the Woodwardian profes- 
sorship of geology at Cambridge, and held 
it until his death in 1778. He resigned the 
living of Damerham in 1766 in favour of 
the Rev. Charles Haynes, who had been 
promised by the lord chancellor the rectory 
of Stansfield in Suffolk. From that year 
until 1778 Ogden held the college living of 
Lawford in Essex, with the rectory of Stans- 
field. Gunning gives an amusing specimen 
of the letters which he used to indite to the 
owners of valuable preferment whenever 
any piece of patronage fell vacant ; but his 
efforts to secure promotion were unsuccess- 
ful He was a candidate for the mastership 
of St. John's College in 1765 and in 1775, 
but on the latter occasion only polled three 
votes. 

Ogden preached at Cambridge to the last 



Ogden 



14 



Ogilby 



year but one of his life, when he was seized 
with a fit of paralysis. In a second fit he 
died, on 22 March 1778, and was buried on 
the south side of the communion table at 
the church of the Holy Sepulchre. A tablet 
was placed in the church to his memory. 
Being in many ways very penurious, he had 
gradually accumulated a considerable for- 
tune, which passed to his relatives. He had 
intended that Dr. William Craven, master 
of St. John's College, should be his residuary 
legatee, and had deposited the will with him ; 
but four years later, Craven, through Ogden's 
influence, was appointed to the professorship 
of Arabic, and returned the will to Ogden 
with a remark that he had now a sufficiency 
for his wants. All that Craven would accept 
was the gift of his Arabic books. Ogden's 
portrait was painted by F. Vander Myn, and 
engraved by G. Scott for Harding's * Biogra- 
phical Mirror/ 

Ogden was ' an excellent classical scholar, 
a scientific divine, and a proficient in the 
Oriental languages/ Several descriptions 
have been given of him in the pulpit. Gil- 
bert Wakefield {Life, i. 95-7) depicts * a 
large, black, scowling figure, a ponderous 
body with a lowering visage, embrowned by 
the horrors of a sable periwig. His voice 
was growling and morose, and his sentences 
desultory, tart, and snappish. 1 Mainwaring 
dwells on his 'portly figure, dignified air, 
broad visage, dark complexion, arched eye- 
brows and piercing eyes, the solemn, em- 
phatic, commanding utterance ' (Remarks on 
Pursuits of Literature, p. 63). Paley speaks 
of the strangeness of his tone, 'a most solemn, 
drawling, whining tone ; he seemed to think 
he was always in the pulpit ' (Best, Personal 
and Literary Memorials, pp. 202-8). But all 
these writers bear witness to the effect of 
his discourses, which were ' interspersed with 
remarks eminently brilliant and acute, but 
too epigrammatic/ Ogden, despite his penury, 
loved good cheer, ft was a saying of his 
that the goose was a silly bird, too much for 
one, and not enough for two. 

Ogden was the favourite preacher of 
George IIT ; and Ernest, king of Hanover, 
recommended his sermons to his chaplains 
as their model for brevitv and terseness. 
Boswell admired their ' subtilty of reason- 
ing/ impressed them upon Johnson's atten- 
tion, and makes mention of them in the 
<Tour to the Hebrides' so often that in 
Rowlandson's caricatures he is sometimes 
represented with a volume in his hand or his 
pocket. Johnson, at last, read aloud the 
sixth sermon on prayer ' with a distinct ex- 
pression and pleasing solemnity. He praised 
... his elegant language and remarkable 



acuteneas, and said he fought infidels with 
their own weapons/ 

Ogden's published discourses were: 1. Two 
sermons preached before the university of 
Cambridge, 1758. 2. Ten sermons on the 
efficacy of prayer and intercession, 1770; 
2nd edit. 1770. 3. Twenty-three sermons 
on the Ten Commandments, 1776. 4. Four- 
teen sermons on the articles of the Christian 
faith, 1777. Bishop Hurd was delighted 
with them, and purposed putting these into 
the hands of the young princes (Kilvbrt, 
Life of Hurd, p. 133). 5. * Collected sermons, 
to which are now first added " Sermons 
on the Lord's Supper." With an account of 
the Author's Life, and a Vindication of his 
Writings against some late Objections,' 1780, 
2 vols.; 1786, 2 vols.; 1788, 2 vols.; 1805, 
1 vol. The biographer was Bishop Samuel 
Hallifax [q. v.] ; the objector was John 
Mainwaring (a ' fellow-collegian and friend ' 
of Ogden), in a volume of * Sermons, with a 
Dissertation on that Species of Composition/ 
1780. He defended himself against Hallifax's 
censures in his anonymous 'Remarks on the 
Pursuits of Literature/ 1798, pp. 14-24,62-5. 
Mathias, on the other hand, in a note to the 
advertisement to the fourth part of the 
4 Pursuits,' praises Hallifax for tnis ' kind and 
disinterested office/ In 1832 the Rev. T. S. 
Hughes published Ogden's sermons as vol. 
xxii. of i Divines of the Church of England/ 
and prefixed to it a new account of his life. 

Ogden contributed to the Cambridge col- 
lections of verses. That on the accession of 
George III contained three sets by him, 
Latin, English, and Arabic, which produced 
a caustic epigram from the first Lord Alvan- 
ley (Manchester School Reg, Chetham Soc. 
i. 46 ; NoUs and Queries, 1st ser. ii. 105). 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Nichols's Illustr. of 
Lit. vi. 875, and Lit. Anecd. i. 566 ; Baker's 
St. John's, ed. Mayor, i. 305, 308, 329, ii. 1072, 
1079, 1091-2 ; Watson's Hallifax, pp. 406, 441, 
499 ; Life prefixed to Sermons, 1780 ; Gunning's 
Reminiscences, i. 236-40 ; Wakefield's Life, i. 
95-7 ; Whitaker's Loidis, pp. 387-9 ; Boswell, 
ed. Hill, iii. 248, iv. 123, v. 29, 88, 350-1.] 

W. P. C. , 

OGILBY, JOHN (1600-1676), miscel- 
laneous writer, was born in or near Edin- 
burgh in November 1600. He was of good 
family, but his father, having spent his estate, 
became a prisoner in the king's bench, and 
could give his son little education. The youth, 
however, being industrious, saved a small 
sum of money, which he adventured with 
success in the lottery for the advancement 
of the plantation in Virginia. He was thereby 
enabled to obtain his father's release, and bind 
himself apprentice to one Draper, a dancing- 



Ogilby 



is 



Ogilby 



master in Gray's Inn Lane. Before long he 
made himself perfect in the art, and by his 
obliging behaviour to the pupils acquired 
money enough from them to buy out the re- 
mainder of his time. He now began teach- 
ing on his own account, and being soon 
reputed one of the best masters in the pro- 
fession, he was selected to dance in the Duke 
of Buckingham's great masque at court, when 
he injured himself and became slightly lame. 
At one time he had for his apprentice John 
Lacy (d. 1681) [q. v.], afterwards well known 
as an actor and dramatist. Among his pupils 
were the sisters of Sir Ralph (afterwards 
Lord) Hopton at Wytham, Somerset, and 
at leisure moments he learned of Sir Ralph 
how to handle the pike and musket. In 
1633, when the Earl of Strafford became 
lord-deputy of Ireland, he took Ogilby into his 
household to teach his children, and Ogilby, 
writing an excellent hand, was frequently 
employed by the earl to transcribe papers for 
him. Subsequently he became one of Straf- 
ford's troop of guard, and wrote some humo- 
rous verses entitled * The Character of a 
Trooper.' Appointed deputy-master of the 
revels in Ireland, he built a little theatre in 
St. Werburgh Street, Dublin, and was much 
patronised ; but upon the outbreak of the 
civil war in 1641 he lost everything, under- 
went many hardships, and narrowly escaped 
being blown up in Rathfurm Castle, near 
Dublin. To add to his misfortunes, he was 
shipwrecked in his passage from Ireland, and 
arrived in London quite destitute. * Going on 
foot to Cambridge, several scholars, attracted 
by his industry, gave him Latin lessons, and 
he proceeded to translate Virgil. This trans- 
lation, and another which he made of ^Esop, 
brought him in some money. About 1654 
he learned Greek of David Whitford or Whit- 
field, at that time usher to James Shirley, 
the dramatist, who was keeping a school 
in Whitefriars. In the version of Homer, 
which he subsequently undertook, he is said, 
on doubtful authority, to have been assisted 
by Shirley. 

At the Restoration, Ogilby made himself 
acceptable to Charles II and his court. In 
1661 he was entrusted with the sole conduct 
of the ' poetical part' of the coronation (Cal, 
State Papers, Dom. 1660-1, p. 653). The 
device which he exhibited over the triumphal 
arch in Leadenhall Street was much ap- 
plauded, and is referred to by Dryden in his 
poem on the coronation ( Works, ed. Scott, 
1821, ix. 61). In 1662 he obtained the patent 
for master of the revels in Ireland in com- 
petition with Sir William D'Avenant. His 
old theatre in Dublin haying been destroyed 
in the civil war, he built a new one at the 



cost of nearly 2,000/. He got into trouble by 
decoying away to his theatre John Richards, 
one of D'Avenant's company of actors, who 
were nominally servants to the Duke of 
York, and he had to make ample apology 
{Cal State Papers, Dom. 1661-2, p. 456). 

On again settling in London Ogilby trans- 
lated and published books until the great fire 
in 1666, when his house in Whitefriars was 
destroyed, along with stock to the value of 
3,000/. (ib. Dom. 1666, pp. 171-2). Im- 
mediately afterwards the corporation ap- 
pointed Ogilby and his wifes grandson, 
William Morgan, as ' sworn viewers ' or sur- 
veyors, to plot out the disputed property in 
the city. They subsequently surveyed the 
whole city, and their ground-plan was pub- 
lished in 1677 (Overall, JRemembrancia, p. 
45 n.) Ogilby was soon enabled to rebuild 
his house, and to set up a large printing 
establishment ; he was besides invested with 
the ornamental titles of ' king's cosmographer 
and geographic printer.' He died on 4 Sept. 
1676, and was buried in St. Bride's Church, 
Fleet Street. Contemporary writers repre- 
sent him as a man of attractive manners, 
great sagacity, and untiring energy. Accord- 
ing to Aubrey his wife was the daughter of 
Mr. Fox of Netherhampton, near Wilton, 
Wiltshire, a servant of Lord Pembroke, by 
whom he had an only daughter, Mrs. Morgan, 
mother of the William Morgan who assisted 
him in his business. But from his will (P. C. C. 
124, Bence) it is clear that Ogilby married a 
widow, Christian (? Knight), and it was her 
daughter by a former husband who was 
mother of William Morgan. There was 
another daughter, Elizabeth Knight. Mrs. 
Ogilby died in Whitefriars in 1681 (Adminis- 
tration Act Book, P. C. C, dated 16 June 
1681). 

Offilby printed man y splendid books, mostly 
in folio ; several were illustrated, or, as he ex- 
pressed it, ' adorned with sculpture,' by Hollar 
and other eminent engravers. On 25 May 1665 
the king, on his petition, issued a proclama- 
tion forbidding any one for fifteen years to 
reprint or ' counterfeit the sculpture in them,' 
an injunction renewed on 20 March 1667 ( Cal, 
State Papers, Dom. 1664-5, p. 384, 1666-7, 
p. 574). To facilitate the sale of them Ogilby 
established about 1664, under royal pa- 
tronage, a lottery in which all the prizes were 
books of his own editing and printing or pub- 
lishing. The plague and the great fire of 
London seriously interfered with the working 
of this scheme, and he subsequently opened 
a new ' standing lottery,' the prospectus of 
which is to be found in the * Gentleman's 
Magazine ' for 1814 (pt. i. p. 646), wherein 
he quaintly complains that his subscribers 



Ogilby 

do not pay. Pepys, who collected Ogilby's 
publications, relates his success in this lottery 
(Diary, ed. 1849, iii. 159V 

Ogilby's translation oi Virgil into heroic 
verse was first published in large 8vo in 1649, 
and was sumptuously reprinted in 1654 in 
royal folio, with plates by Hollar, and again 
in 8vo in 1666. His mastery over the heroic 
couplet is creditable; his version is suf- 
ficiently close to the words of Virgil — 
much more so than Dryden's — and though 
he shows no trace of poetical feeling, he writes 
in fair commonplace English. He was ridi- 
culed, but his version continued to be bought 
until Dryden's appeared, and the 'sculptures/ 
which form a prominent feature in this as in 
his other books, were considered good enough 
to be borrowed by Dryden. His work heads 
the list of the ' Lady's Library ' in the ' Spec- 
tator,' and in our own day was included among 
the books recommended for examination to 
those whom Dean Stanley of Westminster 
brought together with a view to enlisting 
their services in the production of a new 
English dictionary. 

Ogilby also published in 1658 a beautiful 
folio edition of the Latin original, embellished 
with 101 illustrations by Lombart,Faithorne, 
Hollar, and others. His rhyming paraphrase 
oLEsopV Fables' followed in 1651, 4to, be- 
ing recommended in some verses by Sir Wil- 
liam Davenant and James Shirley. In 1665 
a second part appeared in folio, which in- 
cluded some fables of his own, called 
'jEsopics/composed during his stay at Kings- 
ton-on-Thames in the time of the plague. 
Both parts were issued in folio in 1665-8, 
and contain engravings by W. Hollar, D. 
Stoop, and F. Barlow. Another edition, in 
two vols. 8vo, is dated 1675. 

Of his translation of Homer the 'Iliad' 
appeared in 1660, and the ' Odyssey' in 1665, 
both on imperial paper, and with plates by 
Hollar and others. According to Spence 
(Anecdotes, p. 276) it was this illustrated 
edition which first allured Pope to read the 
1 Iliad' when he was a boy at school. With 
the assistance of Dr. John Worthington and 
other divines Ogilby brought out at Cam- 
bridge in 1660 a noble edition of the Bible 
(two vols, royal folio), illustrated with ' choro- 
graphical sculps' by Ofjilby himself, and 107 
engravings by N. J. Visscher. Having pre- 
sented a splendidly bound copy of it to the 
king on his first coming to the royal chapel 
at Whitehall, he was commanded to supply 
other copies for use in the chapel, closet, 
library, and council chamber, at a cost of 
200/. He presented another copy to tha i 
House of Commons, for which he received 
50/. About August 1661 he petitioned the ! 



16 



Ogilby 



king to prohibit any one for ten years from 
printing a folio bible such as his, and to 
commend his edition to all churches and 
chapels, that he might thereby be encouraged 
in his design of printing a polyglott biole 
(CaL State Papers, Dom. 1661-2, pp. 67,68, 
433). His bible was severely censured by 
Bishop Wetenhall in his ' Scripture authen- 
tick and Faith certain,' 1686. In Acts vi. 3 
the word 'ye' was substituted for 'we.' 

Ogilby published in ten folio sheets a rough 
sketch of Charles IPs coronation, entitled 
' The Relation of his Majesties Entertainment 
passing through the City of London to his 
Coronation,' 1661 . This was followed in 1662 
by the splendid folio known as ' The Enter- 
tainment of . . . Charles II in his Passage 
through the City of London/ &c. The letter- 
press was revised by the king's command by 
Sir Edward Walker, Garter (5. Dom. 1660-1, 
p. 606, 1661-2, p. 350) ; the plates are mostly 
by Hollar. This work, of which another 
edition was published by William Morgan 
in 1685, has proved of great service in similar 
ceremonies of subsequent date. 

During the last years of his life Ogilby 
devoted himself to the production of books 
of geography and topography, copiouslyillus- 
trated with maps and engravings by Hollar 
and others. These were: 1. 'An Embassy 
from the East India Company of the United 
Provinces to the Grand Tartar Cham, Em- 
perour of China, delivered by their Excel- 
lencies Peter de Gayer and Jacob de Keyzer 
at his Imperial City of Peking,' fol., Lon- 
don, 1669 (2nd edit., to which was added 
' Atlas Chinensis ' — -also published separately 
in 1671—2 vols, fol., London, 1673). This 
work was compiled from the Dutch of Jan 
Nieuhof, Olfert, Dapper, and Arnoldus Mon- 
tanus. 2. ' Atlas Japanensis ; being remark- 
able Addresses, by way of embassy, from the 
East India Company of the United Provinces 
to the Emperor of Japan,' fol., London, 1670, - 
compiled from Montanus. 3. ' Africa,' fol., 
London, 1670, translated from Dapper, and 
'augmented with observations.' In the pre- 
face he gives an entertaining account of his 
own writings. 4. 'America,' fol., London, 
1671. 5. 'Asia. The first part/ fol., Lon- 
don, 1673. The second part was the ' Em- 
bassy to the Emperour of China,' already pub- 
lished in 1669, and again in 1673. 6. 'Bri- 
tannia. Volume the first, or an Illustration of 
the Kingdom of England and Dominion of 
Wales, by a Geographical and Historical 
Description of the principal Roads thereof, 
printea on one hundred copper plates,' fol., 
London, 1675 (2nd edit., revised and appa- 
rently abridged, 1698) ; it was undertaken by 
the express desire of the king. This ' noble de- 



Ogilby 



17 



Ogilvie 



8cription of Britain/ as it is deservedly called 
by Bishop Nicolson, never proceeded beyond 
the first volume, although Ogilby in his will 
earnestly requested William Morgan to finish 
it. Vol. ii. was to have contained views of 
English cities ; vol. iii. ' A Topographical De- 
scription of the whole Kingdom.* 

Ogilby also projected the following atlases 
and maps : 1 . ' A new Map of Kent/ 1670, en- 
graved by F. Lamb. 2. ' Novissima Jamaiceo 
Descriptio/ 1671. 3. 'Itinerarium Anglise, 
or a Book of Roads ... of England and . . . 
Wales/ in which he was assisted by W. 
Morgan, fol., London, 1675 (abridged as * The 
Traveller's Guide' in 1699, 8vo). An 'im- 
proved edition' by John Senex was issued 
in 1719 in two oblong quarto volumes as 
' An Actual Survey/ and other editions, with 
descriptions of the towns by John Owen and 
map by Emanuel Bowen, appeared in 1720, 
both 8vo and 4to, 1724, 4to, 1731, 4to, 1736, 
8vo, and 1753, 4to, under the title of ' Bri- 
tannia Depicta.' Smaller editions, called re- 
spectively ' Pocket-Book of the Roads/ and 
4 The Traveller's Pocket Book/ were published 
in 1721 and 1782, 8vo. 4. ' Tables of mea- 
sur'd Roads (of England and Wales, with 
Map)/ 8vo, 1676. 5.' London accurately sur- 
veyed. . .finished by W. Morgan/ eight sheets, 
1677. An Explanation' of this map was 

Published in quarto during the same year, 
'he copy of this ' Explanation ' or ' Key ' at 
the British Museum is believed to be unique. 
A facsimile has recently (1894) been edited 
for the London and Middlesex Archaeolo- 
gical Society by Mr. Charles Welch, F.S.A. 
o. ' Essex, actually surveyed ... by J. Ogilby 
and W. Morgan/ 1678. 7. ' The Borough 
or Corporation of Ipswich . . . actually sur- 
veyed . . . A° 1674, with views, nine sheets, 
1698. 8. ' A large and accurate Map of the 
Citv of London/ 9. ' Middlesex.' 10. 'Table 
of the North-West Roads' (of England). 
11. * A new Map of. . .England and. . . 
Wales. Whereon are projected all the prin- 
cipal Roads.' 

Ogilby's name, thanks to the ridicule of 
Dryden in ' MacFlecknoe' and of Pope in the 
' Dunciad/ has become almost proverbial for 
a bad poet. He is known to have written two 
heroic poems called 'The Ephesian Matron' 
and ' The Roman Slave/ ana an epic poem in 
twelve books entitled ' Carolies' in honour of 
Charles I, but the first two were never pub- 
lished, and the third was fortunately burnt 
in the fire of London (cf. preface to his 
'Africa'). He was also author of an unprinted 
play called 'The Merchant of Dublin/ and 
nas lines affixed to a portrait of Charles II, 
1661. Though Pope sneered at Ogilby, he 
did not disdain to borrow from his ver- 

VOL. XLII. 



sion of Virgil's 'Eclogues' and translation of 
Homer. 

Ogilby's portrait, engraved by the elder 
William Faithorne after a painting by Sir 
Peter Lely, is prefixed to his translation of 
Virgil. Another portrait by Lely was en- 
graved by Lombart. A third portrait, by 
Fuller, was engraved by Edwards ; there is 
also an engraving of him by Marshall. His 
bust is prefixed to his translation of -<Esop's 
4 Fables.' 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 739-44, 
996 ; Aubrey's Lives in Letters from the Bodleian 
Library, &c, vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. 466-70; Biog. 
Brit.; Baker's Biog. Dram. 1812; Gough's Brit. 
Topography; Lowndes's Bibl. Manual (Bohn); 
Notes and Queries, 1st ser. i. 153. 5th ser. xii. 7, 
78 ; Macaulay's Hist, of England (1855), i. 312 n ; 
Nicolson's Historical Libraries ; Dryden's Works 
(Scott, 1821), x. 452 ; Pope's Works (Elwin and 
Courthope), vol. iv. ; the English Translators of 
Virgil, by Professor J. Conington, in Quarterly 
Review for July 1861 ; Brit Mus. General and 
Map Catalogues ; notes kindly communicated by 
J. Challenor Smith, esq. ; Evans's Cat. of Engr. 
Portraits, i. 253 ; Granger's Biogr. Hist of Engl. 
(2nd ed.), iv. 55-6.] G. GL 

OGILVIE. [See also Ogilvy.] 

OGILVIE, CHARLES ATMORE 

(179&-1873), theologian, son of John Ogilvie 
of Whitehaven, Cumberland, who died at 
Duloe, Cornwall, 25 April 1839, by his wife 
Catharine Curwen of the Isle of Man, was 
born at Whitehaven 20 Nov. 1793, and ma- 
triculated from Balliol College, Oxford, on 
27Xov.l811. After taking afirst class in 1815, 
he won the chancellor's prize for the English 
essay in 1817. He graduated B. A. 1815, M.A. 
1818, B.D. and D.D. 1842. In 1816 he was 
elected a fellow of his college, and took holy 
orders. He was tutor 1819-30, bursar 1822, 
and senior dean 1842. He was appointed a 
university examiner in 1823 and 1824, and 
examiner in the classical school in 1825. 
He greatly assisted Dr. Jenkinson, the 
master of Balliol, in improving the tone and 
discipline of the college, and contributed 
largely to giving it a foremost place in the 
university. About 1829 he was looked on 
as a leader of the high-church party in 
Oxford, but he gave little active support 
to the Oxford movement. He was a select 
preacher before the university in 1825, 1832, 
and 1844, and was made Bampton lecturer 
in 1836. 

Ogilvie held some clerical preferment 
while still fellow and tutor of Balliol. He 
was rector of Wickford, Essex, from 4 Jan. 
1822 to 1833 ; rector of Abbotsley, Hunting- 
donshire, from 30 Aug. 1822 to 1839; and 
vicar of Duloe from £0 Oct. 1833 to 1840. 



Ogilvie 



18 



Ogilvie 



The rectory and vicarage of Ross, Hereford- 
shire, conferred on him 6 Dec. 1839, he held 
till his death. For atime he acted as domestic 
and examining chaplain to Archbishop How- 
ley. He resigned his fellowship in 1834. On 
the foundation of a chair of pastoral theology 
in the university, Ogilvie became the first 
regius professor on 23 April 1842, and as pro- 
fessor he succeeded in 1849 to a canonry at 
Christ Church, under the provisions of the 
Act 3 and 4 Vict. c. 113. Through life he 
maintained a close friendship with Dr. Routh, 
president of Magdalen College, with whom 
he corresponded on literary subjects from 
1847 to 1854. He was also very intimate 
with Joseph Blanco White. While lecturing 
on 16 Feb. 1873 he was seized with paralysis, 
and died in his house at Christ Church, 
Oxford, two days later. He was buried in 
the Latin Chapel in Christ Church Cathe- 
dral. By his marriage, on 18 April 1838, 
to Mary Ann Gurnell, daughter of Major 
Armstrong (who died 2 Oct. 1875), he had 
two daughters. 

He published : 1. ' On the Union of Clas- 
sical and Mathematical Studies,' printed in 
the ' Oxford English Prize Essays/ vol. iii. 
1836. 2. 'The Apostolic Origin of the 
Three Orders of the Christian Ministry/ 
1836. 3. 'The Divine Glory manifested in 
the Conduct and Discourses of our Lord. 
Eight Sermons before the University at the 
Lecture founded by J. Bampton/ 1836. 
4. 'Considerations on Subscription to the 
Thirty-nine Articles/ 1845. 5. ' On Sub- 
scription to the Thirty-nine Articles as by 
Law required of Candidates for Holy Orders 
and of the Clergy/ 1863. 

[Chapman's Reminiscences of Three Oxford 
Worthies, 1875, pp. 43-52 ; Burgon's Lives of 
Twelve Good Men, 1891. pp. 15, 484: Guardian, 
19 Feb. 1873, p. 227 ; Men of the Time, 1872, 
p. 728 ; Boasoand Conrtney's Bibl. Corimb. 1882, 
iii. 1206; Couch's Reminiscences of Oxford, 1892, 
pp. 208, &c. ; Life of Rev. Joseph Blanco White, 
1845 ; information from his daughter, Mrs. Law- 
rence.] G. H. B. 

pGILVIE, JAMES (1760-1820),scholar, 
claimed connection with the Ogilvys, earls 
of Findlater. He was born in 1700 in Aber- 
deen, and was educated there. He may 
be the James Ogilvie who graduated at 
Kind's College, Aberdeen, in 1790. Emi- 
grating to America, he for some time con- 
ducted a classical academy in Richmond, 
Virginia, leaving the impression of being *a 
man of singular endowments,' gifted with 
'the power of rousing the mind from its 
torpor and lending it wings' (Southern Lite- 
rary Messenger, vol. xiv.) Of a philosophical 
temperament, Ogilvie developed from aschool 



rhetorician into a public lecturer, rebutting 
the theories of Godwin, of which in youth he 
had been enamoured. For a time he rented a 
room in a remote Kentucky cabin, where he 
wrote his lectures, depending to some extent 
for his living on pecuniary help from former 
pupils (ib.) He is said to have lectured with 
great success throughout Virginia and the 
Atlantic states. He returned to Scotland to 
claim the lapsed earldom of Findlater as a 
relative of James Ogilvy, the last earl of 
Findlater and Seafield of the Ogilvy line, 
who had died at Dresden in 1811 (see under 
Ogilvy, James, 1714 P-1770]. Ogilvie's pre- 
tensions, however, were not entertained. 
Constitutionally sensitive and excitable, and 
worn out with narcotics, he is said to have 
committed suicide in Aberdeen on 18 Sept. 
1820. 

Ogilvie's ' Philosophical Essays J appeared 
at Philadelphia in 1818. The book is sum- 
marily discussed in ' Blackwood's Magazine/ 
xvii. 198, and it is criticised at length by 
E. T. Channing in the 'North American 
Review/ vol. iv. 

[Antobiographical Sketch in Philosophical 
Essays; Recollections by a Pupil in Southern 
Literary Messenger, vol. xiv. ; Irving's Dictionary 
of Eminent Scotsmen ; information from Mr. 
George Stronach, Advocates* Library, Edinburgh, 
and Mr. P. J. Anderson, University Library , A ber- 
deen.] T. B. 

OGILVIE or OGILBY, JOHN (1580?- 
1615), Jesuit, born about 1580, was the eldest 
son of Walter Ogilvie of Drum, near Keith. 
At the age of twelve he went to the conti- 
nent, and was there converted to Catholicism. 
About 1596 he entered the Scots College at 
Louvain, and subsequently visited the Bene- 
dictines at Ratisbon, and the Jesuit College at 
Olmiitz, where he was admitted a member of 
the Society of Jesus. He spent two years of 
novitiate at Brunn, and between 1602 and 
1613 lived at Gratz, Vienna, Olmiitz, Paris, 
and Rmien. At Paris he was ordained priest 
in 1613. Towards the close of the year he 
and two other priests, Moffat and Campbell, 
were ordered by the superior of the Scottish 
mission of the Society of Jesus to repair to 
Scotland. Ogilvie landed in the disguise 
of a soldier, under the assumed name of 
Watson, and, having separated from his 
companions, proceeded to the north, pro- 
bably to his native district. In six weeks 
he returned to Edinburgh, where he remained 
throughout the winter of 1613-14, as the 
guest of William Sinclair, advocate. Shortly 
before Easter (30 March) 1614 he set out 
for London on some mvsterious business. 
It has been alleged that W had then a pri- 
vate interview with King James, but the 



Ogilvie 



19 



Ogilvie 



story is probably one of the many rumours of 
Romanist intrigue which troubled the public 
mind after the excitement of 1592, and which 
laid the blame of the ' damnable powder- 
treason ' of 1605 on the English Jesuits Garnet 
and Oldcorne. Ogilvie paid a hurried visit 
to Paris at this time ; but his superior, Father 
Gordon, thought his action ill-advised, and 
ordered his immediate return (see letter 
printed in James Forbes's Life of Ogilvie, 
p. 12 n.) He was back in Edinburgh in June 
1614, where he contiuued his propaganda 
under the protection of his friend Sinclair, 
saying mass in private and holding inter- 
course with many, including the notorious 
Sir James Macdonald of Islay , then a prisoner 
in the castle of Edinburgh. He went to 
Glasgowin August, where he was discovered 
and arrested by order of Archbishop Spotis- 
wood (4 Oct. 1614^. A few Romish books 
and garments, a chalice and an altar, some 
relics, including a tuft of the hair of St. Ig- 
natius, and some incriminating letters, ' not 
fit at that time to be divulgate/ were found 
in his possession. He was examined by a 
committee, consisting of the archbishop, the 
Bishop of Argyll, Lords Fleming, Boyd, and 
Kilsyth, the provost of the city of Glas- 

fow, Sir Waiter Stewart, and Sir George 
ilphinston. The narrative of the proceed- 
ings appeared in the 'True Relation 'ascribed 
to Archbishop Spotiswood. Ogilvie refused 
to give information ('his busines/ he said, 
' was to saue soules'), and was sent to a cham- 
ber in the castle, where he remained till 
8 Dec, lacking nothing ' worthy of a man of 
his quality/ and having the constant atten- 
tion of sundry ministers of the Kirk, who 
could not, however, argue him into a con- 
fession. Spotiswood had meanwhile informed 
the council of the capture and of the exami- 
nation of Ogilvie's Glasgow accomplices; 
and they had on 11 Nov. issued a commission 
tc him and to the treasurer-depute, the clerk 
of register, and Sir William Livingston of 
Kilsyth, or any three of them, the archbishop 
being one, to proceed to Glasgow to try afi 
suspected persons, and generally to clear up 
the whole conspiracy (Register of Privy Coun- 
cil, x. 284-6). Ogilvie was, however, taken 
to Edinburgh, and brought before five of the 
council. He refused to explain the contents 
of the letters which had been seized in Glns- 
gow, and conducted himself as before, until, 
under the painful torture of denial of sleep 
and rest, his ' braines became lightsome/ and 
he gave up the names of some of his accom- 
plices. Tne proceedings were suspended for 
the Christmas recess, and the archbishop ob- 
tained permission to ' keep him in his com- 
pany ' till his return to Edinburgh. Mean- 



while the king sent down a commission to 
Spotiswood and others to make a special 
examination of Ogilvie's tenets on royal and 
papal prerogative. The king's quest ions were 
put to Ogilvie on 18 Jan., but to little pur- 
pose; for, despite the endeavours of the arch- 
bishop and the arguments of Robert Boyd, 
principal of the college, and Robert Scot, a 
Glasgow minister, he not only maintained 
his obstinate attitude, but aggravated his 
position by the statement 'that he con- 
demned the oaths of supremacie and allege- 
ance proponed to be sworne in England.' 
The catholic writers maintain that Ogilvie 
was put to severe torture during this ex- 
amination. Spotiswood himself admits that 
he suggested the infliction of it as the only 
means of overcoming the prisoner's obstinacy, 
but that the king 'would not have these forms 
used with men of his profession.' If they 
merely found that he was a Jesuit, they were 
to banish him ; if they proved that he had 
been stirring up rebellion, the ordinary course 
of justice was to be pursued. This examina- 
tion may have been confused with a subse- 
quent commission on 11 June against the 
Jesuit Moffat and his friends, in which the 
power of torture was given to the judges 
(Register of Privy Council, p. 336). Ogilvie's 
answers were sent to the king, who ordered 
the trial to proceed. A commission was 
issued on 21 Feb., and the trial was fixed 
for the last day of the month. Mr. Struthers 
returned to his persuasive arguments, though 
to no purpose ; ' if he stoode in neede of 
their confort/ replied Ogilvie, 'he shoulde 
advertise.' The trial took place in Glasgow 
before the provost and three bailies, who 
held commission from the privy council, and 
seven assessors, including the archbishop. 
In the indictment and prosecution Ogilvie 
was told that it was not for the saying of 
mass, but for declining the king's authority, 
that he was on trial. This was in keeping 
with the king's list of questions, which to the 
presbyterian Calderwood 'seemed rather a 
hindrance to the execution of justice upon 
the persons presently guiltie then to mean 
in earnest the repressing of Papists.' Ogilvi** 
provoked his judges by saying : ' If the kin^ 
will be to me as my predecessors were to 
mine, I will obey . . ., but, if he doe other- 
wise, and play the runneagate from God, as 
he and you all doe, I will not acknowledge 
him more than this old hatte.' The arch- 
bishop's account of his subsequent conduct 
during the trial, at the swearing of the jury, 
and in his speech after the prosecution was 
closed, shows that Ogilvie maintained his 
stubbornness to the last. 
He was found guilty and was sentenced to 

c2 



Ogilvie 



20 



Ogilvie 



be hanged and quartered. Three hours later 
he was led to the scaffold, where he had the 
ministrations of William Struthers and Ro- 
bert Scot, the latter reiterating that it was 
not for his religion but for his political 
offence that he had been condemned. The 
quartering was not carried out. Father 
Forbes-Leith repeats the story that Ogilvie 
was told by ' the ' minister who attended him 
that he had been empowered to promise him 
the hand of the archbishop's daughter and the 
richest prebend of his diocese as a dowry, pro- 
vided he recanted (p. 311). This ridiculous 
tale is taken from a document attested 
at Douay on 23 Feb. 1672 by Father James 
Brown, S.J., rector of the college there in 
1688. The date of attestation raises sus- 
picion; moreover, as Mr. T. G. Law has 
Sointed out, the archbishop had no unmarried 
aughter. It is possible that the story has 
grown out of the statement of the archbishop 
after the sentence of the court : ' I will give 
you both hand and heart, for I wish you to 
die a good Christian.' 

Two portraits of Ogilvie are known: (1) a 
contemporary half-length, copied at Rome 
by Charles Weld, and engraved as the fronti- 
spiece to James Forbes's ' Life of Ogilvie ; ' 
and (2) a full-length in the * Life ' of St. John 
Nepomuc (1730), pi. 16. The latter approxi- 
mates so closely to the conventional figures 
of the Jesuit hagiologies, and in features 
bears such close resemblance to the many 
other Johns celebrated in the book, that it 
cannot be considered an authentic portrait. 

[Relatio Incarcerationis et Martyrii P. Ioannis 
Ogilbei . . . descripta ad verbum ex autographo 
ipsius, Douai. 1615 (reprinted at Ingolstadt and 
at Mainz in 1616) ; A True Relation of the Pro- 
ceedings against John OgilviV, a Jesuit . . . Edin- 
burgh, 1615, probably written by Archbishop 
Spotiswood ; Register of Privy Council of Scot- 
land, x. 1613-1616, 284-6. 286 «., 303, 304 n., 336, 
374 459 : Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, vol. iii. pt. i., 
including the depositions of Opilvie's accomplices 
in Glasgow and Edinburgh ; Histories of Calder- 
wood and Spotiswood; the Historic of James the 
Sext (Bannatyne Club), 1825; L'Eglise Catho- 
lique en Ecosse: Martyre de Jean Ogilvie de la 
Compagnio de Jesus . . . par le P. James Forbes, 
Paris, 1885 ; An Authentic Account of the Im- 
prisonment and Martyrdom of Father John 
Ogilvie, translated by C. J. Karslake, S. J., Glas- 
gow, 1877 (a translation of the Relatio) ; Nar- 
ratives of Scottish Catholics, by W. Forbes- 
Leith, Edinburgh, 1885, in which reference is 
made to a Latin manuscript in the Archives S. J., 
entitled ' Proceedings of the Trial and Mode of 
Death of Father John Ogilvie.' Spotiswood's 
True Relation and the Relatio are reprinted in 
James Forbes's Life (supra), and the former 
is also reprinted in Pitcairn.] G. G. S. 



OGILVIE, JOHN (1733-1813), presby- 
| terian divine and author, born in Aberdeen 
in 1733, was the eldest son of James Ogilvie, 
minister there. After graduating at the Aber- 
deen University he was appointed to the 
parish of Lumphanan in 1759, and in the 
same year was transferred to Midmar, where 
he remained until his death. In 1764 he 
preached before the high commissioner of the 
General Assembly of the Scottish Church ; 
in 1766 he was made D.D. by Aberdeen 
University, and in 1775 was appointed one 
of the committee for the revision of the 
' Scottish Translations and Paraphrases/ He 
married in January 1771, and had a family, 
lie died at Aberdeen on 17 Nov. 1813. 

Ogilvie was one of a contemporary group 
of Scottish literary clergy. He frequently 
appeared in the literary* circles of London 
and Edinburgh, and was a fellow of the Edin- 
burgh Royal Society. It was to Ogilvie, 
while dining with Boswell in London, that 
Johnson remarked, 'Let me tell you, the 
noblest prospect which a Scotsman ever sees 
is the high road which leads him to Eng- 
land/ At the age of sixteen he wrote the 
hymn, ' Begin, my soul, the exalted lay/ 
afterwards included in ' Poems on several 
Subjects ; ' but his most popular work as a 
hymn-writer is the paraphrase he contri- 
buted to the Scottish collection of 1781, 
' Lo, in the last of days behold/ His poems 
are long, and show learning rather than poetic 
gifts. Churchill, in the ' Journey/ refers to 
them as ' a tale of rueful length/ spun out 
' under dark Allegory's flimsy veil/ Johnson 
' saw nothing' in the ' Day of Judgment/ but 
Boswell thought it had 'no inconsiderable 
share of merit.' His philosophical works 
were mainly attempts to defend the theology 
of his day against the deists and Hume. ' In 
" The Theology of Plato" he treats of topics 
not usually discussed by the Scottish meta- 
physicians' (M'Cosn, Scottish Philosophy, 
p. 241). 

His works are : 1. ' The Day of Judgment : 
a Poem/ Edinburgh, 1753. 2. 'Poems on 
several Subjects, with Essay on Lyric Poetry/ 
London, 1762, an enlarged edition of which, 
in two vols., appeared in 1769. 3. ' Provi- 
dence : an Allegorical Poem/ London, 1764. 
4. ' Solitude, or the Elysium of the Poets/ 
1765. 5. 'Sermons/ London, 1767. 6. 'Para- 
dise : a Poem/ 1760. 7. ' Philosophical and 
Critical Observations on Composition/ 2 vols. 
London, 1774. 8. 'Rona: a Poem in seven 
books, with Map of the Hebrides/ London, 
1777. 9. ' Inquiry into the Causes of Infidelity 
and Scepticism/ London, 1783. 10. 'The 
Fane of the Druids/ 1789. 11. ' The Theo- 
logy of Plato compared with the Principles 



Ogilvie 



21 



Ogilvie 



of Grecian and Oriental Philosophers/ 1793. 
12. ' Britannia : a national epic Poem in 
twenty books, with Dissertation on the Epic,' 
Aberdeen, 1801 (this volume contains an 
engraved portrait of the author). 13. ' Pro- 
phecy and the Christian Religion,' Aberdeen, 
1803. 14. 'Triumphs of Christianity over 
Deism/ Dalkeith, 1805. 

[Scott's Fasti Ecclesiae, vol. iii. pt. i. pp. 537, 
538; Scots Mag. 1814, p. 79; Boswell's Life 
of Johnson, ed. Hill, i. 421, 425 ; Julian's Diet, 
of Hymnology, p. 856; Nichols's Illustrations 
of Lit. Hist. iy. 835; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

J. R. M. 
OGILVIE, JOHN (1797-1867), lexico- 
grapher, son of William Ogilvie, farmer, was 
born in the parish of Marnoch, Banffshire, 
on 17 April 1797. His mother was Ann 
Leslie, daughter of a farmer in a neighbour- 
ing parish. After receiving some elementary 
education at home, and attending the parish 
school for two quarters, Ogilvie worked as a 
ploughman till he was twenty-one. In 1818, 
in consequence of an accident, one of his legs 
had to be amputated above the knee. After- 
wards Ogilvie taught successively in two 
subscription schools, in the parishes of For- 
dyce and Gamrie, both in Banffshire. At 
the same time, by assiduous study and with 
the help of a neighbouring schoolmaster, he 
prepared for the university, and in October 
1824 he entered Marischal College, Aber- 
deen. Adding to his income by private 
tuition, he graduated M.A. on 14 April 1828. 
He remained in Aberdeen as a tutor till 
13 May 1831, when he was appointed mathe- 
matical master in Gordons Hospital, an 
important educational establishment in the 
city. Marischal College conferred on him 
the honorary degree of LL.D. on 15 Jan. 
1848. He retained his mastership till July 
1859. He died of typhoid fever at Aberdeen 
on 21 Nov. 1867. 

To the ' Aberdeen Magazine/ 1831-2, 
Ogilvie contributed, under the signature 
' Iota/ ten spirited ' Imitations of Horace ' in 
the Scottish dialect. In 1836 he worked for 
Blackie & Son's annotated edition of Stack- 
house's 'History of the Bible.' Messrs. 
Blackie engaged him in 1838 to revise and 
enlarge Webster's ' English Dictionary/ the 
result being the ' Imperial Dictionary, Eng- 
lish, Technical, and Scientific/ issued in 
parts from 1847 ouwards,and published com- I 
plete in 1850, and supplement 1855. In 1803 
Ogilvie issued an abridgment of the ' Dic- 
tionary/ under the title ' Comprehensive 
English Dictionary, Explanatory, Pronounc- | 
inp, and Etymological/ the pronunciation 
being supervised by Mr. Richard Cull. In 
1865 appeared the ' Students' English Dic- 



tionary, Etymological, Pronouncing, and 
Explanatory/ in which etymology and defi- 
nitions received special attention. A feature 
of all three dictionaries was their engravings, 
the ' Imperial ' claiming to be the first after 
Bailey's to use pictorial illustrations. Ogil- 
vie's last, work was a condensation of the 
* Students' Dictionary/ entitled ' English 
Dictionary, Etymological, Pronouncing, and 
Explanatory, for the use of Schools/ 1867. 
A t his death he was revising the ' Imperial 
Dictionary/ which was reissued in 1882-3, 
under the editorship of Dr. Charles Annan- 
dale. 

On 15 Nov. 1842 Ogilvie married Susan 
Grant, daughter of a farmer near Stone- 
haven, Kincardineshire. She predeceased him 
on 20 May 1853, leaving two daughters and 
a son. 

[Memoir prefixed to Imperial Dictionary ; 
Walker's Bards of Bon-Accord, 1887.] T. B. 

OGILVIE, WILLIAM (1736-1819), 
professor of humanity and advocate of com- 
mon property in land, born in 1736, was the 
only son of James Ogilvie, proprietor of the 
estate of Pittensear, near Elgin. At the 
age of nineteen he went to King's College, 
Aberdeen, intending to enter the church, 
and, after graduating in 1759, was appointed 
master of the grammar school, Cullen. His 
name appears in the list of students at Glas- 
gow University in the 1760-1 session, and 
at Edinburgh University in 1761-2. While 
attending Edinburgh University he was 
tutor to a Mr. Graeme, and at the beginning 
of the session (29 Nov. 1761), by the in- 
fluence of his relative, Lord Deskford (after- 
wards sixth earl of Seafield), chancellor of 
the university, he was appointed assistant 
to the professor of philosophy at King's Col- 
lege, Aberdeen. By permission of the univer- 
sity court, be finished his studies at Edin- 
burgh, and began work in Aberdeen in the 
winter of 1762. Two years later he suc- 
ceeded to the chair of philosophy. In 1765, 
on a reorganisation of class-work, he ex- 
changed chairs with the professor of hu- 
manity, and taught in that capacity until 
1817, when, owing to failing health, an as- 
sistant was appointed to do his work. 

Ogilvie was a learned classical scholar. 
' What I remember with most pleasure of 
Mr. Ogilvie/ sayshis pupil, Sir James Mackin- 
tosh ( Memoirs , i. 17), ' were his translations 
of passages in classical writers.' These 
translations, which Mackintosh regrets were 
never published, were well known to Ogil- 
vie's friends and pupils, and highly esteemed 
by them. He was also an ardent numis- 
matist (Nichols, Illustrations of Lit Hist. 



Ogilvie 



22 



Ogilvy 



iv. 837), and his collection of Grecian coins 
is now in the Aberdeen University Museum. 
He was also devoted to science and the fine 
arts, and # helped in the unsuccessful attempt 
made to recover for the Aberdeen Univer- 
sity a valuable donation of Italian paintings 
left to it by an old student named Morison, 
but forfeited by the French government in 
1810 ; and to Ogilvie Aberdeen University 
owes its Natural History Museum, founded 
about 1775. His fame spread to America, 
and in 1793 the Columbia College, New York, 
conferred on hiin the honorary degree of 
S.T.D. His well-known sympathies with the 
American people may have had some in- 
fluence with the college. Pryse Gordon 
(Memoirs, i. 23) writes, ' Ogilvie was es- 
teemed the most elegant scholar in Scotland 
of his day;* and the 'Times' of 23 Feb. 
1819, in an obituary notice, goes so far as to 
say that ' Ogilvie was one of the most ac- 
complished scholars of the age.' 

Ogilvie's connection with Aberdeen Uni- 
versity, however, was principally signalised 
by the part he took in the agitation for the 
union of King's and Marischal Colleges. 
These colleges had been founded as separate 
universities, and there was considerable 
waste of money and talent in consequence. 
In 1754 a plan of union was first proposed, 
and was renewed unsuccessfully in 1770. 
In 1786 it was again revived, Ogilvie assist- 
ing in drawing up the ' Outlines of a Plan 
for uniting the Universities of Aberdeen.' 
The ' Plan ' led to a long and warm contro- 
versy, which lasted for two years in the 
Aberdeen press. The correspondence was 
collected by Professor Stuart, and published 
in Aberdeen in 1787. Although the move- 
ment was supported by the leading landlords 
in the north and by Marischal College, it 
failed in its purpose, and the two univer- 
sities were not finally united until 1800. 
Ogilvie was also one of the pioneers of public 
libraries, and in May 1764 he published a 
pamphlet on the subject. 

Meanwhile he had been giving consider- 
able attention to the land, both as a practical 
agriculturist and as one who was interested 
in the theoretic politics of his time. In 
1772 he sold the Pittensear estate, and in 
the following year bought for 1,500/. some 

Soor land in Aberdeen to show what could be 
one by careful cultivation, and thus gave 
an impetus to the farming industry in the 
north of Scotland. So successful was he 
that in 1808 he sold this Aberdeen pro- 
perty for 4,000/. In 1781 he published 
anonymously in Aberdeen ' An Essay on the 
Right of Property in Land.' His proposals 
anticipate much of what has since been done 



in agrarian legislation, and have much in 
common with recent theories of land nationa- 
lisation. The author differentiates between 
property in land and property in ' movables/ 
j and considers it to be an indisputable maxim 
■ in natural law that every individual has a 
; right to a share in the land. He regards 
| land values as consisting of three elements : 
I the original natural value, the value of im- 
provements, and the potential value. The 
first and third elements should belong to 
the community, and from them a land tax 
i should be levied ; the second is the legiti- 
; mate property of the cultivator. To check 
| current evils he proposed an agrarian law 
I that would restore the population to the 
' soil, and advocated the establishment of a 
land court with power to acquire land for 
i allotments, and to assist the peasantry to 
' buy their own farms. Although published 
I anonymously, the authorship of the book 
I was well known. Ogilvie's ' bold agrari- 
1 anism attracted some attention during the 
\ ferment of speculation occasioned by the 
French revolution ' (Mackintosh, Memoirs , 
i. 17) ; and in a letter to the author, dated 
; 7 April 1789, Dr. Thomas Reid, the philo- 
sopher, says he had read the book and practi- 
cally agreed with it. Macculloch, on the 
other hand, characterises Ogilvie's schemes 
I as * not impracticable only, but mischievous, 
and his principles and reasonings as alike 
false, shallow, and sophistical' (Literature 
of Political Economy, p. 310). George Wash- 
ington, who was deeply interested in English 
agriculture, possessed a copy, which was pre- 
sented to the British Museum by Henry 
Stevens of Vermont, the antiquary. The essay 
, was republished in 1891, with introduction 
and biographical notes by D. C. MacDonald. 
It contains a portrait of Ogilvie from a 
miniature by Archibald Binnie. 

Ogilvie died on 14 Feb. 1819, and is buried 
in the cathedral, Old Aberdeen. 

I [Birthright in Land, biographical notes, by 
! D. C. MacDonald ; Douglas's Description of the 
: East Coast of Scotland, p. 198 ; Scottish Notes 
and Queries, 1889; Columbia College Calendar 
of Trustees, &c. 1/93 list; Brit. Mus. Cat.; 
King's College Officers and Graduates (New 
Spalding Club), p. 49.] J. R. M. 

| OGILVY. [See also Ogilvie.] 

| OGILVY, ALEXANDER, second Baron 
\ op Interquharity (d. 1450), was the son of 
Sir John Ogilvy, third son of Sir Walter 
Ogilvy of Auchterhouse [see under Ogilvy, 
Sir Walter]. He obtained a charter from 
Alexander Seton, lord of Gordon, of Newton 
and other lands in the parish of Kirriemuir 
on 15 June 1434 ; from Nicoll Borthwick 



Ogilvy 



23 



Ogilvy 



of the lands of Ladinch to him and Janet 
Towers, his spouse, on 15 March 1438 ; and 
from William Gifford, of Balnagarroch, of 
the lands of Little Migny on 1 April 1439. 
He was sheriff of Kincardine (Reg* Mag. 
Sig. Scot. 1424-1513, entry 375), bailie of 
Panmure (Exchequer Rolls of Scot 1. 1437-54, 
p. 200), and keeper of Methven Castle (ib. 
p. 201). 

Along with the Earl of Crawford, Sir 
Alexander Livingstone, and others, Ogilvy 
about 1444 made a raid on the lands of 
Bishop Kennedy of St. Andrews in Fife and 
Angus, destroying the villages and farms, 
and taking captive his vassals. For this out- 
rage they were excommunicated, and the 
subsequent fate that overtook Crawford and 
Ogilvy was supposed to prove a divine rati- 
fication of the sentence. The earl's son, 
master and afterwards fourth earl of Craw- 
ford [see under Lindsay, Alexander, fourth 
Earl of Crawford], who for some time had 
been justiciary of the abbey of Arbroath, was 
m 1445 superseded by Alexander Ogilvy. 
The master of Crawford determined to main- 
tain possession of the abbey by force of arms, 
and Ogilvy resolved by force to oust him 
from it. Before the commencement of the 
battle on 13 Jan. 1445-6, the old Earl of 
Crawford, who suddenly appeared between 
the opposing forces as mediator, was acci- 
dentally shot by one of the Ogilvys. The 
incident led to an immediate and furious 
conflict, in which the Ogilvys were defeated. 
Ogilvy himself, who was severely wounded, 
was taken prisoner and carried to the castle 
of Finhaven, where, it is said, he was 
smothered with a down pillow by the 
widowed Countess of Crawford. By his wife 
Janet, daughter and heiress of William 
Towers, he had a son, John Ogilvy, third 
baron of Inverquharity. 

[Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot.; Exchequer Rolls of 
Scotl; Auchinleck Chron.; Douglas's Baronage.] 

T. F. H. 

OGILVY, Sir ALEXANDER (d. 

1727), of Forglen, Scottish judge, under the 
title Lord Forglen, was the second son of 
George Ogilvy, second Lord Banff, and Agnes 
Falconer, only daughter of Alexander, first 
Lord Halkerston. On 28 March 1685 he 
was sued by Sir Alexander Forbes of Tol- 
<juhoun for the value of a silver cup, which 
it was alleged he had taken out of tne house 
of Forbes ; Dut on 23 April he pursued Forbes 
for defamation in making him the thief and 
resetter (receiver) of the cup, the result being 
that the council fined Forbes in twenty thou- 
sand merks, the one half to the king's cashier, 
and the other half to the party aggrieved. 



The king's half of the fine was subsequently 
remitted, but the council compelled Forbes 
to pay Ogilvy's half (Lauder of Fotjn- 
tainhall, Decisions, i. 359, 362, 421, 427, 
442). 

Ogilvy was created a baronet 29 June 
1701, and sat in the Scots parliament as 
member for the burgh of Banff in 1701-2 and 
1702-7. In June 1703 he and Lord Bel- 
haven were ordered into custody for having 
quarrelled in the parliament house in the 
presence of the lord high commissioner and 
come to blows. On the 30th of the month 
it was moved that, as they had acknowledged 
their offence, they should be set at liberty ; 
but the lord hign commissioner would not 
consent until his majesty's pleasure was 
known. Ultimately, Lord Belhaven, for 
striking Ogilvy, was ordered to pay a fine 
of 5,000/., and to ask pardon on his Knees at 
the bar of the lord high commissioner; but his 
grace was pleased to dispense with the kneel- 
ing (cf. Narcissus Ltjttrell, Short Rela- 
tion, v. 314, 315, 332). On 25 March 1706 
Ogilvy was appointed a lord of session, and 
he took his seat on 23 July following, with 
the title Lord Forglen. He was also named 
one of the commissioners for the union 
with England, which he warmly supported 
in parliament. He died 3 March 1727. By 
his first wife, Mary, eldest daughter of Sir 
John Allardice of Allardice, Kincardine- 
shire, he had four sons, of whom the second, 
Alexander, succeeded him, and the others 
died without issue. By his second wife, 
Mary, daughter of David Leslie, first Lord 
Newark, and relict of Sir Francis Kinloch of 
Gilmerton, he left no issue. 

[Lauder of Fountainhall's Decisions ; Foster's 
Members of the Scottish Parliament ; Brunton 
and Haig's Senators of the College of Justice; 
Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), i. 193-4.] 

T. F. H. 

OGILVY, DAVID, Lord Ogilvy and 
titular Earl of Airlie (1725-1803), eldest 
son of John, fourth earl of Airlie, by Mar- 
garet, eldest daughter and heiress of David 
Ogilvy of Cluny, Aberdeenshire, was born in 
February 1725. He was educated at the 
university of Aberdeen, and afterwards at 
Edinburgh ; in the latter city, according to 
one authority, making ' greater progress in 
what is called genteel accomplishments, such 
as fencing, dancing, music, &c, than in the 
more abstracted sciences ' ( The Female Re- 
bels, p. 42). Before his marriage he also ac- 
quired a reputation for gallantry. 

Ogilvy joined the Chevalier at Edinburgh 
on 3 Oct. 1745, bringing with him over six 
hundred men from Angus, of whom a large 
number were his dependents. He was 



Ogilvy 



24 



Ogilvy 



chosen one of the Chevalier's council (Che- 
valier Johnstone, Memoirs, 3rd edit. p. 
166), and marched south with him into Eng- 
land. On the retreat northwards from Derby 
he held the command of the cavalry. Lady 
Ogilvy, who with difficulty had been per- 
suaded to remain in Scotland during his ab- 
sence, joined the rebels near Glasgow, and 
henceforth shared the hardships and most of 
the dangers of the camp. At the battle of 
Falkirk she remained with the reserve, and 
would not be persuaded to go to Callendar 
Ilouse. Ogilvv's regiment formed there part 
of the second line, and, with that of the Atholl 
men, was the only portion of the second line 
which came into action before the enemy 
broke and fled (' Young Pretender's Opera- 
tions ' in Lockhart's Memoirs, ii. 469). On 
account of the suddenness of the march 
northwards from Stirling, Lady Ogilvy was 
nearly taken prisoner, and lost some of her 
luggage (ib. p. 474). At Montrose some of 
Lord Ogilvy's men were driven out of the 
town by the sloop-of-war Hazard, sent thither 
to prevent supplies coming from France (ib. 
p. 475). Ogilvy's regiment fought in the 
second line at Culloden. After the battle 
he lay for some time concealed at Cortachy, 
but ultimately got on board a vessel riding 
off the lights of Tay, and reached Norway in 
safety (Chevalier Johnstone, Memoirs, p. 
373). At Bergen he was, by order of the 
governor, confined a prisoner in the castle 
on 13 May 1746, but succeeded in escaping 
to Sweden, whence he made his way south 
to France. Lady Ogilvy was not at Cullo- 
den, but remained at Inverness, where, on 
account of her activity in the rebellion, she 
was seized by order of the Duke of Cumber- 
land, and sent in June a prisoner to Edin- 
burgh. In November following she suc- 
ceeded in making her escape, and joined her 
husband in France, where she died in 1757, 
at the age of thirty-three. Lord Ogilvy 
obtained from the French king a regiment 
of foot, called Ogilvy's regiment, and ulti- 
mately he rose to the rank of lieutenant- 
general. For his share in the rebellion he 
was forfeited by parliament, but, having pro- 
cured a free pardon under the great seal, in 
1778 he returned home ; and in 1782 he ob- 
tained an act of parliament for removing 
' certain disabilities and incapacities occa- 
sioned by his attainder/ He was in receipt 
from the French king of a pension, which 
Napoleon Bonaparte, when he became head 
of the French government, offered to con- 
tinue, but he declined it. He died at Cor- 
tachy 3 March 1 803. * He was,' says Dou- 
glas, 'a nobleman of the old school, kind 
and indulgent to his menials and dependents, 



of the most correct manners, full of courtesy, 
integrity, and honour/ By his first wife 
(who accompanied him during the Scottish 
campaign), Margaret, daughter of Sir James 
Johnstone, bart., M.P., 01 Westerhall, Lan- 
arkshire, and niece of Patrick Murray, lord 
Elibank, he had a son David, titular earl 
of Airlie, and two daughters. By his second 
wife, Anne, third daughter of James Stewart 
of Blairhill, Perthshire, he left no issue. On 
the decease, without issue, of David Ogilvy, 
Walter Ogilvy of Clova, Forfarshire, laid 
claim to the title of Earl Airlie before the 
Ilouse of Lords, but failed to elicit from 
them any decision. Walter's son David was, 
however, continued in the title by act of par- 
liament on 26 May 1826. 

[Chevalier Johnstone's Memoirs ; Young Pre- 
tender's Operations in Lockhart's Memoirs ; 
Histories of the Rebellion by Homo and Cham- 
bers ; The Female Kebels, being some Remark- 
able Incidents of the Lives, Character, and Fami- 
lits of the Titular Duke and Dutchess of Perth, 
the Lord and Lady Ogilvie, and Miss Florence 
M'Donald, Kdinburgh, 1747; Douglas's Scottish 
Peerage (Wood), i. 35-6.] T. F. H. 

OGILVY, Sir GEORGE, of Dunlugas, 
Banffshire, first Lord Banff (d. 1663), was 
eldest son of Sir Walter Ogilvy of Banff and 
Dunlugas, by Helen, daughter of Walter 
Urquhart of Cromarty. He had charters to 
himself and Margaret Irving, his wife, of the 
barony of Dunlugas, 9 March 1610-11, and 
another of the baronv of Inschedour, 14 Feb. 
1627-8. On 30 July 1627 he was created a 
baronet of Nova Scotia. 

In Michaelmas 1628 Ogilvy slew his cousin 
James Ogilvy, but on making ' assythment ' 
for the slaughter he was not further pro- 
ceeded against (Spalding, Memorials, i. 12). 
In January 1030 he assisted Gordon of 
Rothiemay against James Crichton of Fren- 
draught, when Gordon was slain (Gordon, 
Earldom of Sutherland, pp. 416-17), and 
after Crichton was forced, through the at- 
tacks of the Gordons, to go south to Edin- 
burgh, Ogilvy in 1634 had his two sons quietly 
convoved to him (Spalding, i. 50). 

Ogilvy from the beginning supported 
Charles I in his contests with the cove- 
nanters (Gordon, Scots Affairs, i. 61). In 
February 1639 he gave information to the 
Marquis of Huntly of a proposed rendezvous 
of the covenanters at Turriff, and, it was 
said, stronglyadvised Huntly to attack them 
there, but Huntly contented himself with 
displaying his forces (ib. pp. 210-15 ; Spald- 
ing, i. 136-7). W r hen Huntlycame to terms 
with Montrose, and many of the northern 
lords on this account came in and signed the 
covenant, Ogilvy ' stoutly stood out the 



Ogilvy 



25 



Ogilvy 



king's man (ib. i. 163), and he also pre- 
vailed upon the Viscount Aboyne not to 
join his father in the south (ib. p. 173). 
Shortly afterwards, along with Aboyne, he 
took measures for his defence, and after 
Aboyne broke up his forces he still con- 
tinued in arms (ib. pp. 181, 182). Learning 
in May of a projected rendezvous of cove- 
nanters at Turriff, he proposed that an attack 
should be made on them, and, with Sir John 
Gordon of Haddo, he was appointed joint 
general of the forces, * both of them of known 
courage, but Banff [Ogilvy] the wittier of 
the two, and Haddo supposed to be pliable 
to Banff's council and advice' (Gokdon, 
Scots AffairSy ii. 256). Early in the morn- 
ing of 13 May the covenanters were surprised 
in their beds, and completely defeated (ib. 
p. 257; Spalding, i. 185), the" incident being 
known locally as the * Trot of Turriff.' On 
the 15th Ogilvy and other barons entered 
New Aberdeen with eight hundred horse, 
and took possession of the town, the cove- 
nanters taking to flight (Spalding, i. 186-7). 
On the 22nd the barons left the town, and 
marched towards Strathbogie, on arriving at 
which they learned of the proposed expedi- 
tion of the northern covenanters to join 
Montrose at Aberdeen. Thereupon they re- 
solved to bar their way, and, crossing the 
Spey under the leadership of Ogilvy, drew 
up on elevated ground within two miles of 
Elgin. This led to a parley, and both parties 
came to an agreement to lay down their arms 
(ib. i. 194 ; Gordon, Scots Affairs, ii. 263). On 
30 May Ogilvy and others took ship at Mac- 
duff, with the intention of proceeding south 
to the king (Spalding, i. 198) ; but meeting 
a ship in which were Aboyne and other 
royalists returning to the north, they were 
persuaded to change their purpose. They 
landed on 6 June — Ogilvy being then pro- 
strated by fever — at Aberdeen, where Aboyne 
proclaimed his lieutenancy in the north (ib. 
pp. 204-5). Montrose having left Aberdeen 
for the south, the northern royalists had an 
opportunity of retaliation, and Ogilvy joined 
Aboyne and others in spoiling the Earl 
Marischal's lands (Gordon, Scots Affairs, ii. 
279). About September Ogilvy went south 
to the king (Spalding, i. 231), and during 
his absence his palace at Banff' and his 
country house at Inschedour were spoiled by 
the covenanters under General Monro (Gor- 
don, iii. 252-3 ; Balfour, Annals, ii. 382). 
As part reparation, the king in 1641 pre- 
sented to him six thousand merks Scots in 
gold. lie was also by patent, dated at Not- 
tingham 31 Aug. 1642, created a peer of 
Scotland as Lord Banff. Banff was one of 
those who in 1634, ' barefaced and in plain 



English,' accused the Duke of Hamilton of 
treason (Clarendon, Hist, of the Hcbellion, 
vii. 369). His subsequent life was unevent- 
ful, and he died on 11 Aug. 1G63. By his 
first wife, Margaret, daughter of Alexander 
Irvine of Drum, Aberdeenshire, he had a 
daughter Helen, married to James Ogilvy, 
second earl of Airlie [q. v.] ; and by his second 
wife, Mary Sutherland of Duffus, Elgin, he 
had a son George, second lord Banff', and two 
daughters. 

[Authorities mentioned in the text; Douglas's 
Scottish Peerage (Wood), i. 1 92.] T. F. H. 

OGILVY,^ Sir GEORGE, of Barras 
(Jl. 1634-1679), defender of Dunottar, was 
descended from the Ogilvys of Balnagarno, 
Forfarshire, and was the son of William 
Ogilvy of Lumgair, Kincardineshire, by 
Katherine, niece of Strahan of Thornton. In 
1634 he married Elizabeth, daughter of the 
Hon. Sir John Douglas of Barras, Forfar- 
shire, fourth son of William, earl of Angus, 
and purchased Barras from his father-in-law. 
Having in early life served in the German 
wars, he was in 1651 appointed by the Earl 
Marischal, with the title of lieutenant- 
governor, to hold the earl's castle of Dunottar 
against the forces of Cromwell. Special im- 
portance attached to the trust committed to 
him from the fact that the regalia of Scot- 
land had been placed in the castle, but for 
the supply of armaments and provisions he 
was almost wholly dependent on his own 
exertions. On 31 Aug. 1651 the committee 
of estates addressed an order to the Earl of 
Balcarres authorising him to receive the 
regalia from Ogilvy, whom they directed to 
deliver them up to Balcarres ; but Ogilvy 
declined to do so on the ground that Bal- 
carres was not properly authorised to relieve 
him of the responsibility which had been 
imposed on him by parliament. He, how- 
ever, declared his readiness to deliver them 
up if relieved of responsibility, or his readi- 
ness to defend his charge to the last if pro- 
perly supplied with men, provisions, and 
ammunition. The castle was summoned by 
Cromwell's troops to surrender on 8 and 
22 Nov., but Ogilvy expressed his determina- 
tion to hold out. While the castle was 
closely besieged, the regalia were, at the in- 
stance of the Countess Dowager Marischal, 
delivered by Lady Ogilvy to Mrs. Grainger, 
the wife of the minister of Kinneff, who con- 
cealed them about her person, and, passing 
the lines of the besiegers without suspicion, 
took them to the church of Kinneff, where 
they were placed below the floor. Al- 
though Ogilvy had received a warrant from 
the Earl Marischal empowering him to de- 



Ogilvy 



26 



Ogilvy 



liver up the castle to Major-general Deane, 
he maintained a firm attitude until he ob- 
tained terms as favourable as it was possible 
to grant. On 1 Feb. 1652 he sent a letter 
to the king asking for speedy supplies of 
ammunition and provisions (Cal. Clarendon 
State Papers, ii. 18). These were not granted 
him, but on 12 April the king sent him a 
message approving of his fidelity, urging him 
to hold out till winter, and permitting him 
either to ship the regalia in a vessel sent to 
transfer them to Holland, or to retain them 
should he think the removal would dis- 
hearten the garrison (ib. p. 129). The castle 
was surrendered on 26 Mav. The conditions 
were that the garrison should march out 
with the usual honours, and be permitted to 
pass to their homes unmolested. The favour- 
able terms were granted in the hope of ob- 
taining possession of the regalia; but as 
Ogilvy failed to deliver them up, he and 
Lady Ogilvy were detained prisoners in a 
room of the castle until 10 Jan. 1663, only 
obtaining their liberty when all hope of re- 
covering the regalia was dissipated by a false 
but circumstantial report that they had been 
carried abroad. Ogilvy was also required to 
find caution in 2,000/. sterling. The regalia 
remained in concealment at Kinneff till the 
Restoration, when they were delivered up 
by Ogilvy to Charles II. For his services in 
connection with their preservation, Ogilvy 
was by letters patent, 5 March 1660, created 
a baronet of Nova Scotia, and, 3 March 1666 
received a new charter of the lands of Barras, | 
which was ratified by parliament on 17 Aug. 
1679. There is no record of the date of his 
death. He was buried at Kinneff, where 
there is a monument to him and his wife. 
He had a son, Sir William Ogilvy, who, in 
1701, published a pamphlet setting forth the 
special services of his father as preserver of 
the regalia, in contrast to those rendered by 
the Earl Marischal, the title being 'A True 
Account of the Preservation of the Regalia 
of Scotland.' The pamphlet, which was re- 
printed in the i Somers Tracts,' gave rise, 
at the instance of the Earl of Kintore, to an 
action before the privy council, which, on 
8 July 1702, passed an act for burning the 
book at the cross of Edinburgh, and fined 
Ogilvy '8 son David, one of the defenders, in 
1,200/. Scots. The male line failed in the 
person of Sir George Ogilvy, the eleventh 
baronet, who died in 1837. 

[Papers relating to the Preservation of the 
Regalia of Scotland (Bannatyne Club) ; White- 
locke's Memorials ; Cal. Clarendon State Papers ; 
Jervise's Epitaphs and Inscriptions in the North- 
east of Scotland ; Douglas's Scottish Baronage ; 
Nisbet's Heraldry, ii. 230-6.] T. F. H. 



OGILVY or OGILVIE, JAMES, fifth or 
sixth Lord Ogilvy of Airlib (d. 1605), 
was the son of James, fourth or fifth lord 
Ogilvy, by Catherine, daughter of Sir John 
Campbell of Calder, knight. lie succeeded 
his father some time before 17 Dec. 1647, and 
he was a lord of the articles for the parlia- 
ment of 1559. On 10 March 1659-00 he 
obtained from Donald, abbot of Coupar- 
Angus, a charter of the lands of Meikle and 
Little Forthar in the barony of Glenisla. 
With the lords of the congregation he was 
present at the seizure of St. Johnstone's 
(Perth) in June 1559 {Cal. State Papers, 
for. Ser. 1558-9, entries 880, 908). He 
was one of those who, at the camp of Leith 
on 10 Mav 1560, ratified the treaty of Ber- 
wick with the English (Knox, Works, ii. 
53), and on 27 April he signed a band to 
defend i the liberty of the Evangel ' (ib. p. 
63). On 27 June 1562 he was attacked in 
the streets of Edinburgh, and his right arm 
was mutilated, by Sir John Gordon, son of 
George, fourth earl of Huntly [see under 
Gordon, George, fourth Earl of Huntly]. 
The dispute had reference to the lands of a 
relative (ib. p. 45 ; Keith, Hist of Scotland, 
ii. 156 ; Peg. P. C. Scotl. i. 218). Sir John, 
who was one of the lovers of Mary Stuart, 
was subsequently executed at Aberdeen for 
breaking his ward and engaging in rebellion. 

Ogilvy joined the queen in the round- 
about raid against Morav after her marriage 
to Darn ley (ib. i. 379). lie was one of those 
who subscribed the band for Bothwell's mar- 
riage to Mary in Ainsiie's tavern on 20 April 
1507. After Mary's escape from Lochleven, 
he signed the band for her at Hamilton on 
8 May 1568, but, having gone north to muster 
his forces, arrived too late to be of service to 
her at Laugside (Keith, History, ii. 818). 
Subsequently he took up arms under the 
Duke of Hamilton (Herries, Memoirs, p. 
114), and on this account was, on 2 March 
1568-9, declared a rebel (Reg. P. C. Scotl. i. 
640), but on 15 April signed a 'band to the 
king ' (ib, p. 654). At the parliament held 
at Perth on 31 July 1569, he voted for the 
queen's divorce from Bothwell (ib. ii. 8). He 
attended the convention at Edinburgh after 
the murder of the regent Moray in 1570 
(Herries, p. 123 ; Calderwood, ii. 544). In 
April he, with other lords, signed a letter to 
Queen Elizabeth, asking her Ho enter in 
such conditions with the Queen's Highness 
in Scotland as may be honourable for all 
parties ' (Calderwood, ii. 549). In August 
following Morton made an attempt to surprise 
him and Sir James Balfour at Brechin, wnich 
they were holding on behalf of the queen, but 
they made their escape (ib. ill. 7-8 j Herries, 



Ogilvy 



27 



Ogilvy 



p. 130). Subsequently he went abroad, and, at 
the instance of Mary queen of Scots, he was 
in August 1571 sent with letters specially 
directed to Mar and Morton to induce them 
to recognise her (Labanoff, Lettres de 
Marie Stuart, iii. 356). On 13 Jan. 1575 
Mary, in a letter to the Archbishop of Glas- 
gow, sent assurances of her good will to 
Lord Ogilvy (ib. iv. 239), but some time after 
this he appears to have written to Mary com- 
plaining of the want of appreciation of his 
services (Mary to the Archbishop of Glasgow, 
25 Feb. 1576, ib. p. 293). Some time before 
this he was placed in ward, and on 1 May 
1576 he gave surety that, on his release from 
the palace of Linlithgow, he would within 
forty-eight hours enter his person in ward 
within the city of Glasgow (lief/. P. C. Scotl. 
ii. 527). In ^November 1577 he was, though 
atill in ward, employed on behalf of Mary 
to open up communications with Morton 
(Labanoff, iv. 400). After Morton's re- 
signation of his regency in 1578, he was, on 
13 March, discharged of his ward (Reg. 
P. C. Scotl. ii. 677), and on the 24th he was 
chosen a member of the new privy council 
(ib. p. 678). He was one of the i eight 
notable men' nominated by the king on 
8 Sept. for the reconciliation of the nobility 
(ib. iii. 25-6; Motsie, Memoirs, p. 15). 
Having on 8 April been named by the as- j 
sembly of the Kirk as one of the persons | 
' suspected of papistrie,' a minister was ap- | 
pointed to confer with him and report (Cal- 
deewood, iii. 401), and ultimately, on 28 Jan. I 
1580-1, he subscribed the confession of faith | 
(ib. p. 501). He was employed by the agents 
of Mary to be an intermediary with the King 
of Scots in persuading him to co-operate 
with the proposed Spanish invasion in 1580 1 
(Labanoff, v. 173) ; and was subsequently 
empowered to induce him to consent to go 
to Spain (ib. pp. 214-15). lie was involved 
in the plot for the fall of Morton, and was 
one of the assize who convicted him of treason 
in June 1581 (Calderwood, iii. 557; Motsie, 
p. 32). He afterwards shared in the re- 
wards that followed on the establishment of 
the new regime, obtaining a charter of the 
office of bailie of the monastery of Arbroath, 
and also charters to himself and Jean Forbes, 
his wife, and James, their son, of the castle 
of the monastery on 31 Oct. 1582 (Reg. Mag. 
Sig. Scot. 1580-93, entry 453), and of the 
lands of Schangy, 18 Feb. 1582-3 (ib. p. 515). 
He attended the convention of estates on 
7 Dec. 1583, which declared the raid of 
Ruthven to be a crime of lese-majest6 (Cal- 
DERWOOD, viii. 21 ; Reg. P. C. Scotl. iii. 614). 
At the coronation of the queen, 10 May 
1690, Ogilvy followed in the procession be- 



hind the king (Caldfrwood, v. 90), and in 
1596 he was sent to Denmark to assist at 
the coronation of Christian IV (Calder- 
wood, v. 437 ; Reg. P. C. Scotl. v. 318). On 
6 Feb. 1598-9 he was ordered to submit to 
the king and council a feud between him 
and the Earl of Atholl (ib. v. 523), and on 
19 April the master of Ogilvy appeared for 
his father and himself, when Atholl, having 
failed to appear, was ordered into ward in 
the castle of Dumbarton under pain of trea- 
son (ib. p. 552). On 7 March 1600 Ogilvy 
was ordered, under pain of rebellion, to re- 
main in ward within his place of Arbroath 
(ib, vi. 91). This order was given owing to 
a feud between the Ogilvys and Lindsays, 
with whom William Stewart, brother of the 
Earl of Atholl, was associated. On 23 March 
Ogilvy appeared and protested that, although 
he had subscribed an assurance to Alexander 
Lindsay, lord Spynie, he ought not to be 
held answerable lor those of his kin who had 
subscribed assurances for themselves, and his 
protest was admitted (ib. p. 95). On 2 March 
1602 charge was given by the council for 
the renewal of the assurances between the 
Ogilvvs and Lindsays (ib. p. 492). Ogilvy 
died in 1605. On 24 Feb. 1606-7 the king, 
in a letter on ecclesiastical matters to the 
council, ordered that trial be taken of the 
' heinous offences ' committed at his burial, 
' wherein there was some superstitious cere- 
monies and rites used, as if the profession 
of Papistrie had been specially licensed and 
tolerated ' (Reg. P. V. Scotl. vii. 299). 

By his wife Jean, eldest daughter of Wil- 
liam, seventh Lord Forbes, Lord Ogilvy had 
six sons and a daughter. Among the sons 
were James, seventh lord, whose son James, 
first earl of Airlie, is separately noticed; Sir 
John, to whom his father, on 1 3 March 1563-4, 
granted a charter of the lands of Kinloch ; 
David, who had a charter of the lands of 
Lawton. The daughter, Margaret, was mar- 
ried to George Keith, fifth earl Marischal. 

[The authorities mentioned in the text.] 

T. F. H. 

OGILVY, JAMES, first EaelofAiblib 
(1593 P-1666), son of James, seventh lord 
Ogilvy, by his first wife, Lady Jean Ruth- 
ven, daughter of William, first earl ofGowrie, 
was born probably about 1593. His grand- 
father was James, sixth lord Ogilvy of Airlie 
[q. v.] He succeeded his father as eighth Lord 
Ogilvy about 1618. For his attachment to the 
royalist cause during the struggle between the 
court and the presbyterians,uharles I created 
him earl of Airlie by patent dated at York 
2 April 1639. During the Scottish war he 
suffered severely, his estates being wasted and 



Ogilvy 



28 



Ogilvy 



all his houses razed to the ground, so that, 
remarks a letter- writer of the period, * they 
have not left him in all his lands a cock to 
crow day' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1640-1, 
p. 53). He went to court in April 1040 to 
avoid taking the covenant, but, returning to 
Scotland, was present in the covenanting 

Earliament of 1643. In the following year 
e and his three sons joined Montrose ; they 
were consequently forfeited by parliament 
on 11 Feb. 1645, exempted from pardon in 
the treaty of Westminster, and excommuni- 
cated by the kirk on 27 July 1047. But 
having obtained on 23 July 1046 an assur- 
ance and remission from Major-general Mid- 
dleton [see Middleton, John, first Earl of 
Middleton], who was authorised to pacify 
the north of Scotland in this way, parliament 
was obliged, though unwillingly, to rescind 
his forfeiture on 17 March 1647. He did 
not afterwards take any active part in public 
affairs, and died in 1666 {Acts of the Par- 
liaments of Scotland, viii. p. 227). 

He married about 1614 Lady Isabel 
Hamilton, second daughter of Thomas, first 
earl of Haddington, by whom he had three 
sons and two daughters. The sons were: 
James, second earl [q. v.], and Sir Thomas 
and Sir David Ogilvy. One daughter, Isabel, 
cleverly enabled her brother James to escape 
from the castle of St. Andrews on the eve 
of his intended execution ; she died un- 
married. Her sister, Elizabeth, married in 
1642 Sir John Carnegie of Balnamoon, For- 
farshire (Fraseb, EarU of Southesk, p. 431). 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1639-1641, passim; 
Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, 1626-1 666, 
passim; Balfour's Annals, iii. 268; Douglas's 
Peerage, ed. Wood, i. 32,33; Gardiner's Common- 
wealth, i. 373.] H. P. 

OGILVY, JAMES, second Earl of 
Airlie (1615P-1704?), the eldest son of 
James, first earl [q. v.], was probably born 
about 1615. Sharing ardently the royalist 
sympathies of his lather, he, while Lord 
Ogilvy, took a very active part on behalf of 
Charles I during the Scottish wars. In 1640 
he held Airlie Castle against Montrose, then 
a covenanter ; but, being obliged to surrender, 
he was permitted, with his wife, to escape, 
an incident for which Montrose was sharply 
challenged by the tables {Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Io40,p. 53). Refusing to obey the order 
of the Scottish parliament to appear before 
them and give caution for keeping the peace, 
Ogilvy was declared a rebel, and was specially 
exempted from pardon. In February 1643 he 
accompanied Montrose to Charles I's court, 
to concert measures for waging war against 
the Scottish covenanters (Acts of the Parlia- 



ments of Scotland, vol. vi. pt. i. pp. 14, 22, 
126, 209, 215, 279). On 20 July 1643 he 
was charged with high treason in his absence, 
but continued a close companion of Montrose, 
acting as one of his aides-de-camp. In Au- 
gust 1644 he was sent with despatches to the 
king, and fell into the hands of the English 
parliamentary troops near Preston in Lanca- 
shire (Rush worth, v. 745). He was taken 
prisoner to Edinburgh, and remained incar- 
cerated in the Tolbooth there for more than 
a year, undergoing frequent examination, but 
constantly declining to acknowledge the au- 
thority of the covenanters. He was lrequently 
visited by his mother, sister, and wife, who in 
August 1644 petitioned for his removal from 
the then plague-infected town, and obtained 
an order for his removal to the Bass Rock. 

Before, however, this change could be 
effected, Montrose had inflicted a severe de- 
feat on the covenanters at Kilsyth (1 5 Aug. 
1645), which practically placed the country 
at his disposal, and he sent orders to Edin- 
burgh for the release of Lord Ogilvy and 
other prisoners, which were at once obeyed. 
Rejoining Montrose, Ogilvy resumed active 
service, and was present at the battle of 
Philiphaugh (13 Sept. 1645), where, the 
royalist army being routed, he was again 
captured, and, after confinement in several 
prisons, was on 16 Jan. 1646 tried at St. 
Andrews and condemned to death. The 
day appointed for his decapitation was the 
20th ot that month ; but on the preceding 
eve his elder sister changed clothes with him 
in his prison in the castle of St. Andrews, 
and he escaped. A thousand pounds sterling 
was offered for his capture dead or alive, but 
the reward was ineffectual : and in the follow- 
ing July he secured a pardon from Middleton, 
which the parliament were obliged to con- 
firm. He also gave satisfaction to the kirk, 
and was released from excommunication. In 
May 1649 he took part in Pluscarden's rising 
in the north. 

Upon the coronation of Charles II at 
Scone in 1650 Ogilvy took service in the 
Scottish army, and was captured by Crom- 
well's troopers near Aly th in Forfarshire, with 
the committee of estates, on 28 Aug. 1651. 
He was then sent prisoner from Dundee to 
Tynemouth Castle, and thence to the Tower 
of London (Balfour, Annals, iv. 1, 128, 
210, 314). A year later he was liberated on 
condition that he would not leave London 
without permission ; but, on a general order, 
he was soon recommitted to the Tower. In 
one of his petitions to Cromwell he states 
that he was seized by a party of horse, under 
General Monck, while peaceably residing at 
his mansion-house in Scotland, and protests 



Ogilvy 



29 



that he had never taken an active part against 
the Commonwealth (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1650, p. 60). He remained a prisoner till 
January 1657, with the exception of three 
months' leave, granted in July 1655, for the 
purpose of visitingScotland. He was released 
in 1657 on finding security in 20,000/. 

After the restoration he endeavoured to 
redeem his losses by obtaining grants from 
Charles II, but without much result. He 
succeeded as second Earl of Airlie on the 
death of his father in 1666, and is frequently 
mentioned in the parliamentary proceedings 
of the reigns of Charles II and James II. 
At the revolution he declared for the prince 
of Orange, but for not attending the meet- 
ings of parliament he was in 1689, and again 
in 1693, fined 1,200/. Scots, which, however, 
were remitted, and his attendance excused, 
on account of his old age and infirmities. A 
like dispensation was granted to him in No- 
vember 1700. He probably died in 1704, as 
on 31 Julv of that year his son David was 
served as nis heir (Lindsay, Retours to Chan- 
cery, sub anno). 

Mark Napier says that in his youth Lord 
Ogilvy courted Magdalene Carnegie, the 
youngest daughter of David, lord Carnegie, 
and afterwards wife of Montrose ; and that 
he was on his way to propose to her when, 
in fording a river, he was thrown from his 
horse ; regarding the ducking as an unfa- 
vourable omen, he proceeded no further on 
that errand (Memoirs of Montrose, i. 66). 
He was, however, twice married : first to 
Helen Ogilvy, daughter of George, first 
lord Banff, by whom he had one son — David, 
who succeeded him — and four daughters ; and, 
secondly, to Mary, daughter of Sir James 
Grant of Grant, the widow of Lewis, third 
marquis of Huntly, but by her he had no 
issue (Fraser, The Chiefs of Grant, i. 239). 

[Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, 1641- 
1700, ptssitn; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1639- 
1663, passim ; Napier's Memoirs of Montrose, 
ii. 375-640 ; Balfour's Annals, iii. 252-430, iv. 
128,314; Douglas's Peerage, ed. Wood, i. 33, 
34.] H. P. 

OGILVY, JAMES, fourth Earl op Find- 
later and first Earl of Seafield (1664- 
1730), lord chancellor of Scotland, second son 
of James, third earl of Findlater, by Lady 
Anne Montgomery, relict of Robert Seton, 
son of Sir George Seton of Hailes, Midlo- 
thian, was born in 1664. He was educated for 
the law, and was called to the bar on 16 Jan. 
1685. He sat in the Scots parliament as 
member for Banffshire in 1681-2, and from 
16^9 to 1 695. At the Convention parliament 
of 1680 he made a speech in favour of King 
James, and he was one of the five who dis- 



Ogilvy 

sented from the motion that the king had for- 
feited his right to the crown. Subsequently 
he took the oath to William and Mary, and in 
1693 — according to Lockhart, by William 
duke of Hamilton's means (Papers, i. 52) — 
he was constituted solicitor-general, received 
the honour of knighthood, and was appointed 
sheriff of Banffshire. In January 1695-6 he 
succeeded James Johnston [q. v.] as secretary 
of state, and in the following year he, though 
secretary, sat and voted in parliament in ac- 
cordance with the king's special directions. 
He supported the proceedings in the parlia- 
ment of 1695 against Dairy mple and others re- 
sponsible for the massacre of Glencoe, but on 
23 July represented to Caretares that he had 
' acted a moderatepart in all this/and in regard 
to it expressed his willingness * to be ordered 
by his majesty as to the method of serving him 
as is my dutv ' (Carstares, State Papers, p. 
258). On 28 June 1698 he was created Vis- 
count Seafield, and appointed president of 
the parliament which met at Edinburgh on 
16 July. On his arrival in Edinburgh on 
9 July he ' met with a very great reception ' 
(id. p. 84). According to Murray of Philip- 
haugh, he presided ' very extraordinary well, 
both readily, boldly, and impartially ' (ib. p. 
383), and he did much to assist in carrying 
the policy of the king to a successful issue 
(ib. passim). From the beginning Seafield 
was opposed to the formation of the African 
company (letter to Carstares, ib. p. 314). 
His kno \vn ant ipathy to the enterprise aroused 
against him much hostile feeling in Scotland, 
and during the rejoicings in Edinburgh, on 
the arrival of news regarding some advantage 
gained by the Scots against the Spaniards of 
Darien, his windows were broken by the mob 
(Marchmont Papers, iii. 210; Luttrell, 
Short Relation, iv. 660). Argyll, disgusted 
by Seafield's attitude, contemptuously af- 
firmed that there was in him 'neither honour, 
honesty , friendship, nor courage,' and said that 
if it were not * lessening ' himself to * say it 
to a man who dares not resent it,' he would 
' send him as much signed '{Carstares, State 
Papers, p. 494). He was appointed com- 
missioner to the general assembly of the kirk 
which met in 1700, and on 24 June 1701 he 
was created Earl of Seafield. He retained 
his political influence after the accession of 
Queen Anne, and on 12 May 1702 was con- 
tinued secretary of state, along with the Duke 
of Queensberry. The same year he was ap- 
pointed a commissioner to treat for the union, 
and on 1 Nov. he succeeded the Earl of 
Marchmont as lord high chancellor. In 1703 
he was appointed commissioner to the general 
assembly which met on 10 March. Accord- 
ing to Lockhart, he at this time did ' assure 



Ogilvy 



30 



Ogilvy 



all such as he knew of loyal principles that 
the queen was resolved to take their cause by 
hand/ and 'with horrid asseverations and 
solemn vows protested he would join and 
stand firm to the interests of both' (Papers, 
p. 53), but soon afterwards ' left his old 
friends and worshipped the rising sun ' (ib. 
p. 98). In 1704 he was superseded as chan- 
cellor by the Marquis of Tweeddale ; but on 
17 Oct. he was made joint secretary of state 
along with the Earl of Roxburghe. On 
9 March 1704-5 he was again appointed lord 
high chancellor, the Marquis of Tweeddale 
having been dismissed. In the same year 
his life was for a time endangered by the 
mob in Edinburgh, who, after the conviction 
of Captain Green and his crew for the capture 
of a vessel belonging to the Darien company 
and the murder of its captain and crew, sus- 
pected that the government intended to avoid 
executing the sentence of death. 

Seafield, in March 1706, was appointed a 
commissioner for the union with England, 
and he was one of the most active promoters 
of the measure. According to Lockhart, 
'when he, as chancellor, signed the engrossed 
exemplification of the Act of Union, he re- 
turned it to the clerk, in the face of parlia- 
ment, with this despising and contemning 
remark, " Now there's ane end of ane old 
8ang ,,, (Papers, i. 223). He was one of the 
sixteen Scottish representative peers chosen 
at the succeeding election in 1707, and was 
re-chosen at each subsequent election up to 
1727 inclusive. He was also in 1707 chosen 
a member of the English privy council, and 
on his return to Edinburgh he produced to 
the lords of session a new commission ap- 
pointing him chancellor of Scotland. Doubts 
having, however, arisen as to the validity of 
the office after the union, he was instead 
appointed lord chief baron in the court of 
exchequer, being admitted on 28 May. ■ Sea- 
field received only 100/. as compensation 
money at the time of the union, but in 1708 
his great services in connection with the 
passing of the measure were acknowledged 
by the grant of a pension of 3,000/. per 
annum. On succeeding to his father, the 
third Earl of Findlater, in 1711, he adopted 
the title of Earl of Findlater and Seafield. 

After the extension of the malt tax to 
Scotland in 1713, Findlater was induced, at 
the instance of Lockhart, to move for leave 
to bring in a bill for the repeal of the union. 
According to Lockhart, he was ' both well 
and ill pleased * with the task assigned him 
— * well pleased because he hoped he might 
thereby take off part of the odium he lay 
under for being so instrumental in promoting 
the Union, and ill pleased because he would 



be obliged to unsay many things he had for- 
merly advanced, and might perhaps offend 
the ministry. On the other hand, other 
people were diverted by seeing his lordship 
brought to this dilemma ' (Papers, p. 434). 
In moving for repeal, the grievances on which 
Findlater dwelt were that the Scottish privy 
council was abolished, that the treason laws 
of England were extended to Scotland, that 
the Scottish peers were incapacitated from 
being peers of Great Britain, and that the 
Scots had been subjected to the malt tax. 
The motion was lost by the small majority 
of four. Shortly afterwards Findlater was 
appointed keeper of the great seal of Scot- 
land. He also presided as chancellor in the 
court of session, where his accomplishments 
as a lawyer and his practical tact were of great 
service in the smooth despatch of business. 
Although indicating occasionally a certain 
sympathy with the Jacobites, he kept aloof 
from Jacobite intrigues. He died on 15 Aug. 
1730, at the age of sixty-six. A portrait of 
Seafield, by Kneller, has been engraved by 
Smith ; another, by Sir John B. de Medina, be- 
longs to the College of Surgeons, Edinburgh. 

By his wife Anne, daughter of Sir William 
Dunbar of Durn, Banffshire, bart., Findlater 
had three sons and two daughters. The sons 
were James, lord Deskford, who succeeded as 
fifth earl of Findlater and second of Sea- 
field, and was father of James, sixth earl of 
Findlater [q. v.]; William; and George, who 
passed advocate at the Scottish bar in 1723, 
and died unmarried in 1732. The daughters 
were Elizabeth, married to Charles, sixth earl 
of Lauderdale ; and Janet, married first to 
Hugh Forbes, eldest son and heir-apparent 
of Sir William Forbes of Craigievar, bart., 
and secondly to William Duff of Braco, 
afterwards Earl of Fife. 

' Seafield was/ says Lockhart, ' finely ac- 
complished, a learned lawyer, a just judge, 
courteous, and good natured, but withal so 
intirely abandon'd to serve the court measures, 
be they what they will, that he seldom or 
never consulted his own inclinations, but 
was a blank sheet of paper which the court 
might fill up with what they pleas'd. As he 
thus sacrificed his honour and principles, so 
he likewise easily deserted his friend when 
his interest (which he was only firm to) did 
not stand in competition. He made a good 
figure, and proceeded extremely well in the 
Parliament and Session, where he despatched 
business to the general satisfaction of the 
Judges ' (Papers, i. 53). This estimate may 
be accepted so far at least as it indicates 
wherein lay his special strength and weak- 
ness, but allowance must be made for the 
strong Jacobite bias of Lockhart. Macky 



V 



Ogilvy 



3 1 



Ogilvy 



wrote of him, ' He affects plainness and fami- 
liarity in his conversation, but is not sincere ; 
is very beautiful in his person, with a graceful 
behaviour, smiling countenance, and a soft 
tongue' (Memoirs of Secret Services, 181-2). 
[Carstares'H State Papers ; Lockhart Papers ; 
Marchmont Papers, ed. Rose ; Luttrell's Short 
Eolation ; Macky's Memoirs of Secret Serv'cos; 
Burnet's Own Time ; Crawford's Officers of State, 
pp. 246-9 ; Brunton and Haig'x Senators of the 
College of Justice, pp. 472-3 ; Douglas's Scottish 
Peerage (Wood), i. 586-7.] T. F. H. 

OGILVY, JAMES, sixth Eakl op Find- 
later and third Earl op Seafield (1714 ?- 
1770), eldest son of James, fifth earl of Find- 
later and second of Seafield, by Lady Eliza- 
beth Hay, second daughter of Thomas, sixth 
earl of Kinnoull, was born about 1714. 
While on foreign travel he made the ac- 
quaintance of Horace Walpole, who, in a 
letter to General Conway on 23 April 1740, 
wrote of him, * There are few young people 
have so good an understanding,' but referred 
to his ' solemn Scotchery ' as not a ' little 
formidable ' (Walpole, Letters, ed. Cun- 
ningham, i. 46). Before succeeding his 
father in 1764 he was known as Lord Desk- 
ford. From an early period he took an 
active interest in promoting manufactures 
and agriculture. In the parish of Deskford 
he opened, in 1752, a large bleachfield, and 
in Cullen he established a manufacture for 
linen and damask. From 1754 to 1761 he 
was one of the commissioners of customs for 
Scotland, and in 1765 he was constituted one 
of the lords of police. He was also a trustee 
for the improvement of fisheries and manu- 
factures, and for the management of the 
annexed estates in Scotland. By his example 
and encouragement he did much to promote 
advanced methods of agriculture in Banff- 
shire. He introduced turnip husbandry, and 
granted long leases to his tenants on condi- 
tion that within a certain period they should 
enclose their lands, and adopt certain im- 
proved methods of cropping. To prevent 
damage to young plantations on his estate, 
he agreed to give certain of his tenants, on 
the termination of their leases, every third 
tree, or its value in money. He died at 
Cullen House on 3 Nov. 1770. By his wife, 
Lady Mary, second daughter of John Murray, 
first duke of Atholl, he had two sons : James, 
seventh earl of Findlater and fourth earl of 
Seafield (d. 1811), the last earl of the Ogilvy 
line ; and John (d. 1763). 

[Douglas's Scottish Peerage, ed. Wood. i. 588 ; 
Horace Walpole's Letters; New Statistical Ac- 
count of Scotland, xiii. 166, 229, 235, 323; 
Cramond'8 Annals of Banff (New Spalding 
Club).] T. F. H. 



OGILVY, JOHN (Jl. 1592-1601), poli- 
tical adventurer, commonly called Powrie- 
Ogilvy, was descended from Sir Patrick 
Ogilvy, whose son Alexander, in the time of 
the Bruce, obtained the lands of Ogilvy and 
Easter Powrie. John was served heir of 
his father Gilbert in the lands and barony 
of Easter Powrie on 27 Aug. 1601 (Warden, 
Angus or Forfarshire, Dundee, 1886, v. 23). 
His sister Anne married Sir Thomas Erskine 
of Gogar, who was in 1619 created Earl of 
Kellie. 

Ogilvy came into notice as a young man. 
In 1592 he was selected, apparently by 
James VI, to be the bearer to foreign 
countries of a secret despatch, in which the 
Scottish king discussed the advantages and 
disadvantages of a combined attack with 
Philip II upon England in the summer of 
that year. Ogilvy was, however, prevented 
from going abroad at the time, ana the des- 
patch was subsequently found upon George 
Kerr on the discovery of the Spanish blanks 
in December 1593 (Hist. MSS. Comm. Hat- 
field MSS. iv. 214; Scottish Review, July 
1893, art. 'Spanish Blanks/ p. 23). 

In the following year Ogilvy, ' apparent of 
Poury,' together with John Ogilvy of Craig 
and Sir Walter Lindsay [q.v.], was proclaimed 
a traitor and ' trafficking papist ' (Reg. Privy 
Council, v. 172). He is next heard of in 
Flanders in 1595, when, professing to be an 
accredited agent of James, he entered into 
negotiations with the Scottish or anti- 
Spanish faction among the catholic exiles, 
and at the same time offered his services on 
behalf of King Philip to Stephen d'Ibarra, 
the Spanish secretary-at-war. From Flanders 
he went to Rome, and there presented to 
the pope, in the name of James VI, a peti- 
tion to which the king's seal was attached. 
In this document — ' Petitiones quredam 
Ser™ 1 Regis Scotorum quas a Sanct mo Patre 
Clemente Papa perimpleri exoptat ' (State 
Papers, Scotl. lviii. 83) — James promised sub- 
mission to the church of Rome, prayed for 
f>apal confirmation of his right to the Eng- 
isn throne, and for money in aid of his 
military enterprises. Ogilvy supported the 
petition by a paper of ' Considerations ' drawn 
up by himself to show the good disposition 
of the king towards catholics (ib. lviii. 84). 
Meanwhile he aroused the suspicions of the 
Duke of Sesa, the Spanish ambassador, with 
whom he intrigued in secret, and by Sesa's 
persuasion he went from Rome into Spain, 
accompanied by Dr. John Cecil, an English 
priest, who was then attached to the Spanish 
faction, and did not believe in the alleged 
catholic proclivities of James, or in the 
genuineness of Ogilvy's credentials. 



Ogilvy 



32 



Ogilvy 



Arriving in Toledo in May 1596, Ogilvy 
exhibited a letter of credit from the .king 
of Scotland, and a memorial in which 
James proposed an offensive and defensive 
alliance with Spain, and, as security for his 
own fulfilment of the terms of this treaty, 
offered to deliver his son, Prince Henry, into 
the hands of Philip. Cecil presented a 
counter memorial ; and this, together with 
the disclosure by d'lbarra of Ogilvy 's double 
dealings in Flanders, led to his imprisonment 
in Barcelona pending the confirmation of his 
commission by the king of Scotland. This 
confirmation does not appear to have been 
sent, while James denied to Queen Elizabeth 
that he had given Ogilvy any such commis- 
sion. Ogilvy was still in prison in August 
1598, when Erekine, his brother-in-law, 
arrived in Spain to intercede for him. He 
was back in Scotland in December 1600, 
and, under the alias of John Gibson, was in 
the pay of the English secretary, Sir Robert 
Cecil. He was shortly afterwards in cus- 
tody at Edinburgh, and in danger of his life 
as a traitor ; but in March he effected his 
escape, and, after writing to James a letter 
in which he denied having ever made use 
of the king's commission in either Flanders, 
Italy, or Spain, he seems to have slipped 
abroad, and is heard of no more. 

[Summary of the Memorials that John Ogilvy, 
Scottish baron, sent by the king of Scotland, 
gave to his catholic majesty, in favour of a 
League between the two kings ; and what John 
Ocill. priest, an Englishman, on the part of the 
Earls and other Catholic lords of Scotland, set 
forth to the contrary, in the city of Toledo, in the 
months of Mny and June 1596 ; printed, among 
Documents illustrating Catholic Policy (in the 
Miscellany, vol. xv. of the Publications of the 
Scottish History Society), by T. G-. Law; Bibl. 
Birch. Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 4120 ; State Papers. 
Scotl.lix. 6; Cal. State Papers, Scotl. ii. 60*, 
791-5, 799.] T. G. L. 

OGILVY or OGILVIE, Sir PATRICK, 
seventh Baron op Boyne (Jl. 1707), was 
the son of Sir Walter, sixth baron of Boyne, 
and succeeded his father in 1650. On 14 Oct. 
1681 he was named an ordinary lord of session, 
with the title of Lord Boyne, and at the same 
time received the honour of knighthood. In 
January 1686 he received a pension from the 
king. On 11 May of the same year he was 
insulted in the High Street of Edinburgh as 
he was returning from court by Campbell of 
Calder, who spat in his face, calling him 
rascal and villain. The court of session 
committed Campbell to prison in the Tol- 
booth, and laid the matter before the kin£, 
who directed that Campbell should ask his 
majesty's pardon and theirs, and particularly 



Lord Boyne's, on his knees. This he did on 
14 Sept. Ogilvy represented Banffshire in 
the Scottish parliament 1669-74, 1678, 1681- 
1682, 1685-6, in the convention of 1689, 
and from 1689 until 29 April 1693, when 
his seat was declared vacant because he had 
signed the assurance. Burnet states that 
he ' heard from some of the lords of Scot- 
land ' that on Queen Anne's accession to the 
throne the Jacobites sent up Ogilvy of Boyne, 
' who was in great esteem among them/ to 
propose to her ' the design of bringing the 
Pretender to succeed to the crown upon a 
bargain that she should hold it during her 
life ; ' and that ' when he went back he gave 
the party full assurance that she had ac- 
cepted it' (Oum Time, ed. 1838, p. 853). 
He is mentioned in 1705 in the Duke of 
Perth's instructions as one of those who 
had distinguished themselves by their loyalty 
to the exiled family since the revolution 
(Correspondence of Nathaniel HooJce, i. 230), 
and as favouring a descent on England (ib. 
ii. 25). In September 1707 he signed cre- 
dentials to his son James to treat with the 
pretender as to the means of his restoration 
to the throne (id. ii. 47). On account of 
debt he was ultimately compelled to sell the 
estate of Boyne. By his first wife, Mary, 
daughter of Sir James Grant of Grant, he 
had a son James, a very active Jacobite (cf. 
Correspondence of Nathaniel Hooke}, who 
ultimately settled in France ; and by his 
second wife, a daughter of Douglas of 
Whittinghame, he had Patrick, from whom 
the Ogilvy s of Lintrathen are descended. 

[Lauder of Fountain hall's Historical Notices ; 
Burnet's Own Time; Correspondence of Nathaniel 
Hooke (Roxburghe Club) ; Douglas's Baronage of 
Scotland, p. 289 ; Brunton and Haig's Senators 
of the College of Justice. T. F. H. 

OGILVY or OGILVIE, Sik WALTER 
(d. 1440), of Lintrathen, lord high treasurer 
of Scotland, was the second son of Sir Walter 
Ogilvy of Wester Powrie and Auchterhouse. 
The father was the ' gude Schir Walter 
Ogilvie ' of Wyntoun's ' Chronicle/ who was 
killed in 1392, with sixty of his followers, 
at Gasklune, near Blairgowrie, by a body of 
highlanders of the clan Donnochy. His 
mother was Isabel, daughter and sole heiress 
of Malcolm Ramsay, knight of Auchterhouse. 
The Ogilvys trace their descent from Gilbert, 
a younger son of Gilbride, first thane of An- 
gus, on whom the barony of Ogilvy was be- 
stowed by William the Lion. The eldest son 
of SirWalter of Auchterhouse is ' the gracious 
good Lord Ogilvy ' mentioned in the old bal- 
lad as ' of the best among ' those slain at the 
battle of Harlaw in 1411. 



O'Glacan 



33 



O'Glacan 



The second son, Walter, had a charter of 
various lands in the barony of Lintrathen 
from Archibald, earl of Douglas, which was 
•confirmed by Robert, duke of Albany, on 20 
Nov. 1406. He had also a ratification from 
Alexander Ogilvy of Ogilvy of the lands of 
Wester Powne on 2 Aug. 1428. On 8 June 
1424 he had a safe-conduct for a year to go to 
Inlanders {Cal. documents relating to Scot- 
land, 1367-1509, entry 962). After the arrests 
of the nobles at Perth in 1425 [see under 
Jambs I of Scotland] he was made lord high 
treasurer, and he was also one of the j ury who 
in the same year sat at the trial of Murdoch, 
duke of Albany, and his relatives. In 1426 
lie founded and endowed two chaplainries in 
the church of Auchter house for the safety 
of the souls of the king and queen, and of 
those who fell at the battle of Harlaw. 
With other Scottish commissioners, he had 
on 24 Jan. 1429-30 a safe-conduct to meet 
the English at Hawdenstank to redress 
complaints (t&. entry 1032). On 11 Dec. 1430 
he was appointed one of the special envoys 
to treat for the prorogation of a truce and a 
final peace with Henry, king of England (ib. 
entry 1037), and on 15 Dec. ne signed a truce 
with England for five years from 11 May 1431 
{ib. entry 1038). In 1431 he was appointed 
treasurer of the king's household, and was 
succeeded in the office of lord high trea- 
surer by John Myrton. He was one of those 
who, in 1434, attended the Princess Mar- 
garet into France on her marriage with the 
dauphin. By warrant of the king he erected 
the tower or fortalice of Airlie, Forfarshire, 
into a royal castle. He died in 1440. By 
Isabel de Durward, heiress of Lintrathen, 
he had two sons and a daughter. The sons 
were: Sir John of Lintrathen, his heir, 
whose son, Sir James Ogilvy of Airlie, was 
created by James IV on 28 April 1491 a 
peer of parliament by the title of Lord Ogilvy 
of Airlie ; and Sir Walter of Auchleven, 
whose eldest son, Sir James, was ancestor 
of the Ogilvys, earls of Findlater, and whose 
second son, Sir Walter Ogilvy of Boyne, was 
ancestor of the lords of Banff. The daughter, 
Giles, was married to Sir William Arbuth- 
nott of Arbuthnott. 

[Cal. Documents relating to Scotland ; Craw- 
ford's Officers of State, pp. 356-7; Douglas's 
Scottish Peerage, ed. Wood, i. 20.] T. F. H. 

O'GLACAN, NIAL (ft. 1629-1655), phy- 
sician, was a native of Donegal, and received 
some medical education in Ireland, probably 
(Preface to Tractatus de Peste) from a phy- 
sician of one of the hereditary meaical 
families [see MAcDoNLEvrlthus learning the 
work of an apothecary and a surgeon, as well 

VOL. XLII. 



as the Galenical knowledge necessary for a 
phvsician. In 1628 he treated patients in an 
epidemic of plague in the towns of Figeac, 
Fons, Capdenac, Cajarc, Rovergue, and 
Floyeac, between Clermont and Toulouse. 
He was encouraged in his work by the Bishop 
of Cahors ; and when the epidemic appeared in 
Toulouse he went thither, and was appointed 
to the charge of the xenodochium pestife- 
rorum, or hospital for those sick of the plague. 
In May 1629, while residing in the hospital, 
he published ' Tractatus de Peste seu brevis 
facilis et experta methodus curandi pestem 
authore Magistro Nellano Glacan Hiberno 
apud Tolosates pestiferorum pro tempore me- 
dico.' It was printed by Raymond Colo- 
meriu8, the university printer, and is dedi- 
cated to Giles de Masuyer, viscomte d'Am- 
brieres. In the preface he speaks of the fame 
of Ireland for learning in ancient times, and 
he notices the credit of the Irish physicians. 
The work itself is a piece of formal medi- 
cine, without cases or other observations of 
interest. 

O'Glacan remained in Toulouse, was ap- 
pointed physician to the king, and became 
professor of medicine in the university. In 
1646 he still describes himself as a professor 
at Toulouse, but in that year removed to 
Bologna, where he also gave lectures, and 
published * Cursus medicus, Prima pars: Phy- 
siological in six books. The second part, ' Pa- 
thological in three books, and the third part, 
' Semeiotica/ in four books, were published 
at Bologna in 1655. Part i. has two curious 
prefaces, one • lectori benevolo/ the other ' lec- 
tori malevolo.' Commendatory verses are 
Erefixed, and among those of part ii. are some 
y Gregory Fallon, a Connaughtman, who 
was at Bologna, and bv another countryman, 
the Rev. Philip Roche, S.J. Fallon says 
that O'Glacan is in Italy what Fuchsius 
was in Germany. The ' Cursus* begins with 
a discussion of the utility of medicine, of its 
nature, and of the several schools of medical 
thought, and then proceeds to lay down the 
whole system of the Galenists, without addi- 
tions from modern practice. In 1648 he 
edited, with the Bishop of Ferns and Sir 
Nicholas Plunket, ' Regni Hiberniae ad sanc- 
tissimum Innocentem X Pont. Max. Pyra- 
mides encomiast icse,' a series of laudatory 
poems in Latin addressed to the pope. The 
preface is by O'Glacan, and he mentions as 
his friends in Italy Francis O'Molloy fa. v.], 
the author of ' Lucerna Fidelium;' Peter 
Talbot, Gerard O'Fearail, and John O'Fahy. 
The only other ascertained incident of his 
life is that he visited Rome. 

[Works ; Codex Medicamentarius seu Pharma* 
copoea Tolosana, Toulouse, 1648.] N. M. 

D 



Oglander 



34 



Ogle 



OGLANDER, Sir JOHN (1585-1665), 
diarist, eldest son of Sir William Oglander 
(knighted in 1606) of Nunwell, near Brading, 
Isle of Wight, and West Dean, Sussex, by his 
first wife, Ann, daughter of Anthony Dilling- 
ton of Knighton, Isle of Wight, was born on 
12 May looo, at Nunwell, where his family, 
which was of Norman origin, had been settled 
since the Conquest. He matriculated from 
Balliol College, Oxford, on 8 July 1603, 
and spent three years there without taking 
a degree. He also spent three years at the 
Middle Temple, but was not called to the 
bar. In 1608 he succeeded to the family 
estates, and was placed on the commission of 
the peace. On 22 Dec. 1615 he was knighted 
by James I at Royston. In 1620 he was 
appointed deputy-governor of Portsmouth, 
and in 1624 deputy-governor of the Isle of 
Wight. He sat for'Yarmouth , Isle of W ight, 
in the parliaments of 1625, 1626, and 1628- 
1629, was commissioner of oyer and terminer 
for Hampshire in 1635, and sheriff of the 
same county from 1637 to 1639. During his 
shrievalty he displayed great zeal and acti- 
vity in the collection of ship-money. On the 
outbreak of the civil war lie adhered to the 
king, and was superseded in the deputy- 
governorship of the Isle of Wight by Colonel 
Carne, by whom, in June 1643, he was ar- 
rested as a delinquent and sent to London. 
There he was detained pending the investi- 

Stion of the charges against him by the 
ouse of Commons, and eventually was re- 
leased on giving a bond to remain within 
the lines of communication. From this 
bond he was discharged on 12 April 1645. 
A contribution of 500/. was levied upon his 
estate. He was among those who waited on 
Charles I to express their loyalty on the 
morrow of his arrival at Carisbrooke Castle, 
15 Nov. 1647. He was again arrested and 
brought to London in January 1650-1 on 
suspicion of treasonable designs, and was 
again released early in the following February 
on giving security to remain within the lines 
of communication. He died at Nunwell on 
28 Nov. 1655, and was buried in the family 
vault in Brading church, where his recum- 
bent effigy, in full armour, was restored in 
1874. 

Oglander married, on 4 Aug. 1606,Frances, 
fifth daughter of Sir George More [q. v.] of 
Loseley, by whom he had issue one son only, 
William, created a baronet by Charles II on 
12 Dec. 1665. The title became extinct by 
the death of Sir Henry Oglander, seventh 
baronet, in 1874; but the name Oglander 
was assumed by his son-in-law. 

Oglander's diary, containing much matter 
of historical and antiquarian interest, of 



which slight use was made by Sir Richard 
Worsley in his ' History of the Isle of 
Wight' (London, 1781), was edited in 1888 
from a transcript in the possession of the 
Rev. Sir W. H. Cope, bart., of Bramshill, 
Hampshire, with introduction and notes, by 
W. H. Long. 

[The Oglander Memoirs : extracts from the 
manuscripts of Sir J. Oglander, K.T., of Nun- 
well, Isle of Wight, ed. W. H. Long, London, 
1888, 4to; Fosters Alumni Oxon.; Berry'sConnty 
Genealogies, 4 Hants ; ' Addit. MS. 5524 f. 136 ; 
Wotton's Baronetage, vol. iii. pt. ii. pp.492-3 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1628-31, 1634-5, 1637-40, 
I 1644-5, 1651 ; Cal. Comm. for Advance of Money, 
1 pt. i. p. 444 ; Egerton MS. 2646, f. 277 ; Nichols's 
I Progresses of James I, p. 95 ; Metcalfe's Book 
' of Knights; Ashburnbam's Narrative, ii. 108; 
Commons' Journals, iii. 245, 435 ; Addit. MS. 
| 29319, ff. 69-73 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep., 
App. p. 552 ; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. ix. 17. 
\ 2nd ser. vii. 66, 5th ser. p. 460 ; Coll. Top. et 
| Gen. iii. 156 ; Hutchins's Dorset, i. 440 ; Manning- 
; and Bray's Surrey, i. 99 ; Woodward, Wilks, ana 
■ Lockhart's Hampshire ; Warner's Collections for 
I the History of Hampshire.] J. M. R. 

OGLE, Sib CHALONER (1681 P-1750), 
admiral of the fleet, born about 1681, was 
brother of Nathaniel Ogle, physician to the 
• forces under Marlborough, and apparently 
also of Nicholas Ogle, physician of the blue 
I squadron under Sir Clowdisley Shovell in 
1 1697. He entered the navy in July 1697 as a 
volunteer per order, or king's letter-boy, on 
board the Yarmouth with Captain Cleveland. 
He afterwards served in the Kestoration with 
Captain Foulis, in the Worcester and Suffolk, 
ana passed his examination on 11 March 
1701-2, being then twenty-one, according to 
his certificate. On 29 April 1702 he was 
promoted to be lieutenant of the Royal Oak, 
and on 24 Nov. 1703 to be commander of 
the St. Antonio. In April 1706 he was 
moved to the Deal Castle, which was cap- 
tured off Ostend on 3 July 1706 by three 
French ships. A court-martial, held on 
19 Oct., acquitted Ogle of all blame. He 
afterwards commanded the Queenborough ; 
on 14 March 1707-8 he was posted by Sir 
George Bynjj to the Tartar frigate, and in 
her he continued during the war, for the 
most part in the Mediterranean, where he 
made some valuable prizes (Charnock). In 

1716 he commanded the Plymouth in the 
Baltic under Sir John Norris [q. v.] ; and in 

1717 the Worcester, under Sir George 
Byng. 

In March 1719 he was appointed to the 
60-gun ship Swallow, and, after convoying 
the trade to Newfoundland, thence to the 
Mediterranean, and so home, was sent early 



Ogle 



35 



Ogle 



in 1721 to the coast of Africa. For several 
months the ship was disabled by the sick- 
ness of her men. On 20 Sept. Ogle wrote 
from Prince's Island that he had buried fifty 
men and had still one hundred sick. In 
November he was at Cape Coast Castle, 
where he received intelligence of two pirates 
plundering on the coast. He put to sea in 
search of them. At Whydah he learnt that 
they had lately captured ten sail, one of 
which, refusing to pay ransom, they had 
burnt, with a full cargo of negroes on board. 
On 6 Feb. 1721-2 he found them at anchor 
under Cape Lopez. One of the ships, com- 
manded by a fellow named Skyrm, slipped 
her cable in chase, mistaking the Swallow for 
a merchantman. When they had run out of 
earshot the Swallow tacked towards the 
pirate, and, after a sharp action, captured her. 
She then returned to Cape Lopez under a 
French ensign, and, eager for tne expected 
prize, the other pirate, commanded by Bar- 
tholomew Roberts [q. v.l, stood out to meet 
her. It was a disagreeable surprise when the 
Swallow hoisted the English flag and ran out 
her lower-deck guns. Roberts defended him- 
self with obstinate bravery, but when he was 
killed the pirates surrendered. The whole 
number of prisoners was 262, of whom 
seventy-five negroes were sold. Of the rest, 
seventy-seven were acquitted on their trial 
at CapeCoast Castle ; fifty-two were hanged; 
nineteen died before the trial ; twenty, sen- 
tenced to death, were sent for seven years 
in the mines ; the rest were sent to England 
to be imprisoned in the Marshalsea. Ogle's 
conduct in ridding the seas of this pest was 
highly approved, and on his return to Eng- 
land in April 1723 he received the honour 
of knighthood. He also received, as a 
special gift from the crown, the pirates' ships 
and effects, subject to the legal charges, and 
the payment of head-money to his officers 
and men ; the net value of tne proceeds was 
a little over 3,000/., and, thougn the officers 
and ship's company represented that it ought 
to be divided as prize-money, Ogle seems to 
have made gooa his contention that the 
captors of pirates were only entitled to head- 
money, and that the gift to him was per- 
sonal, to support the expenses of his title 
{Captains' Letters, O. 2). 

In April 1729 Ogle was appointed to the 
JBurford, one of the fleet gathered at Spit- 
head under the command of Sir Charles 
Wager [q. v.] ; in 1731 he commanded the 
Edinburgh in the fleet, also under Wager, 
which went to the Mediterranean ; and in 
1732 he was sent out to Jamaica as com- 
mander-in-chief [see Lestock, Richard]. In 
June 1739 he was appointed to the Augusta, 



and on his promotion to be rear-admiral of 
the blue, 11 July 1739, he hoisted his flag 
in her, and, with a strong reinforcement, 
joined Haddock in the Mediterranean [see 
Haddock, Nicholas], His stay there was 
short, and in the following summer he was 
third in command of the fleet under Sir 
John Norris. In the autumn he was ordered 
to take out a large reinforcement to Vice- 
admiral Vernon, whose exploit of 'taking 
Porto Bello with six ships ' had inflamed the 

fiublic with a desire for further achievement 
see Vernon, Edward, 1684-1757]. 

When Ogle joined Vernon at Jamaica in 
the middle of January 1742, the fleet num- 
bered thirty sail of the line, and, with some 
ten thousand soldiers, constituted by far the' 
largest force that had ever been assembled 
in those seas. The attack on Cartagena in 
March and April was, however, a disastrous 
failure, and other operations attempted were 
equally unsuccessful. Vernon and the general 
were notoriously on bad terms, and between 
the navy and the army there was a bitter 
feeling, which showed itself in an open 
quarrel between Ogle and Edward Tre- 
velyan, the governor of Jamaica. On 3 Sept. 
1742 Ogle was charged before the chief jus- 
tice of Jamaica with having assaulted Tre- 
velvan on 22 July. The jury decided that 
Ogle had been guilty of an assault, and there 
the matter ended, the governor, through the 
attorney-general, requesting that no judg- 
ment should be given {A True and Genuine 
Copy of the Trial of Sir ChaUmer Ogle, knt. 
. . . now published in order to correct the 
errors and supply the defect* of a Thing 
lately published called The Trial of £e., 
1743). 

On 18 Oct. 1742 Vernon sailed for Eng- 
land, leaving the command with Ogle. The 
fleet was too much reduced to permit of any 
operations against the coasts of the enemy, 
who, on the other hand, had no force at sea, 
and Ogle's work was limited to protecting 
the British and scourging the Spanish trade. 
The one circumstance that calls for mention 
is the trial of George Frye, a lieutenant of 
marines, for disobedience and disrespect, on 
15 March 1743-4. The court-martial, of 
which Ogle was president, found Frye guilty, 
and for that, and his ' great insolence and 
contempt shown to the court/ sentenced 
him to be cashiered, rendered incapable of 
holding a commission in the king's service, 
and to be imprisoned for fifteen years. The 
latter part of the sentence was afterwards 
pronounced illegal, and Frye obtained a 
verdict for false imprisonment against Ogle 
and the several members of the court-martial 
I [see Matnb, Perry]. Ogle was sentenced 

d2 



Ogle 



36 



Ogle 



to pay 800/. damages, which seems to have 
been eventually paid for him by the crown. 
On 9 Aug. 1743 Ogle was promoted to be 
vice-admiral of the blue, and on 19 June 
1744 to be admiral of the blue. He re- 
turned to England in the summer of 1745, 
and in September was president of the 
court-martial which tried sundry lieutenants 
and captains on a charge of misconduct in 
the action off Toulon on 11 Feb. 1743-4. 
With the later trials of the admirals Ogle 
had no concern, nor had he any further ser- 
vice. On 15 July 1747 he was advanced to 
be admiral of the white, and on 1 July 1749 
to be admiral and commander-in-chief, en- 
titled to fly the union flag at the main. He 
died in London on 11 April 1750 {Gent. 
Mag. 1750, p. 188). He was married, but 
seems to have died without issue. His por- 
trait is in the Painted Hall at Greenwich, 
to which it was bequeathed by his grand- 
nephew, Sir Charles Ogle [q. v.] Two 
mezzotint engravings by Faber and R. Tims 
are mentioned by Bromley. 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. iii. 402 ; official let- 
ters and other documents in the Public Record 
Office.] J. K. L. 

OGLE, Sib CHARLES (1775-1858), 
admiral of the fleet, eldest son of Admiral Sir 
ChalonerOgle(1727-1816),andgrandnephew 
of Sir Chaloner Ogle [q. v.], was born on 24 May 
1775, and entered the navy in 1787, on board 
the Adventure, with Captain John Nicholson 
Inglefield [q. v.] After uneventful service 
in different ships on the coast of Africa and 
home stations, he was made lieutenant into 
the Woolwich, in the West Indies, on 14 Nov. 
1793. In January 1794 he was moved into 
the Boyne, flagship of Sir John Jervis, and 
in May was appointed acting-captain of the 
Assurance. On 21 May 1795 he was con- 
firmed as commander of the Avenger sloop, 
from which he was moved to the Petrel, and 
on 11 Jan. 1796, in the Mediterranean, was 
posted by Jervis to the Minerve. During 
the following years he commanded the 
Meleager, Greyhound, and Egyptienne, for 
the most part in the Mediterranean. In 1805 
he commanded the Unit6 frigate, and in 1806 
was appointed to the Princess Augusta yacht, 
which he commanded till August 1815, 
when he took command of the Ramillies in 
the Channel. In November 1815 he com- 
manded the Malta at Plymouth, and in 1816 
the Rivoli at Portsmouth. By the death of 
his father on 27 Aug. 1816 he succeeded to 
the baronetcy. He was promoted to be rear- 
admiral on 12 Aug. 1819, was commander- 
in-chief in North America 1827-30, became 
vice-admiral 22 July 1830, admiral 23 Nov. 



1841, and was commander-in-chief at Ports- 
mouth 1845-8. He was promoted to be 
admiral of the fleet on 8 Dec. 1857, and died 
at Tunbridge Wells on 16 June 1858. Ogle 
married, first, in 1802, Charlotte Margaret, 
daughter of General Thomas Gage [q. v.] 
(she died in 1814, leaving issue two daugh- 
ters and a son, Chaloner, who succeeded to 
the baronetcy) ; secondly, in 1820, Letitia, 
daughter of Sir William Burroughs, bart. 
(she died in 1832, leaving issue one son, 
William, who succeeded as fifth baronet) ; 
thirdly, in 1834, Mary Anne, daughter of 
George Cary of Tor Abbey, Devon, already 
twice a widow (she died in 1842, without 
issue). 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biogr. i. 709 ; O'Byrne's 

Nav. Biogp. Diet. ; Return of Services in the 

Public Record Office; Journal of the Royal 

l Geographical Society, vol. xxix. p. exxxii ; Gent. 

Mag. 1858, ii. 189; Foster's Baronetage.] 

J. K. L. 
OGLE, CHARLES CHALONER (1851- 
1878), newspaper correspondent, fourth son 
of John Ogle of St. Clare, near Ightham, 
Sevenoaks, Kent, was born on 16 April 1851, 
and educated, with other pupils, under his 
father at St. Clare. He matriculated at the 
university of London in June 1869, and then 
devoted himself to the stud v of architecture, 
becoming a pupil of Frederick William Roper 
of 9 Adam Street, Adelphi, London. He 
was a contributor to the 'Builder/ and in 
1872 he both obtained a certificate for excel- 
lence in architectural construction and was 
admitted an associate of the Royal Institute 
of British Architects. Soon afterwards he 
visited Rome, and in August 1875 went for 
some months to Athens, where he worked 
in the office of Herr Ziller, the royal archi- 
tect. While thus engaged, the proprietors of 
the ' Times ' newspaper accepted an offer of 
his services as their special correspondent in 
the war between Turkey and Herzegovina 
and the neighbouring provinces, and he ac- 
companied the TurEish force against the 
Montenegrins. The letters written by Ogle 
from Montenegro and the Herzegovina, from 
Greece, from Crete, and from Tnessaly, are 
full of picturesque details, brightened by a 
kindly humour. While residing at Volo, on 
the gulf of Thessaly, Ogle learned, on 
28 March 1878, that an engagement was im- 
minent between the Turkish troops and the 
insurgents occupying Mont Pelion and the 
town of Macrynitza. He at once proceeded 
to the scene of action, without arms and 
with a cane in his hand. The battle took 
place, and was prolonged to the following 
day, when Ogle, unable to obtain a horse 
to return to Volo, slept at Katochori on 



X 



Ogle 37 

29 and 30 March. On 1 April his head- 
less body was found lying in a ravine, and 
identified by a scar on the wrist and a blood- 
stained telegram in his pocket-book ad- 
dressed to the * Times.' The body was taken 
on board H.M.S. Wizard, and conveyed to 
the Piraeus, where it was accorded a public 
funeral on 10 April. It is believed that 
Ogle was assassinated by order of the 
Turkish commander, Amouss Aga, in re- 
venge for reflections made on his pillaging 
a village. To disguise the murder, a report 
was circulated that the correspondent was 
aiding the insurgents. In a parliamentary 
paper, issued on 18 June, Ogle is blamed for 
great imprudence in venturing among the 
belligerents without necessity, and his death 
was attributed to a wound received while 
retreating with the insurgents after the 
second battle of Macrynitza ; but the correct- 
ness of these statements was strenuously 
denied by his friends. 

[Streit's M&noire concernant les details du 
meurtre commis contre la personne de Charles 
Ogle, 1878 ; Times, 2, 10, 11, 25 April, 19 June 
1878; Graphic, 1878, xvii. 401, with portrait; 
Illustrated London News, 13 April 1878, pp. 
329, 330, With portrait.] G. O. B. 

OGJJ5,GEORGEfl704-1746),translator, 
was the second son oi Samuel Ogle of Bows- 
den, Northumberland, M.P. for Berwick, and 
commissioner of the revenue for Ireland, by 
his second wife, Ursula, daughter of Sir John 
Markham, bart., and widow of the last Lord 
Altham. Samuel Ogle died at Dublin on 
10 March 1718 (Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
v. 169). In 1728 appeared, as an appendix 
to James Sterling's 'Loves of Hero and 
Leander/ ' some new translations ' made by 
the son George 'from various Greek authors.' 
To Ogle, ' an ingenious young gentleman/ 
the volume was dedicated. Ogle^ rendering 
of Anacreon had probably some influence 
on Moore ; but Moore, in his ' Journal ' (iv. 
144), denied a charge of plagiarism preferred 
against him on that ground in ' John Bull/ 
12 Sept. 1824 (O'Donoghue, Poets of Ire- 
land, pt. iii. p. 187). 

In 1737 Ogle published the first and only 
volume of ' Antiquities explained. Being a 
Collection of figured Gems, illustrated by 
similar descriptions taken from the Classics.' 
It is dedicated to the Duke of Dorset, and 
was based, he says, on a somewhat similar 
collection published in Paris in 1732. The 
book contains a well-executed engraving of 
each gem, with an explanation of its subject 
and illustrative quotations from Greek or 
Latin authors, witn translations into English 
verse. ' G ualt herus and Griselda, or the clerk 



Ogle 



of Oxford's Tale/ appeared in 1739. In 1741 
Ogle contributed to * Tales of Chaucer 
modernised by several hands.' It contains 
versions by Dryden, Pope, Betterton, and 
others. Another edition, in two volumes, ap- 
peared in 1742. Ogle's share in the work 
seems to have been the prologues to most of 
the tales, and the tales of the clerk, haber- 
dasher, weaver, carpenter, dyer, tapestry- 
maker, and cook. He also supplied a con- 
tinuation of the squire's tale from the fourth 
book of Spenser's * Faerie Queen.' This por- 
tion of the work — * Cambuscan, or the 
Squire's Tale' — was issued separately in 
1785. 

Ogle married the daughter and coheiress 
of Sir Frederick Twysden, bart., and died 
on 20 Oct. 1746. Their only child was 
the Right Hon. George Ogle (1742-1814) 
[q. v.l 

Ogle's literary aptitude was considerable, 
and he ranks high as a translator. Besides 
the works noticed, he published : 1. ' Basia ; 
or the Kisses/ 1731. 2. ' Epistles of Horace 
imitated/ 1735. 3. 'The Legacy Hunter. 
The fifth satire of the second book of Horace 
imitated/ 1737. 4. < The Miser's Feast. The 
eighth satire of the second book of Horace 
imitated, a dialogue between the author and 
the poet-laureate/ 1737. 

[Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ii. 1451 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1746, p. 558 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] E. L. 

OGLE, GEORGE (1742-1814), Irish 
statesman, born 14 Oct. 1742, was the only 
child of George Ogle (1704-1746) [q. vj He 
was brought up at Rossminoge, near Camo- 
lin, co. Wexford, under the care of one 
Miller, vicar of the parish, and was imbued 
through life with strong protestant feeling. 
But he had literary tastes, and composed, 
while at Rossminoge, two songs which are 
still popular. The earlier, called * Banna's 
Banks/ beginning 'Shepherds, I have lost 
my love/ was said to be inspired by Miss 
Stepney, of Durrow House, Queen's County, 
afterwards Mrs. Burton Doyne of Wells. 
The second, * Molly Asthore/ was written 
to celebrate the charms of Mary Moore, 
whose sister Elizabeth, daughter of Wil- 
liam Moore of Tinrahan, co. Wexford, subse- 
quently became his wife. Burns, writing to 
Thomson 7 April 1793, described Ogle's 
4 Banna's Banks ' as • heavenly/ and * certainly 
Irish ; ' but it was included inWood's ' Songs of 
Scotland/ 1851 . A gentleman of wealth and 
fashion, Ogle appears to have been a frequent 
visitor at Lady Miller's assemblies at Bath, 
and he contributed to the volume, ' Poetical 
Amusements at a Villa near Bath/ published 
by that lady's admirers in 1775 [see Milleb, 



Ogle 



38 



Ogle 



Anwa]. Some sonffs by him appear in Crof- ' 
ton Croker's * Popular Songs of Ireland * and 
in Samuel Lover's ' Poems and Ballads/ , 
where there is assigned to him the fine lyric 
known as ' Banish Sorrow.' He declined to 
publish any of his poems himself. 

In 1768 Ogle was elected to the Irish par- 
liament as member for Wexford county, and 
he sat for that constituency till 1796. A 
brilliant speaker, he delighted in ' splendid 
superlatives and figurative diction, whilst the 
spirit and energy of his manner corresponded 
to the glowing warmth of his expressions ' 
(Review of the Irish House of Commons). He 
joined the whig party , and, although in favour 
of extending to Ireland popular rights and 
a legislative independence, he was opposed 
to catholic emancipation, and was a staunch 
upholder of the established church. Before 
1778 he was challenged to a duel by Barney 
Coy le, a whisky distuler and member of the 
catholic board, on the ground that he had 
publicly said that ' a papist could swallow a 
false oath as easily as a poached egg. 9 Eight 
shots were exchanged, out the combatants 
remained unhurt. Ogle declared that the re- 
mark which led to the encounter had been 
mi8reported, and he had referred not to 
' papists/ but to ' rebels.' Shortly afterwards 
he publicly stated that 'some newspapers 
had misrepresented his sentiments on a for- 
mer debate, on bringing in a bill to relax the 
popery laws, and had put words into his 
mouth which he never said, particularly that 
he hated an Irish papist, which was foreign 
to his thoughts. He hated no man on 
account of his faith' (Hibernian Journal, 
1 June 1778). In 1779 he attacked Fox and 
the opposition in England for not resisting 
with greater vivacity Lord North's coercive 
policy in Ireland. Fox wrote to the Duke 
of Leinster explaining the difficulties of the 
parliamentary situation at Westminster, and 
expressed especial regret at Ogle's dissatis- 
faction, ' because I have always heard that 
he is a very honest man and a good whig ' 
(Charlemont Papers in Hist. MSS. Comm. 
12th Rep. x. 370). In 1779 Ogle joined 
the association called the Monks of St. 
Patrick. In 1782 he became a colonel 
in the Irish volunteers, actively supported 
that movement, and strongly asserted the 
claim of Ireland to legislative independence. 
But when the national convention assembled 
at Dublin under Lord Charlemont's presi- 
dency, in November 1783, Ogle is said to 
have delivered a message purporting to come 
from Lord Kenmare to the effect that the 
catholics of Ireland were satisfied with the 
privileges they had already obtained, and de- 
sired no more (England, Life of GLeary, 



E. 109). Kenmare at once denied that he 
ad authorised the delivery of such a mes- 
sage. According to later accounts, Sir Boyle 
Roche was responsible for the incident, but 
the contemporary reports saddle Ogle alone 
with the responsibility for the ruse. In 1783 
Ogle was admitted to the Irish privy council, 
and in the following year obtained the patent 
place of registrar of deeds at Dublin, at a 
salary of 1,300/. a year. The step was taken 
' from some disarrangement of his family 
affairs, as it is supposed,' but his constituents 
were content, ana no difference appeared in 
his political action. His zeal for wise reform 
was not diminished ; and in April 1786, when 
the relations of landlords and protestant 
clergy to the tenants were under discussion, 
he described the landlords as ' great extor- 
tioners ' (Frotjde, English in Ireland, ii. 
469). In 1789 he opposed the English go- 
vernment's proposals tor a regency. In Fe- 
bruary 1793 he denounced Hobart's Catholic 
Relief Bill, and prophesied that the admission 
of catholics to political power must lead 
either to separation or to a legislative union 
(Leckt, vi. 568). In 1796, when he became 

fovernor of Wexford, he retired from the 
Louse of Commons and lived mainly on his 
estate, Bellevue, co. Wexford. But in the 
disturbed period of 1798 he consented to re- 
enter parliament as member for Dublin. Al- 
though he voted against the legislative union 
in 1800, he was returned to the united par- 
liament of 1801 as the representative of 
Dublin, and finally retired in 1804. He 
died at Bellevue, co. Wexford, on 10 Aug. 
1814. A statue to his memory, by John 
Smyth, was placed in St. Patrick's Cathe- 
dral, Dublin, at a cost of 130/. He had no 
children. 

His will, dated 26 Sept. 1798, and wit- 
nessed by John Ilely-Hutchinson and John 
Swift Emerson, bequeaths his body to the 
churchyard of Ballycarnew, to repose beside 
his late wife. He named as executor his 
nephew, George Ogle Moore, afterwards 
M.P. for Dublin in 1826 and 1830, who in- 
herited his property. 

[Plowden's Hist, of Ireland ; Crokers Songs 
of Ireland ; Lover's Poems ; Duffy's Ballad 
Poetry; original will, Record Office, Dublin; 
O'Donoghue's Poets of Ireland ; Sir Jonah Bar- 
rington's Personal Sketches; information kindly 
supplied by Miss Ogle Moore ; Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. ii. 49; Hardy's Earl of Charlemont; 
A Review of the Irish House of Commons, Lon- 
don, 1 795 ; Sketches of Irish Political Characters, 
London, 1799; Cor nwallis Correspondence ; Fitz- 
patrick's Secret Service under Pitt; Fronde's 
History of the English in Ireland ; Lecky's Hist, 
of Ireland.] W. J. F. 



Ogle 

OGLE, JAMES ADEY (1792-1857), 
physician, was born on 22 Oct. 1792 in Great 
Kussell Street, London, where his father, 
Richard Ogle, had a large practice as a gene- 
ral practitioner. In 1808 James was sent to 
Eton, at that time under the rule of Dr. Joseph 
Goodall [q. v.] He stayed here only two years, 
and in Lent term 1810 entered as a commoner 
ofTrinity College,Oxford, obtaining a scholar- 
ship in the following year. In Easter term 
1813 he obtained a first class in mathematics. 
Adopting his father's profession, he com- 
menced his medical studies at the Windmill 
Street school. On the proclamation of peace 
in 1814 he availed himself of the opening 
of the continent, and in the course of that 
and some succeeding years he visited many 
of the most celebrated medical schools in 
France, Italy, and Germany. He also passed 
(as was customary in those days) some 
winter sessions in Edinburgh, studying under 
Professors Gregory, Duncan, Hamilton, Gor- 
don, Home, and Jamieson ; and, through his 
Eton and Oxford acquaintance, gained ad- 
mission to the intellectual society of the 
northern capital. Returning to London, he 
pursued his medical studies as a pupil of the 
Middlesex, and subsequently of St. Bartho- 
lomew's, Hospital, and proceeded to the de- 
grees of M.A. and M.B. at Oxford in 1816 
and 1817 respectively. Settling in Oxford, 
he graduated M.D. in 1820, and was ap- 
pointed mathematical tutor of his old college 
(Trinity) in the same year. One of his pupils 
was John Henry (afterwards Cardinal) New- 
man [q. v.], with whom he maintained an in- 
timate friendship in after life, though he did 
not belong to his theological party. He was 
elected F.R.C.P. in 1822, physician to the 
Radcliffe Infirmary and to the Warneford 
Lunatic Asylum at Oxford in 1824, Aldrich 
professor of medicine in the university in 1824, 
public examiner in 1825, F.R.S. in 1826, and 
clinical professorof medicine in 1830. In 1835 
he was associated with Dr. Kidd and Dr. Dau- 
beny in a revision of the university statutes 
regulating medical degrees, and obtained the 
institution of a public examination for the 
degree of M.B. 

In 1841 appeared Ogle's only publica- 
tion, ' A Letter to the Reverend the War- 
den of Wadham College, on the System of 
Education pursued at Oxford ; with Sug- 
gestions for remodelling the Examination 
Statutes.' This pamphlet is noteworthy as 
containing the first suggestion of a natural 
science school at Oxford, afterwards esta- 
blished by a statute proposed in 1851 by Sir 
H. W. Acland. He anticipated also another 
change, by his proposal that ' candidates for 
admission to the university should have their 



39 



Ogle 



attainments tested in limine 1 hy i an examina- 
tion of the same character as that we now term 
Responsions.' Ogle's successful professional 
career was markea by his delivering the Har- 
veian oration in 1844, and by his appointment 
as regius professor of medicine at Oxford by 
Lord John Russell in 1851, in succession to 
Dr. John Kidd [q. v.] He was president of 
the Provincial Medical Association at its 
meeting at Oxford in 1852, and was exa- 
miner in the new school of natural science in 
1854-5. He died of apoplexy, after an ill- 
ness of thirty hours, at the vicarage, Old 
Shoreham, the residence of his son-in-law, 
James Bowling Mozley [q. v.], on 25 Sept. 
1857 ; he was buried in St. Sepulchre's ceme- 
tery at Oxford. A portrait, by S. Lane, R. A., 
is now in the possession of his son. An en- 
graved portrait is prefixed to a memoir in the 
* Medical Circular/ 28 July 1852. 

Ogle was much esteemed as a man of 
high professional and private character. His 
house at Oxford was the rendezvous of a 
wide circle of friends. By nature cautious, 
he was inclined to adhere to the older tra- 
ditions of his profession, from the active 
practice of which he withdrew in his later 
years, although attending old friends and 
giving gratuitous advice to the poor. But 
he offered no opposition to the more modern 
developments of scientific study at the in- 
firmary and in the university, which were 
the subject of keen controversy at the time. 

In 1819 Ogle married Sarah, younger 
daughter of Jeston Homfray, esq., of Broad- 
waters, near Kidderminster. She died in 
1835, leaving four sons and five daughters, 
one of whom was wife of James Bowling 
Mozley. The third son, Dr. William Ogle, 
was formerly superintendent of statistics in 
the registrar-general's office. 

[London and Prow Med. Directory, 1858, 
p. 809 ; Med. Times and Gazette, 1857, ii. 385 ; 
Lancet, 1857, ii. 381 ; Brit. Med. Journ. 1857, 
p. 831 ; Med. Circular and Gen. Med. Advertiser, 
1852, p. 281 ; Newman's Apologia, ed. 1882, 
p. 236; Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878, iii. 245; 
family information ; personal knowledge.] 

W. A. G. and E. H. M. 

OGLE, Sie JOHN (1569-1640), military 
commander, was fifth son of Thomas Ogle of 
Pinchbeck, Lincolnshire (d. 3 May 1574), by 
Jane (d. 2 Sept. 1574), daughter of Adlard 
Welby of Gedney, Lincolnshire. The eldest 
son, Sir Richard Ogle, knighted on 23 April 
1603, was sheriff of Lincolnshire in 1608, 
and died insolvent in the Fleet in 1627. His 
portrait is at Ayscoughfee Hall. Born at 
Pinchbeck, John was baptised there on 
28 Feb. 1568-9. Devoting himself to the 
profession of arms, he became in 1591 ser- 



S' 



Ogle 



40 



Ogle 



geant-major-general under Sir Francis Vere 
in the Low Countries, and remained on active 
service there for nearly thirty years. On 2 July 
1600 he took part, as lieutenant-colonel under 
Sir Francis V ere, in the great battle of Nieu- 
port. In the retreat of the English at the 
opening of the engagement, he helped to 
rescue Vere, who had been wounded. After- 
wards he rallied the English force, and, re- 
newing the fight, finally drove the enemy 
back. Ogle was also with Vere while the 
latter was besieged in Ostend. In December 
1601, when Vere desired negotiations with 
the Spanish besiegers, Ogle was sent to the 
camp of the Archduke Maurice as hostage 
for the safety of the Spanish envoys who 
were sent to Vere's quarters. Dr. William 
Dillingham included in his ' Commentaries 
of Sir Francis Vere' (1057) Ogle's accounts 
of the last charge at the battle of Nieuport, 
and of the parley at Ostend. 

During a brief stay in England in 1603, 
Ogle was knighted at Woodstock (10 Dec.), 
but he soon returned to the Low Countries, 
and actively helped to recover Sluvs from 
the Spaniards in April 1604. With the other 
English colonels, Sir Horace Vere and Sir 
Edward Cecil, Ogle had frequent differences 
of opinion ; but his energy and politic temper 
were fully recognised by the States-General 
and the stadtholder, Prince Maurice, who in 
1610 nominated him to the responsible office 
of governor of Utrecht. That city was at the 
time showing those first signs of discontent 
with the policy of Prince Maurice and the 
States-General which led, a few years later, 
to serious internal commotion throughout the 
Dutch provinces. And one of Ogle 8 earliest 
duties was to suppress a conspiracy which 
had for its object the seizure 01 himself and 
the overpowering of his garrison. W T hen 
Barneveldt, the leader of the party opposed to 
Prince Maurice, gained a position of influence 
in Utrecht, Ogle hesitated to take any strong 
measures against him, because he had been a 
friend and admirer of Ogle's former chief, Sir 
Francis Vere. But in 1618, when urged by 
Barneveldt's supporters to place his soldiers 
at their disposal, ne deliberately refused. His 
attitude had not, however, been sufficiently 
decisive, in the earlier stages of the move- 
ment, to warrant his continuance in his office, 
and before the year closed he was succeeded 
as governor by Sir Horace Vere (cf Motlet, 
Life of Barneveldt, i. 164, ii. 230-1; Wage- 
naab, Vad. Hist. x. 31, 220-94). Shortly 
afterwards he finally left the Low Countries. 

In consideration of his services abroad, 
James I made Ogle a grant of arms on 11 Jan. 
1614-15. While in Holland he had not wholly 
neglected affairs at home, and was one of the 



most enthusiastic members of the Virginia 
Company. His name appears as one 01 the 
promoters in both the second (23 May 1609) 
and third (March 1612) charters of the com- 
pany. On his return to England he was re- 
admitted a member, and he joined the council 
in 1623. In the same year Henrv, lord de la 
Warr, transferred to him three snares in the 
company (Brown, Genesis, j)j>. 212, 644). In 
April 1624 Ogle was appointed by James I a 
member of a new and important council of 
war, which represented all the available mili- 
tary knowledge of the day. The immediate 
business of the council was to consider Eng- 
land's intervention in the thirty years' war, 
but Ogle was largely occupied in surveying 
the fortifications on the sea-coast. In 1625- 
he was present at James I's funeral (Nichols, 
Progresses, iii. 1043). Shortly afterwards he 
undertook, with other speculators, the task 
of draining the level of Hatfield Chace in 
Yorkshire. The venture proved unremune- 
rative, and dwellers in tne neighbourhood 
petitioned the council of York in 1634 for 
the arrest of Ogle and his partners, owing to 
their failure to complete the operations. At 
the same time, 'with a purpose rather to 
mend his fortunes than to require his attend- 
ance/ Ogle received, with the approval of 
Lord-deputy Went worth, a captain's com- 
mission in the army employed in Ireland 
(Strafford Papers, i. 107). But when he 
claimed pay, amounting in May 1638 te 
1,464/. lis., for merely nominal services^ 
Wentworth declined to recognise the de- 
mand, despite the favour extended by the 
king to Ogle's petition (ib. ii. 201 ; Cal. State 
Papers, 1637-8, p. 427). 

Ogle was buried in Westminster Abbey on 
17 March 1639-40 (Chester,^. Westmin- 
ster Abbey, p. 134). His burial in the abbey 
is also noted in the parish register of St. Peter- 
le-Poer, London. His will, dated 6 Dec 
1628, was proved on 15 July 1640 (P. C. C. 
105, Coventry). His widow, Elizabeth,, 
daughter of Cornelius de Vries of Dordrecht, 
was the executrix. On 11 May 1622 a grant 
of denization was made to Lady Elizabeth,, 
Ogle's wife, and to John, Thomas, Cornelius,, 
and Dorothy, his children, all of whom were 
born in the Low Countries (Cal. 1619-23, 
p. 390). Among the archives of the House 
of Lords is a draft bill (dated 1626) for na- 
turalising Ogle's wife, four sons, and seven 
daughters (Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. p. 
122) ; this bill did not become law. 

An engraved portrait by William Faithorne 

appears in Dillingham's 'Commentaries of 

Vere ' (1657, p. 106), and is reproduced in 

Brown s ' Genesis of the United States ' (ii.. 

! 691). A black patch covers the left eye. 



X 



Ogle 



41 



Ogle 



The elde8t8on, Sir John Ogle of Pinchbeck, 
was knighted at Oxford on 2 Feb. 1645-6 ; 
and, dying unmarried on 26 March 1663, was 
buried in St. John the Baptist Chapel of 
Westminster Abbey (Chester, p. 168). A 
second son, Thomas (d. 1702), was knighted 
in 1660, and became governor of Chelsea 
Hospital in 1696. Of Ogle's seven daugh- 
ters, Livina was wife of Sir John Man- 
wood ("q. v.], the judge. The names of three 
other daughters — Utricia or Eutretia (1606- 
1642), Trajectina, and Henerica — comme- 
morated his connection with the Low Coun- 
tries. 

[Pedigree by Mr. Everard Green, F.S.A., in 
Genealogist, i. 321 ; Gardiner's History ; Gal. 
State Papers, 1590-1640 ; Markham's Fighting 
Veres, passim ; Van der Aa's Biograph. Woor- 
denboek der Nederlander, xiv. 58.] S. L. 

OGLE, JOHN (1647P-1686P), gamester 
and buffoon, commonly known as 'Jack 
Ogle ' or • Mad Ogle/ the son of respectable 
and well-to-do parents, was born at Ashbur- 
ton in Devonshire, and educated at Exeter. 
He lost his father when young, and, inherit- 
ing near 200/. per annum upon coming of age, 
went up to London, dissipated his estate, and 
gained notoriety by his duels, his licentious 
pranks and low humour. His sister, who, like 
himself, received a good education, became a 
gentlewoman to the Countess of Inchiquin, 
and subsequently mistress to the Duke of 
York. She may have been the Anne Ogle, maid 
of honour, with whom Pepys had the felicity 
of dining in 1669, but whom Roscommon, in 
his * Faithful Catalogue of Eminent Ninnies/ 
described as ' lewd Ogle/ Through her in- 
fluence Ogle obtained a saddle in the first 
troop of horse-guards during the colonelcy 
of the Duke of Monmouth ( 1668-1679). His 
necessities precluded him from maintaining 
a horse ana other proper equipments of his 
own, and there were many ludicrous stories 
of the shifts to which he was reduced in 
order to appear on parade. Steele, in the 
'Tatler' (No. 132), describing the society of 
the Trumpet tavern, mentions how on enter- 
ing the room the company ' were naming a 
red petticoat and a cloak, by which I knew 
that the Bencher had been diverting them 
with a story of Jack Ogle/ The bencher in 
question, writes Steele, ' the greatest wit of 
our company next myself, frequented in his 
youth the ordinaries about Charing Cross, 
and pretends to have been intimate with 
Jack Ogle. ... If any modern wit be men- 
tioned, or any town frolic spoken of, he 
shakes his head at the dulness of the present 
age, and tells us a story of Jack Ogle/ The 
town residence of the ' Captain/ as Ogle called 



himself, was Waterman's Lane, Whitefriars, 
a well-known hotbed of rascality. Accord- 
ing to Theophilus Lucas, he lost by cock- 
fighting what he gained at the gaming-table 
or in less creditable fashion. His excesses- 
killed him in or about 1685, in his thirty- 
ninth year. His name was long a byword for 
eccentric profligacy, his * diverting humours ' 
beingpretixed to such favourite * cracks ' as 
the ' Frolicks of Lord Mohun ' and ' Charles II 
and his Three Concubines/ The British 
Museum possesses a copy of his ' Humours ' 
in a chap-book printed for the Travelling- 
Stationers at Warrington in 1805. His por- 
trait has been engraved. 

[Eccentric Magazine, i. 192-6 ; Lucas's Me- 
moirs of Gamesters, 183-92 ; Evans's Cat. of 
Engraved Portraits, p. 254 ; Granger's Biogr. 
Hist. 1779, iv. 199.] T. S. 

OGLE, OWEN, second Bakon Oglb 
(1439P-1485P), eldest son of Robert Ogle, 
first baron OgleTq. v.], and Isabel, heiress of 
Sir Alexander lurkby of Kirkby Ireleth in 
Furness, though about thirty years of age at 
his father's death in 1469, was not summoned 
to parliament until 1483 (Dttgdale, Baro- 
nage, i. 263). Ogle was present on the royal 
side at the battle of Stoke in 1486, and in 
1493 or 1494 he, with other northern barons, 
accompanied Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey, 
to relieve Norham Castle, which the Scots- 
were besieging. There is no record of his 
being summoned to parliament after Septem- 
ber 1486. By his wife Eleanor, daughter of 
Sir William Hilton, he left a son Ralph, who 
succeeded him as third Baron Ogle, and in 
October 1509 received a writ of summons to 
the first parliament of Henry VHI. A younger 
brother of Owen, called John, was the founder 
of the Lancashire branch of the family settled 
at Whiston, close to Prescot ; that branch 
was in the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury represented by an heiress, who car- 
ried the estate into the family of Case of 
Huyton ; in their possession it still remains 
(Geegson, Portfolio of Fragments, p. 183, ed. 
1817). 

On the death of Cuthbert, seventh lord 
Offle, without male issue, in 1597, the barony 
fell into abeyance between his two daughters, 
Joan and Catherine. But Joan, who was 
wife of the seventh Earl of Shrewsbury, died 
in 1627. Thereupon Catherine, then widow 
of Sir Charles Cavendish, was by letters 

Sitent, dated 4 Dec. 1628, declared to be 
aroness Ogle ; and on her death next year 
she was succeeded in the ancient barony by 
her son, William Cavendish, in whose favour 
a new barony of Ogle of Bothal had been 
created in 1620. He was further created Ear 



Ogle 



42 



Ogle 



of Ogle and Duke of Newcastle in March 
1664 [see Cavendish, William, Duke op 
Newcastle], His son, by the famous Mar- 
garet, duchess of Newcastle, died without 
male issue in 1691, and the barony of Ogle 
is in abeyance among the descendants and 
representatives of his three daughters — Mar- 
garet, who married John Holies, earl of Clare, 
and afterwards duke of Newcastle ; Cathe- 
rine, married to Thomas, earl of Thanet ; and 
Arabella, who married Charles, earl of Sun- 
derland. Bothal Castle went to Margaret, 
and has descended to the Duke of Portland. 

[Dugdale's Baronage ; Nicolas's Historic Peer- 
age, ed. Courthope ; Archaeologia iEliana, xiv. 
296.] J. T-T. 

OGLE, Sir ROBERT de (d. 1362), 
soldier, was head of a Northumberland family 
long settled at Ogle in the parish of Whalton, 
eight miles south-west of Morpeth. The 
family rose to importance in consequence 
of the border warfare with Scotland. When 
David Bruce penetrated as far as Newcastle 
in August 1341 , Ogle distinguished himself by 
effecting the capture of five Scottish knights, 
and in the same year Edward III gave him 

Sjrmission to castellate his manor-house at 
gle, together with the privilege of free 
warren on his demesne lands (Wtstojts, 
Chronicle, ii. 467 ; Archaologia Ai liana, xiv. 
15,360; Dugdale, Baronage, ii. 262). Some 
remains of Ogle Castle, which was surrounded 
bv two moats, are still to be seen. Ogle 
shared with John de Kirkby [q. v.], bishop of 
Carlisle, the honours of the resistance to the 
Scottish foray into Cumberland in 1345, when 
Sir William Douglas, the Knight of Lid- 
desdale, burnt Carlisle and Penrith (Wal- 
8DTGHAM, i. 266). In a skirmish with a de- 
tachment of the invaders, in which the bishop 
was unhorsed, Ogle ran the Scottish leader 
Alexander Stragan (Strachan) through the 
body with his lance, but was himself severely 
wounded. He fought at the battle of Neville s 
Cross, or Durham, as it was officially called, 
on 17 Oct. 1346, and took three prisoners — 
the Earl of Fife, Henry de Ramsay, and 
Thomas Boyd {Fcedera, y. 533). There is a 
tradition tnat the captive king David was 
taken in the first place to Ogle Castle. 

Ogle was in command at Berwick as lieu- 
tenant of William, lord Greystock, who was 
with the king in France, when the Scots 
took the town by surprise on the night of 
6 Nov. 1355 (Dugdale, i. 741). He made a 
brave resistance, in which two of his sons 
fell, and succeeded in holding the castle 
till help came (Rot. Pari. iii. 11). Grey- 
stock was condemned to forfeiture of life and 
property, but was afterwards pardoned on 



pleading that he had the king's orders to go 
to France. Ogle died in 1362 {Cal. Inquisi- 
tionum post mortem, ii. 254). His son Robert, 
who predeceased him, married Ellen, only 
child and heiress of Sir Robert Bertram of 
Bothal, three miles east of Morpeth, who in 
1343 obtained a license to build the castle 
there. A splendid gatehouse, adorned with 
contemporary shields of arms, still remains 
{ArcTueologia jEliana, xiv. 283 seq.) Their 
son Robert, who succeeded his grandfather, 
was under age, and John Philipot [q. v.] be- 
came his guardian (Dugdale, ii. 262 ; but cf. 
Cal. Inquis.post mortem, ii. 288, 319). Bothal 
Castle came to him on the death of his mother's 
third husband, David Holgrave, in 1405 or 
1406, and he immediately settled it upon his 
younger son, John, who had taken his grand- 
mother's surname of Bertram. But the day 
after Ogle's death on 31 Oct. 1409, his elder son, 
Sir Robert, laid siege to it, and drove out his 
brother {Rot. Pari. iii. 629 ; Hodgson, His- 
tory of Northumberland, ii. ii. 170). Bertram 
brought the matter before parliament, and 
the castle remained in his family until it be- 
came extinct in the direct male line. This 
was before 1517, when the fourth Lord Ogle 
styled himself 'lord of Ogle and Bottell.' 
Robert, first lord Ogle [q.v.J, however, seems 
to have been at least temporarily in posses- 
sion in October 1465. 

[Rotuli Parliamentorum ; Calendarium In- 
quisitionum post mortem, ed. Record Commis- 
sion ; Rymer's Fcedera, original edition ; Wal- 
singham's Historia Anglicana in the Rolls Ser. ; 
Wyntoun's Chronicle in the Historians of Scot- 
land; Dugdale s Baronage; Nicolas's Historic 
Peerage, ed. Courthope ; Hogdson's Northum- 
berland ; Archaeologia ^Eliana ; Hexham Priory 
(Surtees Soc.) ; Calendarium Rotulorum Pa- 
tentium, p. 229, and Calendarium Rotulorum 
Originalium, p. 301.] J. T-T. 

OGLE, ROBERT, first Babon Oglb 
(d. 1469), was son of Sir Robert Ogle of 
Ogle, near Morpeth in Northumberland, and 

Sreat-great-grandson of the Sir Robert de 
gle [q. v.] who fought at Neville's Cross. 
His mother, according to Dugdale, was Maud, 
daughter of Sir Robert Grey of Horton, near 
Ogle; but others make her a daughter oi 
Sir Thomas Grey of Heton, near Wooler, 

] and a granddaughter of the first Earl of 
Westmorland (Gregson, Portfolio of Frag- 
ments relating to the County of Lancaster, 
p. 183). 

| Ogle's father, who had been much em- 

' ployed in negotiations with Scotland, died 
in 1436 or 1437, and the Sir Robert Offle 

! who was commissioned, along with Sir Jonn 
Bertram, in April of the later year to settle 

| some disputed questions with the Scottish 



Ogle 



43 



Oglethorpe 



representatives, may have been the son 
(Foedera, x. 695). One matter still in dis- 
pute in 1488 was the question of the com- 
pensation due to Ogle on account of his 
having been seized and held to ransom by 
the Scots in time of truce between 1426 and 
1435 (Pot Pari. v. 44 ; Ordinances of the ! 
Privy Council, v. 93, 162,167). It was agreed ' 
that Ogle should be indemnified with a 
Scottish ship which had been seized at New- j 
castle ; but this was found to have been sold 
by the admiral or his lieutenant, and Ogle 
was involved in a dispute with the latter, 
which was not ended until 1442. | 

In 1438 Ogle was sheriff of Northumber- 
land, and in charge of the east march of Scot- ! 
land until a warden was appointed (tfc. v. 100; 
Dugdale, ii. 262). Little is then heard of 
him until 1452, when he was bailiff and 
lieutenant of Tyndale (Ord. Privy Council, 
v. 126). Three years later Ogle sided with 
the Yorkists when they took up arms, and 
brought six hundred men from the marches 
to the first battle of St. Albans. He pro- 
bably came in the train of the Earl of War- j 
wick, who was warden of the west march ; 
and one account of the battle gives to Ogle 
the credit of the movement by which the j 
Yorkists broke into the town, but this feat is I 
ascribed in other versions to Warwick (Pas- 
ton Letters, i. 332). Ogle was one of the 
commissioners appointed by the victorious 
party to raise money for the defence of Calais 
(Ord. Privy Council, v. 244). Shortly after 
Towton he and Sir John Conyers were re- 
ported to be besieging Henry VI in a place 
in Yorkshire ' called Coroumbr ; such a name 
it hath, or much like ' (Paston Letters, ii. 7). 
TTift services to the Yorkist cause did not go 
unrewarded. Edward IV on 26 July 1461 
summoned him to his first parliament as 
Baron Ogle, and invested him (8 Aug.) with 
the wardenship of the east marches, lately held 
by his great Lancastrian neighbour, the Earl 
oi Northumberland, who was killed at Tow- j 
ton. With the wardenship went the offices 
of steward and constable of the forfeited 
Percy castles and many of the earl's lord- 
ships (Dugdale). 

In November he was entrusted with the 
negotiations for a truce with Scotland, and 
in the January following received a further 
grant of the lordship of Kedesdale and castle 
of Harbottle in mid-Northumberland, for- 
feited by Sir William Tailboys of Kvme in 
Lincolnshire, afterwards called Earl of Kyme, 
who was executed after the battle of Hexham 
in 1464 (Dugdale, i. 263; Waekwobth, 
p. 7; Pot. Pari. v. 477). To these were added 
other forfeited lands in Northumberland. In 
October 1462 Ogle distinguished himself in 



the dash upon Holy Island, which resulted in 
the capture of all the French leaders who had 
come over with Margaret of Anjou, except 
De Breze* (Historians of Hexham, Surtees 
Soc. I. cix.) During the operations against 
the Northumbrian strongholds in the winter 
Ogle assisted John Neville, lord Montagu 
[q. v.], in the siege of Bamborough, which 
surrendered on Christmas-eve (Three Fif- 
teenth-Century Chronicles, pp. 167-59 ; Wob- 
CESTEB, ii. 780; Paston Letters, ii. 121). It 
was betrayed to the Lancastrians again in 
the following year, but finally reduced in 
June 1464, and entrusted to Ogle as con- 
stable for life. Just a year later he was 
commissioned with Montagu, now earl of 
Northumberland, and others, to negotiate 
for peace with Scotland, and for a marriage 
between James HI and an English subject 
(Feeder*, xi. 646). 

Ogle died on 1 Nov. 1469. He married 
Isabel, daughter and heiress of Sir Alexander 
Kirkby of Kirk by Ireleth in Furness, by whom 
he had a son Owen, who is separately noticed, 
and a daughter Isabella, married first to Sir 
John Heron of Chipchase, and afterwards to 
Sir John Wedrington (Dugdale, Baronage ; 
Archceologia ALliana, xiv. 287; Hexham 
Priory, Surtees Soc. p. lxix). 

[Rotuli Parliamootorum ; Calendarium In- 
quisitionum post mortem; Rymer's Fcedera, 
original ed. ; Proceedings and Ordinances of the 
Privy Council, ed. Nicolas; William of Worces- 
ter in Stevenson's Wars in France, vol. ii., Rolls 
Ser. ; Three Fifteenth- Century Chronicles and 
Wark worth's Chronicle, published by the Cam- 
den Society ; Dugdale's Baronage ; Archseologia 
JEliana ; other authorities in the text.] 

J. T-T. 

OGLETHORPE, JAMES EDWARD 

(1696-178&), general, philanthropist, and 
colonist of Georgia, born in London on 
22 Dec. 1696, was baptised next day at St. 
Martin's-in-the-Fields. An elder brother, also 
named James, born on 1 June 1689, died in 
infancy (Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. xii. 68). 
James Edward was third and youngest sur- 
viving son of Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe 
[q. v.! of St. James's parish, London, by his 
wife, Eleanor Wall of Tipperarv. He matri- 
culated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
on 8 July 1714, but had already obtained a 
commission in the British army in 1710. 
After the peace of 1712 he appears to have 
served as a volunteer under Irrince Eugene 
in Eastern Europe. 

In 1718, by the death of his brothers, he 
succeeded to W r estbrook, and in 1722 he 
became member for Haslemere, and acted 
with the Jacobite tories who supported Atter- 
bury . Soon afterwards a friend named Castell, 



Oglethorpe 



44 



Oglethorpe 



who had fallen into debt, was imprisoned in 
the Fleet, and, being unable to pay the accus- 
tomed fees to the warder, was confined in a 
house where the small-pox was raging- There 
Castell perished of the disease. The sad in- 
cident directed Oglethorpe's attention to the 
horrors and brutalities of debtors' prisons. 
At the beginning of 1729 he brought the 
matter before parliament, and the result 
was the appointment of a committee, with 
Oglethorpe for its chairman. The investi- 
gations of the committee revealed infamous 
jobbery and more infamous cruelty on the 
part of the prison officials (see Lecky, 
Englandin the Eighteenth Century, i. 600 sq. ; 
and art. Bambridgb, Thomas). 

The insight which Oglethorpe thus ob- 
tained into pauperism and its consequences 
led him to the great work of his life. In all 
times colonisation has suggested itself as 
a remedy for the economical ills of old 
countries. In June 1732 Oglethorpe, with 
twenty associates, obtained a charter for 
settling the colony of Georgia in America, a 
tract lying between the rivers Savannah and 
Alatamaha, named in honour of George II, 
who gave Oglethorpe every encouragement. 
Almost simultaneously he published anony- 
mously an essay setting forth the amount of 
distress extant, and unfolding his scheme of 
colonisation as a cure for it. It is true, as 
Bacon says in his ' Essay on Plantation/ that 
1 it is a shameful and unblessed thing to take 
the scum of people and wicked condemned 
men to be the people whom you plant.' Ogle- 
thorpe, however, was careful to introduce 
certain conditions which lessened, though 
they could not avert, the evils resulting from 
his choice of settlers. In the first place, he 
intended from the outset that they should 
be under his own personal supervision; and, 
whatever might be Oglethorpe's faults of 
character, he was born with the gift of ruling 
men. Moreover, there was to be some sort 
of discrimination exercised in the choice of 
settlers. Mere poverty was not to give a 
claim for a place in the colony; nor is there 
any reason to think that Oglethorpe ever ex- 
pected wholly to escape the evils inherent 
in his experiment. The results are full of 
interest and instruction for the social re- 
former. 

Oglethorpe and the other trustees, who 
opened an office in Old Palace Yard, West- 
minster, received liberal private subscriptions 
and a grant of 10,000/. from parliament. The 
settlement was designed not only as a refuge 
for paupers, but also as a barrier for the 
British colonies against aggression by Spain 
on their southern frontier. On grounds of 
military expediency, rather than of social 



economy, negro slavery was wholly pro- 
hibited. 

On 30 Oct. 1732 Oglethorpe embarked in 
the Anne galley at Deptford, and in Novem- 
ber set sail with 120 settlers. For nine years 
the life of Oglethorpe and the history of the 
colony of Georgia are identical. He at once 
found a satisfactory site, on which was built 
the town of Savannah; and he established 
friendly relations with the natives, which re- 
mained unbroken during his whole sojourn in 
the colony. Fresh colonists, and of a more 
effective stamp, were added : some, German 
protestants, whose religion had banished them 
from Austria; others, Scottish highlanders. 
Settlements were thrown out westward, and 
an outpost formed at Frederica, on an island 
at the mouth of the Alatamaha, about sixty 
miles south of Savannah. 

In 1734 Oglethorpe returned to England 
(bringing with him several Indian chiefs), 
and the effects of his absence at once illus- 
trated the instability of a colony which rested 
solely on the energy and capacity of one 
man, and whose inhabitants had in them no 
element of thought, industry, or civic virtue. 
Oglethorpe was at times precipitate in his 
choice of subordinates, and unduly and ob- 
stinately confident in them when chosen. 
The storekeeper, a person of no small im- 
portance in a little community organised on 
almost communistic principles, was dishonest 
and tyrannical. In such a colony as Georgia 
malcontents were sure to be found. Two 
restrictions, the prohibition of rum and of 
negro slavery, were specially irksome. On 
his return to Georgia, Oglethorpe dismissed 
the offending storekeeper. But he and his 
co-trustees stood firm upon the other points, 
and the result was a continuous under- 
current of dissatisfaction and disloyalty. 

That was not the only element of discord 
in the colony. Oglethorpe's impetuous and 
sympathetic temper led him to select for the 
spiritual staff of his colony John and Charles 
Wesley, heeding only their high moral ex- 
cellence and the attractive side of their 
characters, and overlooking the absence of 
that tact, forbearance, and subordination 
which for this special task were to the full 
as needful. Charles Wesley went out in 
1736 as Oglethorpe's private secretary. He 
had not been long in the colony before he 
displeased Oglethorpe. If we are to believe 
Wesley's own account, his employer treated 
him not only with harshness, but with petty- 
minded malevolence. But the solemnity of 
their parting, when, in the spring of 1736, 
Oglethorpe went forth against the Spaniards 
with a wholly uncertain prospect of return, 
seems to have touched the hearts of both, 



Oglethorpe 



45 



Oglethorpe 



and they were sincerely reconciled. But, even 
if friendship had been restored, cordial co- 
operation had become henceforth impossible; 
and Charles Wesley, with the consent and 
approval of Oglethorpe, laid down his secre- 
taryship and returned to England. His 
brother, John Wesley, remained behind, and 
became even a greater source of trouble and 
of discord in the colony. But during Wesley's 
sojourn in Georgia, Oglethorpe was fully 
occupied with the chances of a Spanish in- 
vasion. Wesley's quarrels were with other 
officials, not with Oglethorpe. The selection 
of Whitfield to succeed Wesley did not 
greatly mend matters. He founded an orphan- 
age, and embroiled himself with the settlers 
by the dictatorial fashion in which he 
claimed to overrule the authority of natural 
guardians. But his energy as a religious re- 
vivalist led him for the most part to choose 
work in the old-established colonies, and left 
him but little time for disturbing the peace 
of Oglethorpe and his followers. 

That portion of Oglethorpe's career which 
stands out conspicuous in importance and in- 
terest is the defence of his colony against the 
Spaniards. His alliance with the Indians 
was an embarrassment as well as a safeguard. 
It was certain that the Spanish authorities 
at St. Augustine, a chief seaport of Florida, ' 
would eagerly seize on any pretext for an , 
attack, and such a pretext might at any ' 
moment be given by the natives, acting, ' 
it well might be, under just resentment. ' 
A guard was posted by Oglethorpe at the ] 
Alatamaha, to prevent any of tne Geor- ! 
gian Indians crossing into Spanish terri- ! 
tory. During 1736 civil messages passed 
between Oglethorpe and the Spaniards ; yet j 
it is clear that all along he distrusted their 
intentions. He strengthened the defences of i 
Frederica, and sent for help to South Caro- ! 
lina. In the spring of 1736 the governor of ! 
St. Augustine, without any declaration of 
war, sent a force to reconnoitre the English ' 
position, with discretionary orders to attack 
if it seemed safe and advisable. Oglethorpe, 
however, used his ordnance so as to mislead 
the Spaniards regarding his position and re- 
sources, and the intended attack came to 
nothing. 

The political prospect in England made it 
almost certain that war would soon break 
out with Spain ; and as soon as America be- 
came the field of war, Oglethorpe knew that 
his colony would be in danger. He utilised 
a short season of security to return to Eng- 
land, and to organise the defence of his colony. 
While he was there a memorial was presented 
by the Spanish government to the ministry, 
demanding that neither Oglethorpe himself 



nor any fresh troops should be allowed to go 
to Georgia. Meanwhile it became known that 
the citizens of St. Augustine were being 
cleared out of their homes to make room for 
troops. Oglethorpe, with the approval of 
government, raised a volunteer regiment of 
six hundred men, with whom, in September 
1738, he reached Georgia. It is possible that 
the same lack of judgment which made Ogle- 
thorpe unfortunate in his clergy also acted on 
his choice of soldiers. A plot was discovered 
which was to have ended in the surrender of 
the officers and the desertion of several 
soldiers to the Spaniards. The summer of 1739 
was spent by Oglethorpe in a journey through 
the wilderness, in which he invited and se- 
cured the alliance of several distant tribes of 
natives. In that autumn war was declared 
against Spain, and Oglethorpe was ordered to 
harass St. Augustine. The mode of operation 
was left to his own choice. The Spaniards 
struck the first blow. Oglethorpe had fortified 
and garrisoned Amelia Island, some fifty 
miles south of Frederica. This the Spaniards 
attacked, but their only success was to find 
and kill two invalids straggling in the woods. 
Oglethorpe soon retaliated with the capture 
ofa Spanish outpost. He then determined to 
attack St. Augustine. Time was important ; 
Cuba was then under blockade by tne Eng- 
lish fleet ; the failure of that blockade, or 
even a composition, might at any time set 
free a relieving force. To make the expedition 
successful, it was needful that South Carolina 
should take part in it. But here, as was so 
often the case in our operations on the 
northern and western frontier, it was im- 
possible to secure effective co-operation. In 
M ay 1740 Oglethorpe set forth with a land 
force, composed oi his own regiment of 
Georgian militia and of Indian allies, num- 
bering in all two thousand. They were 
also supported by four king's ships and a 
small schooner from South Carolina. Ogle- 
thorpe advanced as far as St. Augustine 
without encountering any serious opposition. 
He seized and occupied tnree small forts by 
the way ; but it soon became plain that the 
capture of St. Augustine was beyond his 
power and resources. The harbour had been 
so effectually secured that the ships were 
useless. A bombardment was tried and failed. 
The Indian allies withdrew, indignant at 
Oglethorpe's attempts to restrain their fero- 
city. Sickness, as might have been fore- 
seen, broke out, and the Carolina troops de- 
serted. The garrison which Oglethorpe had 
placed in one of the captured forts ventured, 
m defiance of his express orders, on a sortie, 
and were cut off. In June Oglethorpe gave 
up the attempt on St. Augustine as hopeless, 



j^ 



Oglethorpe 



4 6 



Oglethorpe 



and retreated. Yet it is not unlikely that 
his invasion had acted as a check on Spanish 
aggression, since for nearly two years Georgia 
remained unmolested. 

But in the spring of 1742 came the crisis 
which was to form the most glorious incident 
in Oglethorpe's career as a colonist and a 
soldier. Tnanks in part to Oglethorpe's 
arrangement, in part to the natural features 
of the position, an attack on the colony by 
land was fraught with difficulty. The colony 
was covered by St. Simon's Island, and no 
invading force could with safety leave that 
position in the rear. The island was guarded 
by a small fort — St. Simon's — to the south, 
by Frederica to the north. The only approach 
to Frederica was flanked by a dense forest, 
offering a secure protection to a defending 
force. 

Oglethorpe abandoned and destroyed St. 
Simon's, and concentrated the whole strength 
of his defence on Frederica. He was well 
served with information by his Indian scouts. 
At the first approach of the Spanish van- 
guard he made a sally and beat them off. 
With a force ill-organised and of doubtful 
stability, a display of personal prowess was 
sure to be of service, and the knight-errant 
temper always present in Oglethorpe made 
such a line of action attractive. Fighting 
at the head of his troop, he captured two 
Spaniards with his own hands. But the real 
brunt of the battle came later, when the flank- 
ing force, protected by the wood, attacked the 
main body of the Spaniards. The invaders 
fared much as Braddock fared thirteen years 
later in the Ohio valley, and were routed 
with heavy loss. Yet Oglethorpe was glad 
to avert by stratagem the possibility of a 
second attack. A Frenchman had j oined the 
English as a volunteer, and had then de- 
serted to the invaders. Oglethorpe astutely 
used him as a channel for conveying to the 
Spanish commander a belief that the English 
were ready, and even eager, to meet a second 
invasion. He also said that he expected a 
fleet to come to his relief. By a strange and 
fortunate chance his statement was confirmed 
by the appearance of some English ships out 
at sea. Oglethorpe's combination of daring 
and strategy succeeded. Georgia was safe, 
and the pauper colony had moreover served 
its secondary purpose ; it had proved a bul- 
wark to the more prosperous neighbour on 
the northern frontier. Whitfield did not ex- 
aggerate the severity of the danger and the 
insufficiency of the means whereby it was 
repelled when he wrote: 'The deliverance 
of Georgia from the Spaniards is such as 
cannot be paralleled but by some instances 
out of the Old Testament.' Yet the peril 



was not yet at an end. One of the chief 
elements of danger was the ' self-sufficiency,' 
as one of their own colonists called it, of the 
officials of South Carolina. Not only were 
they supine in raising forces, but a pilot 
known to be a traitor in the employment of 
Spain was suffered to make himself well 
acquainted with Oharlestown harbour. 

Oglethorpe had other difficulties to face. 
The Duke of Newcastle was then secretary 
for the southern department, and as such 
had control over colonial affairs. The duke's 
ignorance of colonial geography was astound- 
ing, while the ministry carried on without 
spirit a war into which they had been dragged 
against their will. During the spring of 1743 
Oglethorpe, while dreading the annihilation 
of his colony — a blow which would at once 
have involved South Carolina in invasion, 
and probably in servile war — had to confine 
himself to utilising his Indian allies for raids 
into the neighbourhood of St. Augustine. On 
13 Feb. of that year he was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general. Hitherto the title 
of general, nabitually applied to him in con- 
nection with Georgian affairs, was purely 
honorary and conventional. 

The military operations against Spain soon 
involved Oglethorpe in financial difficulties, 
which compelled his return to England. The 
state of affairs well illustrates the unsatis- 
factory want of method in the colonial ad- 
ministration of Great Britain in those days. 
No fixed sum was voted for the defence of 
Georgia, nor is there any evidence that in- 
structions were given to Oglethorpe author- 
ising him to spend money on that account. 
Yet it was manifest that supplies and the like 
must be paid for, and Oglethorpe accordingly 
incurred the necessary expenses, and met 
them by drawing bills on his English agent, 
a Mr. Verelst, while at the same time he 
appears to have made it clear to Verelst by 
tne form of the bills that the money was for 
the king's service. Verelst therefore applied 
to Walpole, who was then chancellor of the 
exchequer, and Walpole authorised him to 
draw on the treasury for the sums required 
to meet the bills. After a time, however, 
Walpole withdrew this authority; but before 
the notification of this change reached Ogle- 
thorpe he had drawn more bills. The matter 
was then referred to the lords justices, who 
had been specially authorised to supervise 
the finances of Georgia. They approved of 
the expenditure ; but when the bills were pre- 
sented at the treasury, the lords of that de- 
partment refused to meet them, nor is there 
any proof that Oglethorpe was ever re- 
imbursed. 

It was Oglethorpe's intention to revisit 



Oglethorpe 



47 



Oglethorpe 



Georgia after he had settled these financial 
troubles ; but two events changed his pur- 
pose. On 15 Sept. 1743 he married Elizabeth, 
the only surviving daughter and the heiress 
of Sir Nathan Wright. She brought him a 
much-needed fortune, including Oranham 
Hall in Essex, which was his home for the 
rest of his days. 

Soon afterwards, while Oglethorpe was 
raising troops for the defence of the colony, the 
Jacobite insurrection of 1745 broke out. He 
at once received orders to join General Wade, 
and to take with him the soldiers whom he 
had raised. He joined Wade at Hull, and ac- 
companied him in his march into Lancashire, 
where he and his men were transferred to the 
force which, under the Duke of Cumberland, 
harassed the retreating Jacobites. It is not 
unlikely that Oglethorpe's hereditary asso- 
ciations with the house of Stuart laid him 
open to suspicion. An absurd story found 
currency in later days to the effect that 
Oglethorpe was detected on the eve of Cul- 
loden in treasonable correspondence; that 
he therefore fled, and fortified himself as an 
armed Tebel at his country seat in Surrey. 

It is certain that if Oglethorpe had any 
treasonable designs, of which there is no 
proof, they had been effectively anticipated. 
When, in December 1746, the Duke of Cum- 
berland returned to London, having, as he 
believed, crushed the rebellion, he lodged a 
charge of misconduct, accusing Oglethorpe of 
having lingered on the road in his pursuit 
of the retreating Jacobites. 

A court-martial followed, and Oglethorpe 
was acquitted, but his career as a soldier was 
at an end, and he did not return to Georgia. 
For eight years longer he sat in parlia- 
ment. The utter collapse of opposition while 
Pelham was prime minister had relaxed 
the bonds of party discipline; the cause 
of the whigs was too triumphant, that of 
their opponents too hopeless, for either to 
insist on obedience. Oglethorpe was able 
to take up that position of a freelance which 
his keen and ready sympathy and his in- 
dependent temper made congenial to him. 
He had plainly cast behind him all linger- 
ing attachment to the house of Stuart. An 
attitude of sturdy independence towards 
Hanoverian ministers and a tendency to 
look with disfavour on all authority of 
which they were the centre were all that 
remained of his hereditary Jacobitism. We 
find him twice supporting measures whereby 
foreign protestants might enjov full civic 
rights in the colonies, and doing his best 
to limit the arbitrary powers granted to 
courts-martial. 

In 1764 Oglethorpe was defeated in the 



contest for the representation of Haslemere, 
for which he had sat in parliament for thirty- 
two years. Thenceforth he disappeared from 
public life. In 1762 the trustees of the 
Georgian colony had resigned their patent, 
and Georgia had become a royal province. 
For many years longer, however, Oglethorpe 
filled a prominent position in social life in 
London. He won Dr. Johnson's regard by 
the support which he gave his * London' 
upon its appearance in 1738, and increased 
it by the stand he made against slavery in 
Georgia. In return, Johnson wished to write 
Oglethorpe's life. He was the friend of 
Walpole, Goldsmith, Boswell, Burke, and 
Hannah More, keeping to the last his boyish 
vivacity and diversity of interests, his keen 
sense of personal dignity, his sympathy with 
the problems of life, his earnestness of moral 
conviction. His name is enshrined in the 
well-known couplet of Pope — 

One, driven by strong benevolence of soul, 
Shall fly like Oglethorpe from pole to pole 

(Imitation of Horace, ep. ii.) 

On 1 July 1786 Oglethorpe died at Cran- 
ham. As if he was at once to become by an 
appropriate fate a hero of legend, he was de- 
scribed in two contemporary accounts as 102 
and 104 ; but, though his age is not mentioned 
on his monument, there seems no reason to 
doubt the accuracy of the record which makes 
him eighty-nine. A monument, with an ex- 
travagantly long inscription, was erected in 
Cranham Church to Oglethorpe and his 
widow, who died on 26 Oct. 1787. The 
Cranham estates descended to the Marquis 
de Bellegarde, the grandson of one of Ogle- 
thorpe's sisters. 

A three-quarter-length portrait of Ogle- 
thorpe in armour, engraved in mezzotint by 
T. Burford, is in the print-room at the Bri- 
tish Museum. Another, engraved by S. Ire- 
land, is mentioned by Bromley. 

[Mr. Robert Wright has gathered together all 
that can be known of Oglethorpe in an admirable 
biography. Much of the material, especially that 
relating to Georgia, is still in manuscript. See, 
however, A True and Historical Narrative of the 
Colony of Georgia, 1741, and Account of the 
Colony of Georgia, 1741, both of which are re- 
printed in Force's Tracts, Washington, 1836, 
and Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. x. 63, where 
private letters — one from Oglethorpe — describe 
Georgia in 1738; Boswell's Life of Johnson, 
ed. Hill, i. 127 ; Walpole's Letters ; Hannah 
More's Letters; Sou they 's Life of Wesley; 
Franklin's Memoirs, i. 162; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 
ii. 19-22 ; Elwin and Courthope's Pope, iii. 392 ; 
Lecky's England in the Eighteenth Century, i. 
500-3; Gent. M«g. for 1785 and 1787.] 

J. A. D. 



Oglethorpe 



4 8 



Oglethorpe 



OGLETHORPE, OWEN (d. 1559), 
bishop of Carlisle, was, according to Wood, 
the third ' natural ' or * base-born ' son of 
Owen Oglethorpe of Newton Kyme, near Tad- 
caster, Yorkshire (Strypb, Memorials, vol. iii. 
pt. i. p. 173). He was born at Newton Kyme, 
and was educated at Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford, where he graduated B.A. in 1525 ; was 
admitted fellow about 1526, and graduated 
M.A. in 1529, being then in holy orders. He 
served the office of junior proctor in 1533. On 
21 Feb. 1535 he was elected president of his 
college, and graduated as B.D. 12 Feb. 1536, 
and D.D. five days later. He fulfilled the 
■duties of vice-chancellor ' with great honour ' 
in 1551. His ecclesiastical preferments were 
many. From Archbishop Heath, as a York- 
shireman, he received the rectory of Bolton 
Percy in 1534, and in 1541 a prebendal stall 
at Ripon (which in 1544 he exchanged for 
another in the same church). He also was 
collated to the stall of Lafford in Lincoln 
Cathedral in 1536. In 1538 Cranmer gave 
him the living of Newington, Oxfordshire, 
one of the archiepiscopal peculiars, which he 
held till his elevation to the episcopate in ! 
1557. He was appointed to the college , 
livings of Beeding and Sele, Sussex, in 1531, 
and to East Bridgeford in 1538 ; to the bene- 
fice of his native place, Newton Kyme, in 
1541, and to that of Romald-Kirk in the 
same year, and of St. Olave, Southwark, in 
1544. At an earlier period he had been one 
of the canons of Henry VIIFs foundation, 
erected in 1532 on the suppression of Wol- 
eefa * Cardinal College ; ' and on the conver- < 
sion of St. Frideswide's into a cathedral church 
in 1546, a pension of 20/. was reserved for him 
out of its revenues. He was appointed canon 
of Windsor in 1540. His stanaing as a theo- 
logian had been previously fully recognised, 
and in 1540 he was named by Cranmer one 
of the commissioners to whom were addressed 
the • Seventeen Questions' on the sacraments, 
on the answers to which was founded * The 
Erudition of a Christian Man ' (Strypb, Me- 1 
mortals, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 14 ; Cranmer, i. 110, 
Appendix, Nos. xxvii. xxviii.) 

The accession of Edward VI, which placed 1 
Somerset in supreme power, was the begin- | 
ning of trouble to Oglethorpe. His conduct 
shows him to have been a man of no strength ! 
of character, with little love for the series of 
religious changes through which the clergy ! 
were being hustled, but reluctantly accepting ' 
them rather than forego the dignity and 
emoluments of office. The society of Mag- ' 
dalen College was at that time greatly | 
divided in religious opinion. The majority, 
including Oglethorpe, adhered more or less 
openly to the old faith ; while the reforming . 



party, though a minority, by their violence 
made up for the inferiority of their num- 
bers. Scenes of miserable confusion and 
acts of disgraceful sacrilege took place. Early 
in 1548 the new order of communion had been 
published, and letters were received from 
Somerset urging the college, in somewhat 
indefinite but unmistakable terms, to ' the 
Redress of Religion.' Oglethorpe felt that 
to keep his place he must comply. High 
mass was laid aside, and the English order 
of communion adopted, the president him- 
self ministering. Not satisfied with this 
amount of compliance, some of the fellows 
sent a petition to the Protector accusing the 
president of attempting to dissuade the so- 
ciety from following his directions. The 
charge was categorically denied in a letter 
from Oglethorpe, dated 8 Nov. 1548, signed 
by himself and eighteen other members of 
the college (Bloxam, Magdalen College Re- 
gister, vol. 11. pp. xliv, xlv, 300-3). In 1550 
another fierce attack was made upon Ogle- 
thorpe by ten of the most puritanical of the 
fellows in a petition to the lords of the 
council, accusing him of persecuting the 
' Godlie ' and favouring the * Papists/ their 
grievance being summed up in twenty-five 
articles. These he answered seriatim, deny- 
ing some and explaining others (lift. pp. 309- 
317). He also drew up ' a further defence/ 
to set himself right with the Protector 
and his council. In this he repudiated the 
scholastic doctrine of transubstantiation and 
solitary masses, and declared his approba- 
tion of the new ' order and form ' of service 
in English, provided * it be used godly and 
reverently ' (ib. p. 318). He was, however, 
summoned to London to answer the charges, 
and in May was reported to have been * im- 
prisoned for superstition/ and to be likely to 
lose his presidentship (Christopher Hales to 
Rudolph Gualter, Original Letters, Parker 
Soc. i. 187). The latter fear was not realised ; 
he kept his headship, and it is curious to find 
him not long after (1 Aug.) entertaining the 
leading reformers, Peter Martyr and Martin 
Bucer, and the former for the second time 
together with Coverdale on 19 May of the 
following year. The changes recently made 
in the chapel by order of the visitors, such 
as the demolition of the high altar and the 
burning of the organ, cannot fail to have been 
very displeasing to Oglethorpe ; and, though 
outwardly complying, it was abundantly 
clear that at heart he was hankering after 
the old system. In 1552, therefore, the 
king's council resolved on his removal ; they 
believed that he would impede the further 
religious changes they had in view, and, by 
a tyrannical violation of the statutes, ap- 



^v 



Oglethorpe 



49 



Oglethorpe 



pointed Walter Haddon [q.v.J, master of 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, president in his 
place. The fellows remonstrated, to no pur- 
pose ; and Oglethorpe, seeing that resistance 
was yain, entered into an amicable, but not 
very honourable, agreement with Haddon, on 
which he resigned the presidency, 27 Sept. 
1552, and Haddon was admitted by royal 
mandate (ib. li. 320-1). 

On Mary's accession next year the intrud- 
ing president was removed by Gardiner, and 
Oglethorpe resumed his old place, 31 Oct. 
1553 (ib. p. lv ; Stbype, Memorials, vol. iii. 
pt. i. p. 81). At the memorable disputation 
the next year between Cranmer, Ridley, and 
Latimer, and a committee of theologians 
selected from Oxford and Cambridge, he was 
one of the Oxford divines, and on 14 April 
presented the Cambridge doctors for incor- 
poration (Stktpb, Cranmer, i. 480). The 
same month he resigned his presidency. He 
had been appointed dean of Windsor in the 
preceding year, with the rectory of Haseley 
attached, and in 1555 became registrar of the 
Order of the Garter (Rymeb, Fcedera,xy. 421), 
being the first dean of Windsor to hold that 
office. Higher preferment was not long in 
coming. He was nominated by Mary to the 
bishopric of Carlisle, and was consecrated by 
Archbishop Heath at Chiswick on 15 Aue. 
1557. In little more than a year Mary died, 
and Oglethorpe was once more placed in the 
dilemma of having to choose between the old 
and the new form of religion. He showed 
some firmness when called upon to say mass 
before the queen in the first days of her reign. 
Elizabeth forbade him to elevate* the Host, 
which, according to a Roman authority, he 
insisted on doing ( Stktpb, Annals, vol. i. pt. i. 
p. 73). The coronation soon followed. In the 
vacancy of the see of Canterbury, it naturally 
fell to the Archbishop of York to perform 
the ceremony ; but H^ath, alarmed by omi- 
nous presages of a change in religion, refused 
to officiate. Tunstall of Durham was too old, 
and perhaps shared in Heath's objection. It 
devolved, therefore, on Oglethorpe, as his suf- 
fragan, to take his metropolitan's place, and 
on 16 Jan. 1559, the other diocesan bishops 
attending, with the exception of Bonner, 
who, however, lent him his robes for the 
function, he placed the crown on the head of 
Elizabeth, but it is asserted that he never 
forgave himself for an act the momentous 
consequences of which he hardly foresaw, 
and remorse for his unfaithfulness to the 
church is said to have hastened his end. 
The same month he attended Elizabeth's 
first parliament, when he expressed his dis- 
sent from the bills for restoring the first- 
fruits and tenths to the crown, and the royal 

VOL. XLIT. 



supremacy, the iniquitous forced exchange of 
bishops' lands for impropriate tithes, and 
other measures (Stktpb, Annals, vol. i. pt. 
i. pp. 82-7). He was also present at the 
opening of the disputation on religion at 
Westminster in March 1559, and wa3 one 
of those who were fined for declining to 
enter on the dispute when they saw which 
way things were tending. The fine imposed 
on him amounted to 250/., and he had to give 
recognisances for good behaviour (ib. pp. 129, 
137-9). On 15 May, together with Arch- 
bishop Heath and the other bishops who ad- 
hered to the old faith, he was summoned 
before the queen, and, on their unanimous 
refusal to take the oath of supremacy, they 
were all deprived (ib. pp. 206, 210). He 
only survived his deprivation a few months. 
He died suddenly of apoplexy on the last 
day of that year. The place of his death 
was probably a house in Chancery Lane, 
belonging to his private estate, which he had 
given to his old college in 1 556, reserving 
four chambers for himself. He was buried, 
4 Jan. 1560, in the adjacent church of St. 
Dunstan's in the West, Fleet Street (Bloxam, 
vol. iv. p. xxix; Machtn, Diary, p. 221). 
Had his life been prolonged, Wood says, ' it 
was thought the Queen would have been 
favourable to him.' Some courteous letters 
passed between him, when residing at Ox- 
ford, and Bullinffer, chiefly letters of intro- 
duction, which have been printed by the 
Parker Society (Original Letters, i. 126, 
425). A letter or his, on his election to the 
see of Carlisle, to the Earl of Shrewsbury 
on Lancelot Salkeld's claim to the manor of 
Linstock, is contained in the Lansdowne 
MSS. (980, f. 312). Among the Additional 
MSS. (5489, f. 49) is a weak, shuffling reply 
of his to articles proposed by Sir Philip 
Hoby respecting the sale of the plate at St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor; he acknowledges 
he had consented to the sale and shared to 
some extent in the proceeds, but all the 
while disapproved of it. His replies to 
Cranmer's * Seventeen Questions,' referred to 
above, are printed with those of the other 
commissioners by Burnet in his ' History of 
the Reformation ' (pt. i. bk. iii. records xxi. ; 
see also pt. ii. bk. i. records liii.) He founded 
and endowed a school and hospital at Tad- 
caster, near his birthplace (Stbype, Annals, 
iv. 212, No. xcix). His name appears on the 
list of benefactors to be commemorated at 
Magdalen on 31 Dec, the day of his death. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ii. 792, 768, 807 Fasti, 
i. 66, 81, 95, 100, 102; Godwin, De Praesul. i. 
175; Foster's Alumni, 1500-1714, iii. 1088; 
Fuller's Worthies, ii. 226, Church History, ii. 
466, iv. 193; Strype, 11. cc; Bymer's Feeders, 



Oglethorpe 



50 



Oglethorpe 



xv. 421, 446, 483, 577; Bloxam's Magdalen 
Coll. Registers, 11. xlv, xlix-li, lv, lvi, lviii, lxii, 
lxviii note,lxvi, lxvii, 301, 304,309, 315,316note, 
318-20, 321-2, iv. xxvi-xxx, 33, 34, 98 ; Burnet's 
Reformation, ii. 664, 776, 792.] E. V. 

OGLETHORPE, Sir THEOPHILUS 
(1660-1702), brigadier-general, belonged to 
an ancient family settled at Oglethorpe, a 
hamlet in Bramham parish, in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire. His father, Sutton 
Oglethorpe (baptised at Bramham in 1612), 
was fined by the parliament 20,000/. and had 
his estates sequestered and given to general 
William Fairfax [q.v.l, who sold them to 
the Bingley family. He married Frances, 
daughter of John Matthews (Mathew ?) and 

Sanddaughter of Archbishop Tobie Mathew 
. v.], and had two sons : Sutton, who was 
created M. A. by the university of Oxford on 
28 Sept. 1663, became a royal page, student 
of Gray's Inn, 1657, and, it is said, stud- 
master to Charles II ; and Theophilus, who, 
baptised 14 Sept. 1650, entered the army soon 
after the Restoration as a private gentleman in 
one of King Charles's newly raised troops of 
lifeguards (Macaulay, His*, of England, i. 
297). Oglethorpe belonged to the Duke of 
York's troop, distinguished by its green fac- 
ings and standard. His name appears as 
lieutenant-colonel of the king's regiment of 
dragoons 19 Feb. 1678 (D'ALTON,p.209). It 
was disbanded, and he returned temporarily 
to his troop of lifeguards. He was lieutenant- 
colonel of the royal dragoons 11 June 1679, 
and commanded the advance-guard of the 
Duke of Monmouth's army at the defeat of the 
Scottish covenanters at Bothwell Bridge on 
22 June. On 11 Aug. 1679 he was guidon and 
major of the Duke of York's troop, of which 
Monmouth was colonel; held the same posi- 
tion 30 April 1680 (ib. p. 273), and became 
lieutenant and lieutenant-colonel 1 Nov. 1680 
(ib. pp. 277, 313). He routed two troops 
of rebel horse at Keynsham at the time of 
Monmouth's rebellion, and led a charge of 
the lifeguards at the battle of Sedgmoor. 
He was made a brigadier-general and prin- 
cipal equerry to James II, and on 25 Oct. 
1685 was made colonel of the Holland regi- 
ment, or Buffs. He purchased the manor of 
Westbrook, Godalmmg, in 1688. He took 
the field as a brigadier-general of James's 
army, and after the king's flight, not choos- 
ing to serve against one from whom he had 
received many favours, he was deprived of 
his military emoluments, and his regiment 

given to Marlborough's brother, General 
iharles Churchill [q. v.] A warrant was 
issued against him as a Jacobite in 1692, and 
he went to France (Luttrell) ; but in 1698 
he took the oaths to King William, and sat 



in parliament for Haslemere, Surrey, from 
that time until his death on 10 April 1702. 
He was buried in the church of St. James, 
Westminster, where his widow put up a 
monument to him with a Latin inscription 
and a wrong date of death. 

Oglethorpe married Eleanor, daughter of 
Richard Wall of Tipperary, 'of a considerable 
family in Ireland.' Swift mentions her often 
in the ( Journal to Stella,' and emphasises 
her cunning; she introduced Swift to the 
Duchess of Hamilton ( Works, vol. ii. passim). 
She died 19 June 1732, having borne seven 
children to Oglethorpe. Of these the eldest 
son, Lewis ( 1681-1704), succeeded his father 
as member for Haslemere. Evelyn mentions 
him as fighting a duel with Sir Richard 
Onslow. He died at the Hague of a wound 
received in Marlborough's attack on the 
heights of Schellenberg, just before Blen- 
heim. The second, Theophilus (1682-1720£), 
also sat for Haslemere after his brother. He 
was aide-de-camp to the Duke of Ormonde, 
and afterwards joined the Jacobite court of 
St. Germains, where he died some time be- 
tween 1717 and 1720. The third was General 
James Edward Oglethorpe [a. v.] ; the fourth, 
Sutton, died young. Of the daughters, Anne, 
the eldest, was a resident at St. Germains, and, 
it is said, a mistress of the Old Pretender ( * her 
Oglethorpian majesty' of Esmond), prior to 
her return to England without a pass in 1704. 
The fact of her return being unauthorised 
enabled Godolphin and Harley to obtain in- 
formation from her respecting the Jacobite 
correspondence. According to Boyer (An- 
nals of Anne, 1735, p. 127), her wit and beauty 
gained the hearts of the ministers, and some 
maintained that Godolphin's jealousy of the 
secretary in their relations with the lady was 
the source of the breach between the two. 
Anne was subsequently arraigned at the 
Queen's Bench on a charge of 'perverting a 
young gentlewoman to the Romish faith,' but 
was discharged by the queen's order 14 June 
1707 (Luttrell, vi. 182). She retired to 
France, and is said to have been made a 
Jacobite countess. She and her youngest 
sister died unmarried. Two others married, 
one the Marquis de Maziera in Picardy, the 
other the Marquis de Bellegarde. 

Some years after the death of Sir Theo- 
philus a crazy sort of pamphlet appeared 
without a printer's name (1707), purporting 
to relate the hearsay of a Mistress Frances 
Shaftoe, a serving-woman, according to 
whom, on the alleged death of the infant 
Prince of Wales in 1688, an infant son of Ogle- 
thorpe's was substituted, who became Prince 
James Francis Edward, better known as the 
Chevalier St. George or the Old Pretender. 



O'Gorman 



5* 



O'Grady 



[Manning and Bray's Surrey, vol. i. (pedigree, 
p. 614, and account of manor of Westbrook) ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 17; Dalton's English 
Array Lists, 1660-85, pp. 209, 240, 254, 255, 
273,277,313; Cannon's Hist. Rec. Brit. Army, 
3rd Buffs ; Macaulay's Hist .of England, vol. i. ; 
Luttrell's Brief Historical Eolation of State 
Affairs.] H. M. C. 

O'GORMAN, MAELMUIRE (d. 1181), 
called, according to Colgan, Mabiantxs Gob- 
man, and by the ' Four Masters ' Maelmfibe 
O'Duniax, martyrologi8t, was abbot of Cnoc 
na Seangan, or Pismire Hill, near the town of 
Louth. This place was afterwards known as 
Cnoc na n Apstal, or the Hill of the Apostles, 
from the t ime of the consecration of the church 
there by Archbishop Malachv Morgan [q. v.], 
when it was dedicated to St. Peter and St. 
Paul. It was an establishment for Augus- 
tinian canons, the founders being Donnchadh 
O'Carroll, chief of Oriel, and Edan O'Cael- 
laighe, bishop of Clogher. Marianus is termed 
in the * Martyrology of Donegal ' abbot of 
Louth. Ware, Harris, and Archdall believed 
the abbey of Louth to be distinct from the 
abbey of Cnoc na Seancan; but in that 
case two monasteries, both for Augustinian 
canons, and both founded by the same prince 
and bishop, must have existed within a few 
perches of each other. This seems highly 
improbable, and we may assume with con- 
fidence that they are identical. 

Marian us is the author of a ' Martyrology ' 
composed during the reign of Roderic O'Con- 
nor [q. v.], king of Ireland, and between 1156 
and 1173, while Gilla mac Liag or Gelasius 
was archbishop of Armagh. This work was 
unknown in Ireland except by name until 
1847, when the Rev. Matthew Kelly of May- 
nooth procured a copy of the only known 
manuscript preserved in the Royal Library 
at Brussels. Two years after, the Rev. Dr. 
Todd obtained a loan of this and other manu- 
scripts from the Belgian government, and had 
a copy of it made by Eugene O'Curry. The 
* Martyrology,' which has never been pub- 
lished, is now about to be brought out by 
the Henrv Bradshaw Society, under the 
editorship'of Mr. Whitley Stokes, D.C.L. It 
is a poem in the Irish language, and consists 
of 2,780 lines in the rather rare and difficult 
metre known as ' Rinnard,' in which the ' Ca- 
lendar of (Engus Ceile D6 ' is also composed. 
The poem is arranged in months, and has a 
stanza for every day in the year, which con- 
tains the names of those saints whose fes- 
tivals fall on that day. There are also inter- 
lined and marginal glosses relating to the 
situation of the churches belonging to the 
saints mentioned when those saints are Irish, 
for Marianus does not confine himself to native 



saints. These glosses or scholia add much 
to its value as an historical authority. The 
preface informs us that it was taken largely 
from the ' Martyrology ' of Tallaght. O'Clery 
made great use of it in the compilation of 
the ' Martyrology of Donegal/ which was 
published in 1864 under the editorship of 
Bishop Reeves and the Rev. Dr. Todd. All 
the names given in that work without a 
local designation are from Marianus, as well 
as those which have short local notices ; of 
these last many, if not all, are taken from the 
scholia. 

Marianus tells us he was led to undertake 
the work first by the hope of thereby secur- 
ing entrance into the kingdom of heaven for 
himself as well as for every one who should 
make a practice of chanting it ; in the second 
place he wished to supply tne names of many 
saints, Irish and foreign, who were omitted 
from the 'Calendar of (Engus/ saints for 
whom the church had ordained festivals or 
prescribed masses ; and, lastly, in order to cor- 
rect the ' Calendar of (Engus/ in which days 
of commemoration were assigned to many 
different from those appointed by the church 
at that time. He died in 1181. His day in 
the ' Martyrology of Donegal ' is 3 July. 

[Colgan's Act. SS. p. 737 ; Trias Thaum. p. 305 ; 
Annals of the Four Masters, iii. 57 ; Ware's Anti- 
quities, chap, xxvi., and Bishops of Loath and 
Clogber at Edan ; Martyrology of Donegal, Pref. 
p. xvii; Lanigan's Eccles. Hist. iv. 129, 131; 
O'Curry's MS. Materials, pp. 361, 362.] T. O. 

O'GORMAN MAHON, The (1800- 
1891), politician. [See Mahon, Chaeles 
James Patrick.] 

O'GRADY, STANDISH, first Viscount 
Gtjillamore (1766-1840), was the eldest 
son of Darby O'Grady of Mount Prospect, 
Limerick, and of Mary, daughter of James 
Smyth of the same county. He was born on 
20 Jan. 1766, and, entering Trinity College, 
Dublin, graduated B.A. in 1784. He was 
called to the bar, and went the Munster cir- 
cuit. He was remarkable for wit as well as 
learning, and attained considerable practice. 
On 28 May 1803, after the murder of Lord 
Kilwarden, he became attorney-general, and 
was one of the prosecuting counsel at the trial 
of Robert Emmet. In 1805 he was made 
lord chief baron, in succession to Yelverton, 
lord Avonmore. He was a sound judge, and 
Chief Baron Pigot [q. v.], of the Irish exche- 
quer, expressed the opinion : ' O'Grady was 
the ablest man whose mind I ever saw at 
work.' His witticisms on and off the bench 
were long remembered (D. O. Madden, ire- 
land and its Rulers, i. 126). O'Grady was 
one of the first to suspect the duplicity of 

e2 



O'Grady 



52 



Ogston 



Leonard McNally Tq. v.] On his retirement 
from the bench in 1831, he was created Vis- 
count Guillamore of Cahir Guillamore and 
Baron O'Grady of Rockbarton, co. Limerick, 
in the peerage of Ireland. He was a hand- 
some man, of a fine presence, and over six 
feet in stature. He died in Dublin on 20 April 
1840. Inl790hemarriedKatharine(rf. 1853), 
second daughter of John Thomas Waller of 
Castletown, co. Limerick, by whom he had 
several children. 

Standish O'Grady, second Viscount 
Guillamore (1792-1848), eldest son of the 
above, born in 1792, was a lieutenant in the 
7th hussars at Waterloo, and afterwards be- 
came lieutenant-colonel. On 17 June 1815 he 
had command of the troop of the 7th hussars 
on the high road from Genappe to Quatre Bras. 
The regiment was covering the British march 
from Quatre Bras to Waterloo, and Sir Wil- 
liam Dornberg left O'Grady outside the town, 
on the Quatre Bras road, to hold in check 
the advancing French cavalry while the main 
body of the regiment was proceeding in file 
across the narrow bridge of Genappe and up 
the steep street of the town. O Grady ad- 
vanced at the head of his troops as soon as 
the French appeared, and presented so bold a 
front that, after a time, they retired. When 
they were out of sight he crossed the bridge 
at the entrance of Genappe, and took his troop 
at a gallop through the town, rejoining Sir 
William Dornberg, who had drawn up the 
main body of the regiment on the sloping 
road at the Waterloo end of Genappe. A 
severe cavalry combat ensued when the 
French lancers reached the top of the town, 
in which O'Grady's regiment made a gallant 
charge, with considerable loss. At Waterloo 
he was stationed on the ground above 
Hougoumont on the British left. ' The 7th/ 
he says in a letter to his father, * had an 
opportunity of showing what they could do 
it they got fair play. We charged twelve 
or fourteen times, and once cut off a squadron 
of cuirassiers, every man of whom we killed 
on the spot except the two officers and one 
Marshal de Logis, whom I sent to the rear ' 
(letter in possession of the Hon. Mrs. Nor- 
bury). Two letters of his to Captain William 
Siborne, describing the movements of his 
regiments on 17 and 18 June 1815, are printed 
in ' Waterloo Letters/ edited by Major- 
general H. T. Siborne (London, 1891, pp. 
130-6). By his wife Gertrude Jane (d. 1871), 
daughter of the Hon. Berkeley Paget, he had 
issue Standish, third viscount (1832-1860) ; 
Pasret Standish, fourth viscount (1838- 
1877); Hardress Standish, fifth and present 
viscount ; and others. The second viscount 
died on 22 July 1848. 



[O'Keefe's Life and Times of O'Connell, i. 183 ; 
Burring ton 'e Personal Sketches ; Smyth's Law 
Officers of Ireland, 1839, pp. 145, 170 ; O'Flana- 
gan's Munster Circuit, 1880, pp. 232-7; Foster'* 
Peerage, p. 318 ; Wills's Irish Nation, iii. 692-3 ; 
O'Flaaagan's Irish Bar, 1879, pp. 190-4.] 

D. J. O'D. 

OGSTON, FRANCIS (1803-1887), pro- 
fessor of medical jurisprudence at Aber- 
deen, born in Aberdeen in July 1803, was 
third son of Alexander Ogston, the founder 
of an extensive soap manufactory at Aber- 
deen. He was educated at the grammar 
school and at Marischal College, Aberdeen, 
completing his medical course at Edinburgh 
University, where he graduated M.D. in 
1824. Subsequently he travelled and studied 
on the continent. Having settled at Aber- 
deen, he soon acquired a large practice. In 
1827 he began to teach chemistry privately, 
and in 1839 he was appointed lecturer on 
medical jurisprudence at Marischal College. 
When tne lectureship was converted into a 
professorial chair in 1857, Ogston became 
the first professor, teaching medical logic in 
addition to his special subject. In 1860, 
when Marischal College was united to King's 
College, to form the university of Aberdeen, 
under the Universities (Scotland) Act, 1858, 
Ogston's appointment was maintained, and 
he continued to occupy the chair of medical 
jurisprudence till his retirement in 1883. 
His lectures were published in London in 
1878, under the title ' Lectures on Medical 
Jurisprudence,' and were accepted both in 
this country and in Germany as a standard 
work. From 1831 Ogston held the appoint- 
ment of police-surgeon in Aberdeen, and he 
was also medical officer of health for the city 
from 1862 till 1881. He had frequently to 
give evidence on important cases in the 
justiciary courts, and the lucidity of his re- 
ports called forth the commendations of the 
1 judges. He was chosen dean of the faculty 
of medicine in Aberdeen, and was twice re- 
presentative of the senatus at the university 
court. In 1883 he retired from the chair of 
medical jurisprudence. Two years afterwards 
the university conferred the honorary degree 
of LL.D. upon him. He died suddenly at 
Aberdeen on 25 Sept. 1887. Both of his sons 
followed the medical profession ; the elder, 
Dr. Alexander Ogston, being professor of 
surgery at Aberdeen University, and the 
younger, Dr. Frank Ogston, holding an ap- 
pointment as professor of public health and 
medical jurisprudence at the university of 
Otago, New Zealand. Besides the lectures 
referred to, Ogston contributed many papers 
to the British and continental medical 
journals. 



O'Hagan 



53 



O'Hagan 



[Rodger's Aberdeen Doctors, pp. 201, 301, 
212; Lancet, October 1887, No. 3345, p. 739; 
People's Journal (Aberdeen), 1 Oct. 1887.] 

A. H. M. 

O'HAGAN, JOHN (1822-1890), judge, 
second son of John Arthur O'Hagan of 
Newry, co. Down, born at Newry on 19 March 
1822, graduated B.A. at Trinity College, 
Dublin, in 1842, and proceeded M.A. in 1865. 
He was called to the Irish bar in 1842, and 
went the Munster circuit. An active member 
of the Young Ireland party, he was one of the 
counsel for Sir Charles Gavan Duffy on his 
trial for complicity in the rebellion of 1848. 
He also contributed to the ' Nation/ both in 
prose and verse, his poems being distinguished 
by the pseudonyms or initials Sliabh Cuil- 
luim, Carolina Wilhelmina, O., or J. O'H. 
They are collected in ' The Spirit of the 
Nation/ Dublin, 1874, 8vo. 

O'Hagan was appointed commissioner of 
the board of national education in 1861, 
took silk in 186-5, and was admitted a 
bencher of King's Inn in 1878. On the 
passing of the Land Law (Ireland) Act of 
1881 he was appointed judicial commissioner 
thereunder, with the rank of justice of the 
high court of j ustice, having previously quali- 
fied for the office by being made her majesty's 
third serjeant (31 May). He died on 12 Nov. 
1890. 

O'Hagan was a good scholar and a com- 
petent lawyer, and was equally respected for 
his integrity and admired for his chivalrous 
character. He married in I860 Frances, 
daughter of Thomas O'Hagan [q. v.], lord 
chancellor of Ireland. 

O'nagan's patriotic songs are held in much 
esteem by his countrymen of the Nationalist 
party. Besides them he published a lec- 
ture on Chaucer in ' Afternoon Lectures on 
Literature and Art,' London, 1864, 8vo; 
4 The Song of Roland,' a metrical version of 
the 'Chanson de Roland,' London, 1883, 
8vo ; ' The Poetry of Sir Samuel Ferguson,' 
a critical essay, Dublin, 1887, 8vo ; and 
4 Irish Patriotism : Thomas Davis/ in the 
4 Contemporary Review/ October 1890. * Joan 
of Arc ' (an historical study originally con- 
tributed to the ' Atlantis ' in 18S8) appeared 
in a posthumous volume, London, 1893, 8vo. 

[O'Donofchue's Poets of Ireland ; Irish Law 
Times, 15 Nov. 1890 ; Sir Charles Gavan Duffy's 
Young Ireland, 1840-50. pp. 293, 565, 763, and 
Four Years of Irish History, pp. 582, 739 ; 
Ann. Reg. 1844, Chron. p. 304; Thorn's Irish 
Almanac; Haydn's Book of Dignities, ed. 
Ockerby ; C*l. Dubl. Grad.] J. M. R. 

O'HAGAN, THOMAS, first Baron 
O'Hagan (1812-1885), lord chancellor of 
Ireland, only son of Edward O'Hagan, a 



catholic trader of Belfast, was born there on 
29 May 1812. He was educated at the Bel- 
fast academical institution, where he won 
the highest prizes, and, being at the time the 
only catholic student, was awarded by the 
votes of his fellow-students the gold medal 
for an essay on the ' History of Eloquence, 
Ancient and Modern.' He frequently took 
part in a debating society attached to the 
institution, and there developed command of 
language and great readiness of speech. On 
leaving the institution he became connected 
with the press. In Michaelmas term 1831 he 
was admitted a student of the King's Inns, 
Dublin, his certificate for admission being 
signed by Daniel O'Connell [q. v.] This was 
probably the commencement of his acquaint- 
ance with O'Connell. ' In my earlier years I 
knew O'Connell well ; I was personally his 
debtor for continual kindness' (O'Connell 
Centenary Address, 1875). He was admitted 
a student of Gray's Inn in Hilary term 1834, 
and became a pupil of Thomas Chitty [q. v.], 
the well-known pleader. In Hilary term 
1836 he was called to the Irish bar, and 
joined the north-east circuit. From 1836 to 
1840 he resided at Newry, editing the ' Newry 
Examiner,' and practising on circuit, prin- 
cipally in the defence of prisoners. His con- 
duct of the paper was warmly praised by 
O'Connell : * I was assailed at every turn, and 
defended with zeal and spirit by nobody save 
the " Newry Examiner, a paper to which 
I really am more indebted than to any other 
in Ireland' (Correspondence of O'Connell, 
23 Oct. 1838, ii. 154). In 1840 O'Hagan 
removed to Dublin, and, though still con- 
tributing to the press, devoted his atten- 
tion mainly to the bar. In 1842 he was 
retained, with O'Connell, to defend Gavan 
Duffy (now Sir Charles Gavan Duffy), in- 
dicted for a seditious libel in the ' Belfast 
Vindicator.' O'Connell, being detained in 
London by his parliamentary duties, returned 
his brief, and, by Gavan Duffy's wish, the 
case was left in O'Hagan's hands. He con- 
ducted the defence with such marked ability 
as to draw compliments from the attorney- 
general (Blackburne) and the chief justice 
(Pennefather). From this time his success 
was assured, and his practice steadily in- 
creased. On the trial of O'Connell and the 
other repeal leaders in 1843-4, he was again 
counsel for Gavan Duffy, with Whiteside 
(afterwards chief justice) as his leader. In 
1845 he was junior counsel in a case that 
attracted considerable attention— an appeal 
to the visitors of Trinity College, Dublin, by 
Denis Caulfield Heron (afterwards Serjeant 
Heron), a catholic student, against a decision 
of the provost and fellows, refusing to admit 



O'Hagan 



54 



him to a scholarship which he had won in 
the examination on the ground that the 
scholarships were by law not tenable by 
catholics. The visitors came to the same 
conclusion. 

In politics O'Hagan was opposed to the 
repeal of the union, advocating instead the 
establishment of a local legislature for local 
purposes, with the representation of Ireland 
continued in the imperial parliament (Speech 
at meeting of Repeal Association, 29 May 
1843). His views not finding favour with 
O'Connell and the leading repealers, he 
ceased to attend the meetings of the repeal 
association. His first professional promotion 
was in 1847, when he was appointed assis- 
tant barrister of co. Longford. In the state 
trials of 1848 he was retained by the crown, 
but desired to be excused on the ground of 
his personal friendship with Gavan Duffy, 
one of the accused; the attorney-general 
(Monahan) at once acceded to his request, 
and withdrew the crown retainer; and 
O'Hagan felt constrained to refuse the re- 
tainer for the defence, which was subse- 
quently offered to him. In the following 
year he was appointed a queen's counsel, and 
rapidly acquired considerable practice as a 
leader both on circuit and in Dublin. Owing 
to his powers as a speaker and his popular 
sympathies, he was frequently retained in 
cases of a political or sensational character. 
The most remarkable was the trial at Dublin 
(7 Dec. 1855) of Father Petcherine, a redemp- 
tori8t monk of Russian birth, on a charge of 
contemptuously and profanely burning a copy 
of the authorised version of the scriptures. 
O'Hagan addressed the jury for the defence in 
a speech of great force and eloquence, and a 
verdict of * not guilty ' was returned. In 1857 
he was transferred as assistant-barrister from 
Longford to co. Dublin. In 1859 he was 
appointed third Serjeant, and elected a 
bencher of the King's Inns. He became soli- 
citor-general for Ireland in 1801 in Lord 
Palmerston's government, and in the follow- 
ing year attorney-general, and was sworn of 
the Irish privy council. At a by-election 
in 1863 he was returned for Tralee, notwith- 
standing the combined opposition of the con- 
servatives and nationalists. By the latter 
he was bitterly assailed, both as attorney- 
general and as a member of the board of 
national education, to which he had been 
appointed in 1858. In a manlv and vigorous 
speech at the hustings he justified his career, 
defended himself from the ' virulent acer- 
bity ' with which he had been attacked, and 
upheld the national system of education as 
' the greatest boon and blessing which since 
emancipation was ever conferred on Ireland 



O'Hagan 

by the imperial government.' In the same 
year in the House of Commons he again 
spoke energetically in defence of the national 
system on a motion by Major O'Reilly to re- 
duce the vote for its expenses (18 July 1863). 
In January 1866 he was appointed a judge 
of the court of common pleas in Ireland in 
succession to Mr. Justice Ball. By an act 
passed in 1867 (30 and 31 Vict. c. 75) the lord- 
chancellorship of Ireland was opened to all 
persons without reference to their religious 
belief, and, on the formation of the first Glad- 
stone ministry in December 1868, O'Hagan 
was appointed to the office. He was the 
first catholic who had held it since the reign 
of James II, and his appointment was re- 
ceived with much popular approval in Ire- 
land. In 1870, while the Irish Land Bill 
was passing through parliament, he wad 
raised to the peerage (14 June) as Baron 
O'Hagan of Tullahogue in co. Tyrone, and 
took his seat in the lords on 21 June. Tulla- 
hogue was in early times a possession of the 
O'Hagans, and was the place where the 
O'Neill was inaugurated, the O'Hagan and 
O'Cahan having the hereditary right to 
perform the ceremony (Joyce, Short Hist, of 
Ireland, p. 63). In the following session he 
introduced and passed through parliament 
a bill to consolidate and amend: the laws 
relating to juries in Ireland (34 and 35 Vict, 
c. 65). Its main object was to prevent any 
partiality by the sheriff or his officers in the 
framing of the jury panel ; this object it suc- 
cessfully effected, but it also altered the 
qualification of jurors, and admitted to the 
jury-box a class of men who were hardly 
fitted for the position. 

In February 1874 O'Hagan resigned with 
the rest of the ministry. His decisions in 
the Irish court of chancery are reported in 
the ' Irish Reports ' (Equity), vols, iv.-viii. 
A successful common-law advocate suddenly 
called to preside in the court of chancery can 
at best hope to discharge the duties of his 
office in a satisfactory manner. This O'Hagan 
did, and his courtesy and impartiality met 
with general acknowledgment. But with 
his colleague, the lord justice of appeal 
(Christian), an able and erudite but some- 
what eccentric judge, his relations became 
unfortunately strained ; and at times scenes 
took place in the court for which the chan- 
cellor was in no way responsible. During 
the next six years O'Hagan sat regularly in 
the House of Lords on the hearing of appeals. 
His judgments will be found in vol. vii. of 
* English and Irish Appeal Cases/ and vols, 
i.-v. of * Appeal Cases ' in the ' Law Reports.' 
In 1875 he was selected to deliver the O'Con- 
nell centenary address in Dublin ; the illness 



O'Hagan 



55 



O'Haingli 



of a near relative prevented its actual delivery, 
but it was printed and circulated. A similar 
task was assigned to him at the Moore cen- 
tenary in 1878 ; twenty-one years before he 
had made the principal speech on the unveil- 
ing of Moore's statue in Dublin. In Irish 
educational questions he took an active in- 
terest, and supported the Irish Intermediate 
Education ana University Education Bills 
in the House of Lords (28 June 1878, 8 July 
1879). He was one of the original members 
of the intermediate education board esta- 
blished in 1878, and its first vice-chairman, 
and was appointed one of the senators of the 
Royal University of Ireland on its founda- 
tion in 1880. At the first meeting of the 
senate he was elected vice-chancellor, and 
from that time forward constantly presided 
at the meetings of the senate and the council. 
In May 1880, on the return of Mr. Gladstone 
to office, he again became lord-chancellor of 
Ireland, and in the following year strongly 
supported the Irish Land Bill in the House 
of Lords, describing it as 'the most im- 
portant measure that since the time of the 
union had been conceded to Ireland ' (1 Aug. 
1881). He resigned the chancellorship in 
November of that year owing to fading 
health, but still continued to attend the 
judicial sittings of the House of Lords. He 
was made a knight of St. Patrick in 1881, 
and elected an honorary bencher of Gray's 
Inn in 1883. He died on 1 Feb. 1885, at his 
town residence, Hereford House, Park Street, 
London. His body was removed to Dublin, 
and buried in Glasnevin cemetery. 

O'Hagan's manners were genial and con- 
ciliatory. He never indulged in asperity of 
speech or demeanour towards his opponents, 
and almost invariably enjoyed their esteem 
and good will. As a politician his career was 
honourable and consistent. His professional 
advancement was not due to politics; he had 
already reached the highest place at the bar 
before he sought a seat in parliament. From 
the time of the collapse of the repeal move- 
ment, he supported an alliance between the 
popular partv in Ireland and the English 
liberals, and he lived to see the Irish measures 
which he most desired passed as the result of 
that alliance. His papers and addresses and 
his principal speeches and arguments are col- 
lected in ' Occasional Papers and Addresses 
by Lord O'Hagan/ 1884; and 'Selected 
Speeches and Arguments of Lord O'Hagan/ 
edited by George Teeling, 1885. 

He was twice married : first, in 1836, to 
Mary, daughter of Charles Hamilton Teel- 
ing of Belfast ; and, secondly, in 1871, to 
Alice Mary, youngest daughter and coheiress 
Of Colonel Towneley of Towneley, Lanca- 



shire. Bv his first marriage, one daughter 
only survived him, the wife of Mr. Justice 
John O'Hagan [q. v.l ; by his second marriage 
he left several children, of whom the eldest 
son (Thomas Towneley) is now second Baron 
O'Hagan. His statue, by Farrell, is in the 
Four Courts, Dublin ; his portrait, by Mr. 
George Richmond, is in the possession of his 
family. 

[Times, 2 Feb. 1885; Freeman's Journal, 
2 Feb. 1885 ; Tablet, 7 Feb. 1885; Annual Re- 
gister, 1885 ; Report of the Trial of the Rev. 
Vladimir Petcherine, by James Doyle, Dublin, 
1856 ; Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 1894 ; 
private information.] J. D. F. 

O'HAINGLI, DONAT, called by the 
' Four Masters ' Donngus (d. 1095\ bishop 
of Dublin, was a member of a family whose 
home was at Cinel Dobhth, co. Roscommon. 
He had been a student in Ireland, but, pro- 
ceeding to England, became a monk of the 
Benedictine order, and lived for some time at 
Lanfranc's monastery at Canterbury. On the 
death of Patrick, bishop of Dublin, who was 
drowned on his way to England on 10 Oct. 
1084, O'Haingley was elected to succeed him 
by Turlough O'Brien [q. v.] and the clergy 
and people of Dublin. He seems to have been 
recommended by Lanfranc, who was anxious 
for the reform of several Irish practices. 
He was sent for consecration to Lanfranc, 
with a letter from his patrons explaining 
that, as Patrick was prevented by death from 
reporting to him how far the abuses com- 
plained of had been remedied, Donat would 
give him the information. He was con- 
secrated in Canterbury Cathedral in 1085, 
having made a profession of canonical obe- 
dience as follows : ' I, Donat, bishop of Dub- 
lin in Ireland, promise canonical obedience 
to thee, Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and to thy successors/ When returning to 
Dublin, Lanfranc gave him a present of books 
and ornaments for his cathedral of the Holy 
Trinity. He died on 23 Nov. 1095 of the 
great plague, which, according to the ' Four 
Masters/ carried off a fourth part of the 
people of Ireland. 

He was succeeded by his nephew, Samuel 
O'Haingli, who also had been a Benedic- 
tine monk, and was a member of the com- 
munity of St. Albans. He was elected by 
Murtough O'Brien [q. v.] and the clergy and 
people of Dublin, and was recommended to 
Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, for con- 
secration. Anselm received him into his 
house, gave him instruction in ecclesiastical 
matters, and subsequently, on the Sunday 
after Easter 1096, assisted by four bishops, 
consecrated him in the cathedral of Win- 



O'Halloran 



56 



O'Halloran 



Chester, j ust two years after its completion. 
Samuel nad already made a profession of 
canonical obedience to Anselm and his suc- 
cessors. The account of Eadmer is that he 
was sent to Anselm * according to ancient 
custom ; ' but the custom was certainly not 
ancient, as the first instance of the consecra- 
tion of an Irish bishop by the Archbishop 
of Canterbury was that of Patrick in 1073. 
Eadmer apparently wished to exalt the see 
of Canterbury. On his return to Ireland 
Samuel disappointed the expectations formed 
of him by expelling some of the monks from 
the cathedral of the Holy Trinity, and taking 
possession of the books and ornaments Lan- 
franc had sent by Donat as a gift to it. He 
also ordered his cross to be borne before 
him. Anselm wrote to remonstrate with 
him, telling him that the ornaments belonged 
to the church and not to him, and that he was 
not entitled to have his cross borne before 
him, as he had not been invested with the 
pall. Anselm also wrote to Malchus, bishop 
of Waterford, to the same purport, enclosing 
a letter for Samuel, and requesting him to 
use his influence with Samuel. He adds 
that he had ordered the people of Dublin to 
prevent the removal of the objects referred 
to. Samuel died in 1121, being the last who 
bore the title of bishop of Dublin, all his suc- 
cessors being archbishops. 

[D Alton's Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dub- 
lin, 1838, p. 35 ; Ware's Bishops, s.v. ' Dublin ; ' 
Eadmer's Hist. Nov. lib. ii. ad an.] T. 0. 

O'HALLORAN, Sir JOSEPH (1763- 
1843), major-general in the East India Com- 
pany's service, youngest son of Sylvester 
O'Halloran [q. v.], was born in co. Limerick 
on 13 Aug. 1763. On 22 Feb. 1781 he 
was appointed midshipman on board the 
East India Company's sloop of war Swal- 
low, and in July that year obtained an in- 
fantry cadetship; was made ensign in the 
Bengal army on 9 May 1782 and lieu- 
tenant on 6 Jan. 1785. In 1790 he married, 
and on 7 Jan. 1796 became captain. From 
June 1796 to October 1802 he was adjutant 
and quartermaster at Midnapiir, and was 
attached to the public works department. 
On the abolition of his office he rejoined his 
corps, the late 18th Bengal native infantry. 
In September 1803 he accompanied a force 
of all arms which crossed the Jumna for 
the subjugation of Bundelkund, and on 
12 Oct. defeated fifteen thousand Marathas 
at Kopsah. His gallantry at the sieges of 
Bursaar and Jeswarree in January 1804 led 
to his appointment to supervise the opera- 
tions of an irregular force of two thousand 
men, under Shaik Kurub Ali, in the interior 



of Bundelkund. On 15 May he attacked 
and defeated, after a determined resistance, 
Raja Ram and ten thousand Bondeelas en- 
trenched among the rocks and hills of Ma- 
haba. On 1 July he commanded two bri- 
gades of irregulars in another attack on Raja 
Ram and a force of sixteen thousand Bon- 
deelas and Naghas on the fortified hills of 
Thanah and Purswarree. Subsequently he 
served at the siege of Saitpur, and in De- 
cember attacked and stormed several other 
towns and forts. In January 1805 he cap- 
tured the forts of Niagacre and Dowra, in 
Pinwarree. His services were noticed by 
the Marquis Wellesley. On 1 Nov. 1805 he 
was appointed commissary of supplies by 
Lord Lake, and, on the breaking up of the 
army on 1 June 1806, rejoined his regiment, 
and on 25 April 1808 attained the rank of 
major. He commanded the attack on the 
strongly fortified hill of Rogoulee, in Bun- 
delkund, on 22 Jan. 1809. Colonel Martin- 
dell [see Martindell, Sir Gabriel], who 
commanded in Bundelkund, made O'Hallo- 
ran his military secretary ; and his conduct 
at the head of the first battalion 18th 
native infantry at the siege of the fortress of 
Adjeghur was specially noticed. He became 
lieutenant-colonel on 4 June 1814, served 
in the campaigns against the Nepaulese in 
1815 and 1816, in the first campaign cover- 
ing the district of Tirhoot, in the second at 
the siege of Hurreehurpur, and afterwards 
commanded his battalion in Cuttack during 
the disturbances there. For his services he 
was made C.B. In August 1818 he was sent 
to join the first battalion 20th native in- 
fantry in the Straits Settlements, and on 
arrival there was appointed commandant of 
the 25th Bengal native infantry. In January 
1825 he was appointed brigadier at Bar- 
rackpore. Before leaving he received the 
thanks of the government of the Straits 
Settlements for his zeal and marked ability, 
and received the unusual honour of a salute 
of eleven guns on his embarkation. In De- 
cember 1828 he became a brigadier-general, 
and was appointed to the Saugor division of 
the army. He became colonel of a regiment 
on 4 June 1829. With the expiration of his 
five years' period of staff service, on 23 Dec. 

1833, ended his active military career of 
fifty-three years, during which he had never 
taken any furlough or leave to Europe. 

O'Halloran landed in England m May 

1834. In February 1835 he received knight- 
hood at the hands of William IV, who ob- 
served that the distinction was well earned 
by his long meritorious and gallant services, 
and by his consecration of his eight sons to 
the service of his country, O'Halloran be- 



O'Halloran 



57 



O'Halloran 



came a major-general on 10 Jan. 1837. He 
was made K.C.B. in 1837, and G.C.B. in 
1841. He became a member of the Royal 
Asiatic Society of London in 1836, was 
chosen an honorary member of the Royal 
Irish Academy in 1838, and received the 
freedom of his native city (Limerick) on 
25 Feb. the same year. He died at his resi- 
dence in Connaught Terrace, Hyde Park, 
London, on 3 Nov. 1843, from the effects of 
a street accident, causing fracture of the 
neck of the thigh-bone. He was buried in 
the catacombs at Kensal Green cemetery, 
immediately beneath the chapel. A memorial 
tablet was placed in the wall of the south 
cloister. 

O'Halloran married, in 1790, Frances, 
daughter of Colonel Nicholas Bavley, M.P., 
of Redhill, Surrey, late of the 1st foot-guards 
and brother of the first Earl of Uxbridge, 
by whom he had a large family. His second 
son, Thomas Shuldham O'Halloran, is noticed 



lis sixth son, William Littlejohn 
O'Halloran (1800-1885), born at Berbam- 

fore on 5 May 1806, came to England in 
811, and on 11 Jan. 1824 received a com- 
mission as ensign in the 14th foot, which 
corps he joined at Meerut. He served with 
his regiment at the siege and storm of Bhurt- 
pore (medal) in 1825-6, obtaining his lieu- 
tenancy in action. In April 1827 he exchanged 
into the 38th regiment ; served on the staff of 
his father at Saugor, Central India ; and was 
employed on recruiting service in Belfast from 
1832 to 1834. In the Fatter year he embarked 
for Sydney with a detachment of the 50th 
regiment. Thence he sailed for Calcutta, 
rejoined the 38th regiment at Chinsorah in 
1835, and accompanied it to England in 1836. 
He obtained his company by purchase on 
29 Dec. 1837, and retired from the army in 
April 1840. He then embarked for South 
Australia, landed at Glenelg on 11 Aug. 
1840, and purchased a property near Ade- ' 
laide. In August 1841 he was appointed a ' 
justice of the peace, in March 1843 a mem- 
ber of the board of audit, in June 1843 private 
secretary to Governor Grey and clerk of the 
councils, and in January 1851 auditor-general 
of South Australia. In 1866 he acted as 
chairman of a commission for inquiring into 
the administration of affairs in the northern 
territory. On 22 Jan. 1868 he retired, after 
serving the colonial government for upwards 
of twenty-four vears. He died at Adelaide on 
15 July 1885, having married, in December 
1881, Eliza Minton, daughter of John Mon- 
tague Smyth. He left two daughters and 
three sons, the eldest of whom, Joseph 
Sylvester O'Halloran, is secretary to tne 



Royal Colonial Institute (Colonies and India, 
24 July 1885). 

[Burke's Colonial Gentry, 1891, i. 81 ; East 
India Army Lists; Military Annual (ed. by 
Griffiths), 1844 ; a pamphlet entitled ' Services 
of Sir Joseph O'Halloran/ printed and published 
by Marshall, 21 Edgware Road, circa 1844.1 

H. M. C. 

0'HALLORAN,LAWRENCE H YNES 

i 1766-1831), miscellaneous writer. [See 
Ialloran.J 

O'HALLORAN, SYLVESTER (1728- 
1807), surgeon and antiquary, born in Lime- 
rick on 31 Dec. 1728, studied medicine 
and surgery at the universities of Paris 
and Leyden. While on the continent he 
paid particular attention to diseases of the 
eye, and at Paris wrote a treatise on that 
organ. This he published, on settling in 
practice at Limerick in 1750, under the title 
of ' A new Treatise on the Glaucoma, or 
Cataract.' It was the first work of the kind 
that issued from the Irish press, and O'Hal- 
loran's ophthalmic practice grew rapidly. 
In 1752 he addressed a paper on cataract to 
the Royal Societv, and this he afterwards 
amplified under the title of * A Critical Ana- 
lysis of a New Operation for Cataract.' In 
1788 he communicated to the Royal Irish 
Academy his last essay on the eye, entitled 
' A Critical and Anatomical Examination of 
the Parts immediately interested in the Opera- 
tion for a Cataract, with an attempt to render 
the Operation itself, whether by Depression 
or Extraction, more successful/ In 1765 he 
published ' A Complete Treatise on Gangrene 
and Sphacelus, with a new mode of Ampu- 
tation/ In 1791 a paper entitled * An At- 
tempt to determine with precision such In- 
juries of the Head as necessarily require the 
Operation of the Trephine ' was printed in 
the 'Transactions' of the Royal Irish Aca- 
demy ; and he subsequently published ' A 
new Treatise on the different Disorders aris- 
ing from external Injuries of the Head/ which 
displayed much original research. O'Hal- 
loran laid down the new but very sound rule 
that concussion of the brain, characterised 
by immediate stupor and insensibility, does 
not require the trephine unless accompanied 
by evident depression of the skull or extra- 
vasation, neither of which produces dangerous 
symptoms for some time after the accident 
which has given rise to them. Among other 
achievements, O'Halloran was the virtual 
founder, in 1760, of the county Limerick in- 
firmary, renting three or four houses which 
he threw into one. His ' Proposals for the 
Advancement of Surgery in Ireland, with a 
retrospective View of the ancient State of 



O'Halloran 



58 



O'Halloran 



Physic amongst us/ appears to have influ- 
enced the founders of the Royal College of 
Surgeons in Ireland in 1784. On 7 Aug. 
1786, two years after the date of the charter, 
he was elected an honorary member of the 
college, an unUsual honour in those days. 

He devoted much time to literary and 
antiquarian researches, and was acquainted 
with the Irish language. His first work in 
this department was * Insula Sacra/ printed 
in 1770, with a view to the preservation of 
the ancient Irish annals. In 1774 he pub- 
lished his ' Ierne Defended/ a plea for the 
validity and authenticity of ancient Irish 
history. A literary society in Limerick was 
chiefl v supported by his labours, and was dis- 
solved at his death. His ' General History 
of Ireland from the earliest Accounts to the 
Close of the 12th Century' engrossed his 
chief attention during the latter period of his 
life, and was published in 1774. 

He died at Limerick on 11 Aug. 1807, in 
his 80th year, and was buried in Killeely 
churchyard. He married in 1752 Mary 
O'Casey, by whom he had three sons and one 
daughter. One son, Sir Joseph O'Halloran, 
is noticed separately. 

A portrait appears in the Dublin * Journal 
of Medical Science/ November 1873. 

[Dublin Quarterly Journal of Science, August 
1848 ; Memoir by Sir William Wilde, pp. 223-50; 
Lessons on the Lives of Irish Surgeons: an ad- 
dress introductory to the session of the Royal 
College of Surgeons, October 1873, by E. D. 
Mapother, M.D., reprinted from the Dublin 
Journal of Medical Science, November 1873; 
Burke's Colonial Gentry, 1891, i. 81.1 

J. S. O'H. 

O'HALLORAN, THOMAS SHULD- 
HAM (1797-1870), major and commissioner 
of police in South Australia, was the second 
son of Major-general Sir Joseph O'Halloran, 
G.C.B., by his wife Frances, daughter of 
Colonel Nicholas Bayly, M.P., and niece of 
Henry, first earl of Uxbridge. He was born 
at Berhampore in the East Indies on 25 
Oct. 1797; was a cadet at the Royal Mili- 
tary College, Mario w, in 1808 ; and was ap- 
pointed ensign in the royal West Middlesex 
militia in 1809. In 1812 the college and 
students were removed from Marlow to 
Sandhurst. In 1813 he was gazetted ensign 
in the 17th foot, and joined his regiment in 
1814. With it he served during the whole 
of the Nepaul war in the years 1814, 1815, 
and 1816. On 28 June 1817 he received 
his lieutenancy, and served during the 
Deccan war in 1817 and 1818. In 1822 he 
exchanged from the 17th to the 44th regi- 
ment, which he joined at Calcutta in 1823. 
In 1824 he was ordered with the left wing 



of the 44th to Chittagong, where he arrived 
early in June, and was appointed paymaster, 
quartermaster, and interpreter. On 30 Oct. 
he was made brigade-major to Brigadier- 
general Dunkin, C.B., who commanded the 
bylhet division of the army during the Bur- 
mese war, and served on his staff until 
Dunkin's death in November 1825. He re- 
ceived a medal for war service in India for 
Nepaul and A va. On 27 April 1827 he pur- 
chased his company in the 99th regiment, 
and exchanged into the 56th regiment in 
1828. In 1829 he exchanged into the 6th 
regiment, and joined his father as aide-de- 
camp at Saugor, Central India. From June 
1830 to January 1831 he served as deputy 
assistant-quartermaster-general at Saugor. 
He retired on half-pay in October 1834. In 
1837 he was placed on full pay as captain in 
the 97th regiment, and in that year was sent, in 
command of two companies of his regiment 
and a troop of the 4th dragoon guards, to 
quell the riots in Yorkshire. In 1838 he 
retired from the army on the sale of his 
commission. 

He sailed for South Australia in the Ra- 
jasthan, and, landing at Glenelg on 21 Nov. 
1838, settled with his family at O'Halloran 
Hill, near Adelaide, South Australia. On 
2 Feb. 1839 he was nominated a justice of 
the peace; on 26 Feb. 1840 was gazetted 
major-commandant of the South Australia 
militia, and on 8 June as commissioner of 
police. In 1 840 when the Maria was wrecked 
at Lacepede Bay, and the crew were mur- 
dered by natives, O'Halloran was sent to 
investigate the matter, with the result that 
two 01 the natives were hanged, and no 
organised attack was ever made again by 
natives on Europeans in that part of the 
colony. On 17 Aug. of the same year he 
was sent in command of an expedition against 
the Milmenura (or Big Murray) aborigines. 
On 21 April 1841 he commanded an expedi- 
tion against those known as the River Mur- 
ray and Rufus natives. On 7 Nov. he was 
in command of an expedition to Port Lincoln 
against the Battara natives. On 12 April 
1843 he resigned his appointment as com- 
missioner of police, lie maintained the 
force in a high state of efficiency, and, though 
a rigid disciplinarian, was much liked and 
respected by the officers and men. On 15 June 
1843 he was nominated senior non-official 
member of the nominee council, and con- 
tinued in that position for eight years, when 
the first instalment of representative govern- 
ment was granted. He contested the Sturt 
district in 1851, and Noarlunga in 1855, 
but without success, owing to his advocacy 
of state aid to religion. In 1854 he was 



^\ 



O'Halloran 



S9 



O'Hanlon 



gazetted lieutenant-colonel of the volunteer 
military force. When the present constitu- 
tion was granted in 18*57, he was returned 
to the legislative council at the head of the 
poll against twenty-seven candidates. In 
1863 he resigned his seat, and passed the rest 
of his life in retirement. He died at O'Hal- 
loran Hill on 16 Aug. 1870. 

He married, first, on 1 Aug. 1821 , Ann Goss 
of Dawlish, Devonshire, who died in Calcutta 
in 1823, leaving two children ; secondly, in 
1834, Jane Waring of Newry, by whom he 
had three sons and one daughter. 

[South Australian Register, 17 Aug. 1870; 
Burke's Colonial Gentry, 1891, p. 82.] 

J. S. O'H. 

O'HALLORAN, WILLIAM LITTLE- 
JOHN (1806-1885), captain. [See under 
O'Halloran, Sir Joseph.] 

O'HANLON, REDMOND (d. 1681) t Irish 
outlaw, known on the continent as Count 
Hanlon, was one of a clan called in Irish the 
Hanluain, who furnished a standard-bearer 
north of the Boyne. They were seated in the 
baronies of Orier, in co. Armagh, and their 
chief was wounded at the Moyry Pass when 
carrying the queen's colours in July 1595. 
Oghie O'Hanlon was knighted, and fell fight- 
ing under Mountjoy atCarlingford in Novem- 
ber 1600. On the settlement of Ulster under 
James I grants were made to various O'Han- 
lons; but they lost all during the civil war, 
and their ruin was confirmed by the operation 
of the Acts of Settlement and Explanation 
under Charles II. In his youth Redmond 
appears to have served in the army during 
Strafford's government, and to have been 
discharged at the reduction of the forces 
which immediately preceded and partly 
caused the great Irish outbreak of 1641. 
He fled to France on account of his share in 
some affray. The date of his return to Ire- 
land is uncertain, but he became a leader of 
outlaws or tories in Ulster about 1670, when 
he had finally abandoned all hopes of regain- 
ing his patrimony. His brother Loghlin 
shared his fortunes. 

Arthur Capel, earl of Essex [q. v.], who 
governed Ireland from 1672 to 1677, made 
many vain attempts to capture O'Hanlon, 
who had become an intolerable scourge. The 
Duke of Ormonde returned as viceroy in 
August 1677, and soon turned his attention to 
the formidable tory. Redmond levied regu- 
lar contributions on the counties of Armagh, 
Tyrone, and Down. Much land lay waste, and 
no road was safe. His favourite haunt was 
Slieve Gullion between Newry and Dundalk, 
where his father had possessed lands, and 
one of his greatest enemies was Edmund 



Murphy, parish priest of Killevy, at the foot 
of those hills. O'Hanlon imposed penalties 
on all who resorted to Murphy — a cow for 
the first offence, two for tne second, and 
death for the third. Captain William But- 
ler, who had the confidence of his kinsman 
the lord-lieutenant, lay with his company at 
Dundalk, and plotted the outlaw's destruc- 
tion with Father Murphy and Sir Hans 
Hamilton. Redmond could harm so many 
that he had interested friends even in the 
army. Two officers, Smith and Baker, of 
whom the latter was a local magistrate and 
proprietor, were among these, and he had five 
accomplices in Butler's own company. There 
were several attempts to arrest him in and 
after September 1678, but his intelligence 
was too good. He thought it prudent to rob 
in Connaught for a time, but returned to his 
old ground in the autumn of 1679. An out- 
law employed as a spy by Hamilton and 
Butler was murdered by Lieutenant Baker, 
who, with singular impudence, presented 
his head to Ormonde ; and Father Murphy 
was imprisoned at Dundalk, lest he should 
give information about his delinquencies and 
those of Ensign Smith. Murphy managed 
to get to Dublin, leaving his Drother as a 
hostage, and his interview with the lord- 
lieutenant sealed Redmond O'Hanlon's fate : 
200/. was placed on his head, 100/. on Logh- 
lin's, and Sir Hans Hamilton was allowed a 
free hand. Henry Jones [q. v.], bishop of 
Meath, whose daughter was married to Mr. 
Annesley of Castlewellan, tried to get a par- ' 
don for Redmond on condition of his proving 
his sincerity, first 'by bringing in or cutting 
off some of the principal tones/ and after- 
wards by keeping the district clear from 
them. Sir Hans Hamilton, who was edu- 
cated at Glasgow, hints that the bishop was 
bribed through his son-in-law. But Redmond 
was also intriguing with Roger Boyle [q. v.], 
bishop of Clogher, and Annesley suggested a 
little later that the government would show 
no mercy unless the outlaw informed about 
the French conspiracy which was supposed to 
be on foot in connection with Oates 8 plot ; 
but he told nothing, and probably there was 
nothing to tell. At two o'clock in the after-, 
noon of 25 April 1681 he was asleep in an 
empty cabin guarded by his foster-brother 
Arthur O'Hanlon ; but the faithless sentinel 
shot him dead, and received 100/. reward for 
so doing. His wife, or reputed wife, who was 
an innkeeper's daughter, was much younger 
than he was, and is believed to have given 
the signal in revenge for his ill-usage. The 
secret commission which led to this result 
was written by Ormonde with his own hand. 
Loghlin O'Hanlon was killed towards the 



^ 



O'Hanly 



60 



O'Hara 



•end of the same year by John Mullin, who 
received 60/. 

Redmond OTIanlon had at one time fifty 
men under his orders, and had often a band 
in each of the four provinces at once. His 
own disguises were many, and he more than 
once escaped by inviting soldiers sent after 
him to an inn, and making them drunk 
before they found out who he was. He once 
took to the water when hotly pursued near 
Carlingford, and when a dog was sent in 
After him drew the animal under, and dived 
or swam away. Many stories are told of 
his courage and strength, and some generous 
actions are ascribed to him, but also many 
murders. He sometimes left his native 
liills to lurk in the bog of Allen or other 
wild places, and once ventured as far south 
as Clonmel, where he rescued the great 
Munster tory Power from his captors. In 
Slieve Gullion and its neighbourhood many 
local traditions about him survive. A very 
old man, bearing the name of Redmond 
O'Hanlon, and claiming to be his descen- 
dant, died close to Silverbridge, co. Armagh, 
About 1889. Sir F. Brewster, writing imme- 
diately after the great tory's death, says he 
was a scholar and a man of parts, and adds 
that ' considering the circumstances he lay 
under, and the tune he continued, he did, in 
my opinion, things more to be admired [i.e. 
wondered at] than Scanderbeg himself/ 

[Carte MSS. vol. xxxix.; Carte's Life of the 
Duke of Ormonde, bk. viii.; The Present State of 
Ireland, but more particularly of Ulster, presented 
to the People of England, by Edmund Murphy, 
Parish Priest of Killevy and titular chanter of 
Armagh, and one of the Discoverers of the Irish 
Plot, fol. London, 1681 ; Prendergast's Ireland 
from the Restoration to the Revolution. Of the 
two contemporary pamphlets mentioned by Mr. 
Prendergast at p. 122, one (published in 1681) is 
in the Bodleian, but not in the British Museum, 
in Trinity College, Dublin, or in the Royal Irish 
Academy. The other (published in 1682) is not 
in any of these four libraries. There is also a 
chap-book in the British Museum printed at 
Glasgow, with a motto from Wordsworth, but evi- 
dently taken from an older original.] R. B-l. 

O'HANLY, DONAT (d. 1095), bishop 
of Dublin. [See O'Haingli.] 

O'HARA, Sir CHARLES, first Loud 
Tyrawley (1640P-1724), military com- 
mander, is said to have been a native of 
Mayo, but his patent of peerage (Lodge, 
Peerage 0/ Ireland, iv. 201 n.) describes him 
as of Leyny, co. Sligo. If he was really 
eighty-four at his death in 1724, he must 
have been born in 1640 ; but it is just possible 
that he was ten years younger, and thus 
identifiable with Charles, second son of Sir 



William O'Hara, knt., of Crebilly, co. Antrim, 
who was admitted fellow-commoner of Tri- 
nity College, Oxford, in June 1667, at the 
age of seventeen. In 1 679 he was gazetted to 
a captaincy in the Earl of Ossory's regiment 
(Brit. Mu8. Add. MSSX having been Ossory's 
'tutor* (Lodge, La), that is, probably, tutor 
to his son James, second duke of Ormonde, 
who was born in 1665. In 1688 he was 
transferred to the 1st foot-guards, of which 
he became lieutenant-colonel in March, and 
he was knighted in August 1689. He served 
under William III in Flanders ; in 1695 
was made brigadier-general, in 1702 major- 

feneral, in 1704 lieutenant-general, and on 
3 Nov. 1714 general. Meanwhile, in No- 
vember 1696, at Ghent, he had been rewarded 
with the colonelcy of the royal fusiliers, now 
the 7th foot. His regiment, after being sta- 
tioned in the Channel Islands from 1697, was 
in 1703 sent on the Cadiz expedition under 
Ormonde. O'Hara distinguished himself at 
the capture of Vigo and the burning of the 
Spanish fleet, but is said to have treacherously 
thwarted Ormonde ( Parnell, War of the Suc- 
cession in Spain, p. 29). He was arrested for 
having connived at the plunder of Port St. 
Mary, tried bv a court-martial, and acquitted. 
In 1706 O Hara was created a peer of Ire- 
land, taking his title fromTirawley orTyraw- 
ley, a barony in co. Mayo. In 1/06 he pro- 
ceeded to Spain with his regiment, and was 
appointed second in command to the Earl of 
Galway. At Guadalaxara his gallant defence 
of an outpost for two hours * only just saved 
the army from a disgraceful surprise ' (Rus- 
sell, Peterborough, ii. 54). On 15 Jan. 1707 a 
council of war was held at Valencia, in which 
Galway, Tyrawley, and Stanhope were in fa- 
vour of immediate offensive operations with 
undivided troops. Peterborough advocated 
delav, but appears to have been outvoted by 
the foreign generals. Galway, Tyrawley, and 
Stanhope put their opinions in writing, and 
sent them to England (Stanhope to Sir C. 
Hedges in Stanhope's War of Succession in 
Spain, App. p. 44). The result of the attempt 
to march on Madrid was the disastrous battle 
of Almanza, fought on 25 April 1707. Tyraw- 
ley, though the royal fusiliers were not pre- 
sent, was in command of the left wing of the 
allies, and made two charges, which were re- 
pulsed by the Due de Popoli (PARNELL,op. cit. 
pp. 218-19; BoYER,p.292). He was wounded, 
but escaped with the cavalry to Tortosa (Stan- 
hope, op. cit. p. 231). He soon returned to 
England, either before September 1707 (Par- 
nell, p. 236), or with his regiment in 1708. 
He took his seat as a peer 25 May 1710, and 
was sworn a privy councillor, being re-sworn 
in 1714 by George I. His regiment was at 



O'Hara 



61 



O'Hara 



Minorca 1709-13, and he was probably go- 
vernor of that island. In January 1711 the 
tory party in the House of Lords, in order 
to cement their alliance with Peterborough, 
summoned Galway and Tyrawley to answer 
for the mismanagement of the war in Spain 
in 1707. Tyrawley 'stood upon the reserve/ 
and said that 'when he was in the army he 
kept no register, and carried neither pen nor 
inn about him, but only a sword ' (Botek, 
p. 486). On 9 Jan. Galway produced his 
' Narrative/ and on Peterborough's making 
adverse statements, Tyrawley demanded to 
know, before he made any explanations, 
whether he was accused or not. The op- 
position raised a debate as to his right to an 
answer. Peterborough disclaimed any wish 
to accuse him, and Tyrawley then gave a 
short account, supporting Galway. On a reso- 
lution being passed declaring the three gene- 
rals responsible for the offensive operations 
and for the disaster at Almanza, Galway and 
Tyrawley petitioned (1 1 Jan.) for time to pro- 
duce answers, and the whig peers recorded 
two strong protests in their favour ; but no 
further steps were taken (Rogers, Protests 
of the Lords, i, clxix, clxx). 

On 5 Nov. 17 14 Tyrawley, having resigned 
his colonelcy to his son, was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of the forces in Ireland, where 
he raised a regiment of foot in 1715. This 
post he retained till 1721. He was some 
time governor of the Royal Hospital near 
Dublin. He died on 8 or 9 June 1724, and 
was buried on 11 June in the chancel- vault 
of St. Mary's, Dublin. 

Tyrawley had married Frances, daughter of 
Gervase Rouse of Rouse-Lench, Worcester, 
who survived him, and died on 10 Nov. 1733. 
He left, besides his son James [q. v.], a daugh- 
ter Mary, who died in 1759 (Burke, Extinct 
Peerage). He is described as a man of ' a 
good understanding, a large fund of learning, 
and fit to command an army* (Lodge, I.e.) 
Some official letters by him are preserved 
among the Tyrawley Papers (Adait. MSS. 
1854-60, pp. 876-8), and also among the 
Ellis Papers (Addit. MS. 28946). 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, vol. iv. ; Stan- 
hope's War of the Succession in Spain; Parnell's 
War of the Succession in Spain ; Cannon's His- 
torical Records of the British Army. 7th Foot ; 
Pari. Hist. vi. 938 seq. ; Burnet's Hist, of Own 
Time; Boyer's Annals of Queen Anne, 1735; 
Townsend's Cat. of Knights ; Brit. Mus. Oat.] 

H. E. D. B. 

O'HARA, CHARLES (1740P-1802), 

feneral, governor of Gibraltar, born about 
740, illegitimate son of James O'Hara, second 
lord Tyrawley, was educated at Westminster 
School, and was appointed to a cornetcy in 



the 3rd dragoons (now hussars), 23 Dec. 1752, 
On 14 Jan. 1766 he was appointed lieutenant 
and captain in the Coldstream guards, of 
which James O'Hara was colonel. He was 
aide-de-camp to the Marquis of Granby [see 
Manners, John, 1721-1770] in Germany, 
after the battle of Minden, and, with the 
brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel, was quarter- 
master-general of the troops under Lord 
Tyrawley in Portugal in the short but sharp 
campaign of 1762. On 25 July 1766 he was 
appointed commandant at Goree, Senegal, 
and lieutenant-colonel-commandant of the 
African corps, formed at that time of mili- 
tary delinquents pardoned on condition of 
their accepting life-service in Africa. He 
held three posts without detriment to his 
promotion in the Coldstream guards, in which 
he became captain and lieutenant-colonel in 
1769, and vacated them on promotion to 
brevet colonel in 1 779. He served in America, 
as brigadier-general commanding the brigade 
of guards, from October 1780; distinguished 
himself at the passage of the Catawba on 
1 Feb. 1781, and received two dangerous 
wounds at the battle of Guilford Courthouse 
on 15 March following. He was with the 
troops under Cornwallis that surrendered at 
Yorktown, Virginia, 19 Oct. 1781 (MacKin- 
non, ii. 11, 14). Cornwallis wrote of him: 
' nis zealous services under my command, the 
pains he took, and the success he met with 
in reconciling the guards to every kind of 
hardship, give him a just claim, independent 
of old friendship, on my very strongest re- 
commendations in his favour' {Cornwallis 
Correspondence , i. 183). O'Hara remained a 
prisoner in America until 9 Feb. 1782, when 
he was exchanged. He had in the meantime 
become a major-general. On 18 March 1782 
he received the colonelcy of the 22nd foot, 
and in May following was given command of 
the reinforcements sent from New York to 
Jamaica. Subsequently he returned home, 
and in 1784 Cornwallis expressed regret that 
' poor O'Hara is once more driven abroad by 
his relentless creditors' (ib. i. 155). O'Hara, 
who was the intimate personal friend of 
Horace Walpole and Henry Seymour Con- 
way [<£. v.l, went to Italy, where he became 
acquainted with Miss Mary Berry [q. v.], who 
was staying with the Con ways at Rome, and 
to whom he afterwards became engaged. 
He appears to have been a major-general 
on the staff at Gibraltar from 1787 to 
1790. Horace Walpole speaks of him as 
at home at the latter date, ' with his face 
as ruddy and black and his teeth as white 
as ever 1 ' (Walpole, Letters, ix. 303), and 
alludes to his having been ' shamefully 
treated,' probably in not obtaining the lieu- 



O'Hara 



6a 



O'Hara 



tenant-governorship of Gibraltar. O'Hara 
was transferred in 1791 to the colonelcy of 
the 74th highlanders, which, being on the 
Indian establishment, was a more lucrative 
post than that of the 22nd at home. In 1792 
ne received the coveted lieutenant-governor- 
ship, and in 1793 became a lieutenant-general. 
Later in the same year he was sent from 
Gibraltar to Toulon, to replace Lord Mul- 
grave in the command of the British troops 
before that place. O'Hara was wounded and 
made prisoner when the French attacked Fort 
Mulgrave on 23 Nov. 1793. He was taken 
to Paris, and kept a prisoner in the Luxem- 
bourg during the reign of terror until August 
1796, when he was exchanged with General 
Bochambeau. During his incarceration he 
told one of his fellow-prisoners, in the course 
of an argument : ' In England we can say King 
George is mad ; you dare not say here that 
Kobespierre is a tiger ' (ALGER,pp. 227-9). 

On his return to England O'Hara was ap- 
pointed governor of Gibraltar in succession 
to General Sir Robert Boyd [q. v.] He 
wished the marriage with Miss Berry to 
take place without delay, but the lady was 
Teluctant to leave home, and at the end of 
1796 the match was broken off. To the end 
of her life she wrote and spoke of O'Hara as 
' the most perfect specimen of a soldier and a 
courtier of the past age/ 

O'Hara became a full general in 1798. At 
Gibraltar he proved himself a very active and 
efficient governor at a critical time. His old- 
fashioned discipline was rigid, but just and 
fair, while his lavish hospitality and agree- 
able companionship made him generally 
popular. In the military novel of ' Cyril 
Thornton ' (p. 101) the author, Captain 
Thomas Hamilton (1789-1842} [q. v.], gives 
his youthful recollections of tne ' Old Cock 
of the Rock,' as O'Hara was called, in his 
Kevenhuller hat and big jackboots, and 
* double row of sausage curls that projected 
on either flank of his toupee ; ' for although 
a young man of his years, in all other parti- 
culars O'Hara affected the old-fashioned garb 
of Ligonier and Granby. 

After much suffering from complications 
caused by his old wounds, O'Hara died at 
Gibraltar on 21 Feb. 1802. Although his cir- 
cumstances had been straitened in earlier 
years, he died rich. He left a sum of 70,000/. 
in trust for two ladies at Gibraltar, by whom 
he had families, for themselves and their 
children. His plate, valued at 7,000/., in- 
clusive of a piece worth 1,000/. presented 
to him by the merchants of Gibraltar, he 
oequeathea to his black servant. 

[Army Lists ; Mackinnon's Hist, of Coldstream 
Guards, vol. ii. ; Cornwallis Corresp. vol. i ; Horace 



Walpole's Letters, passim; Alger's Englishmen 
in the French Revolution ; Extracts from the 
Journals of Miss Berry, vols. i. and ii. ; London 
Gazettes, 1793 ; Toulon Despatches ; Nelson 
Despatches ; War Office and Colonial Office Cor- 
respondence, Gibraltar; Gent. Mag. 1802, pt. i. 
p. 278 (will).] H. M. C. 

O'HARA, JAMES, Lord Kilmaine and 
second Lord Tyrawley (1690-1773), born 
in 1690, was the only son of Sir Charles 
O'Hara, first lord Tyrawley [q. v.] He was 
appointed lieutenant in his father's regiment, 
the royal fusiliers, on 15 March 1703, and 
served at the siege of Barcelona in 1706. At 
the battle of Almanza he was on the staff, 
and was wounded ; he is said to have 
saved Lord Galway's life. He afterwards 
served under Marlborough, and was severely 
wounded (Lodge, Peerage of Ireland, iv. 
202 n.) in the wood of Tasniere, near Tournai, 
during the battle of Malplaquet, 11 Sept. 
1709 (cf. Murray, Marlborough's Despatches, 
iv. 694, 606). He was with the regiment in 
Minorca, and on 29 Jan. 1713 succeeded his 
father as colonel. On 2 Jan. 1722 he was 
rewarded with an Irish peerage, and assumed 
the title of Baron Kilmaine from one of the 
baronies of co. Mayo. He took his seat on 
29 Aug. 1723. In 1724 he succeeded his 
father as second Lord Tyrawley, and was 
sworn of the privy council on 25 June. 

He appears to have been employed for 
some time in Ireland and Minorca, till 1727, 
when he was made aide-de-camp to George II, 
and on 20 Jan. 1728 appointed envoy-extra- 
ordinary to the court of Portugal, where he 
remained as ambassador till 1741. He was 
extremely popular, and on his departure 
received from the king of Portugal fourteen 
bars of gold (Lodge, op. cit. 203 n.) He re- 
turned to England ' with three wives and 
fourteen children* (Walpole, Letters, ed. 
Cunningham, i. 215), and at once gained a 
reputation for wit at the expense of Lords 
Bath and Grantham and the House of Com- 
mons. Meanwhile he had been promoted to 
be brigadier- general (1735), major-general 
(1739), and lieutenant-general (1748), and 
was transferred to the colonelcy of the 5th 
(now 4th) dragoon guards in August 1739, 
quitting it in April 1743 for the captaincy 
and colonelcy of the second troop of horse- 
grenadiers. 

From November 1743 to February 1745 
he was ambassador-extraordinary in Kussia. 
On his return he received the command of 
the 3rd troop of life-guards, with the office 
of gold-stick (30 April 1745), from which, 
in 1746, he was transferred to the 10th 
foot ; thence, in 1 749, to the 14th dragoons; 
in 1752 to the 3rd dragoons j and finally, in 



O'Hara 



63 



1755, to the colonelcy of the 2nd (Cold- 
stream) foot-guards. He became general on 
7 March 1761, and fieM-marshal on 10 June 
1763, and was also governor of Portsmouth. 

In 1752 he returned to Portugal as am- 
bassador, and was also governor of Minorca 
until 1756, when he was sent out on the 
Gibraltar expedition (Walpole, Letters, iii. 
19, George II, ii. 190, 216). On 14 Dec. 1757 
he was president of the court-martial on Sir 
John Mordaunt(1697-1780) [q. v.] (Walpole, 
ib. iii. 78), having been relieved at Gibraltar 
on 16 April 1757. In 1758 an attempt was 
made by Lord George Sackville and Sir J. 
Philipps to censure him in the House of 
Commons for his expenditure on works at 
Gibraltar. Tyrawley demanded to be heard 
at the bar, and prepared a memorial, on 
which Lord George took fright, and procured 
a secret report. Tyrawley appeared Defore a 
committee of the house, which he treated 
with great freedom, and so browbeat his 
accusers that the house declared itself satis- 
fied of ' the innocence of a man who dared 
to do wrong more than they dared to censure 
him' (ib. iii. 108-9). Walpole characterises 
him as ( imperiously blunt, haughty, and 
contemptuous, with an undaunted portion of 
spirit/ and attributes to him a ' great deal of 
humour and occasional good breeding.' Ty- 
rawley professed not to know where the 
House of Commons was ; and his ' brutality ' 
was again exhibited when he was president 
of the court-martial on Lord George Sack- 
ville in 1760. 

When a Spanish invasion of Portugal was 
threatened in 1762, Tyrawley was appointed 
plenipotentiary and general of the English 
forces (Walpole, Letters, iv. 23; Chatham 
Corresp. ii. 174), but was soon superseded 
as too old, and returned to England dis- 

fusted in 1763 (Walpole, George III, i. 
44). He does not appear to have held any 
important post after this, though he was 
sworn of George Ill's privy council on 
17 Nov. 1762. Lord Chatham, with whom 
he had long been on friendly terms ( Chatham 
Corresp. i. 218, ii. 174), writes to Lady 
Chatham to make a ' How-da-you call ' on 
his * fine old friend Lord Tyrawley ' in 1772, 
and a note acknowledging the visit is pre- 
served (ib. iv. 208). Tyrawley, who had 
a seat at Blackheath (Lodge, 1. c), died at 
Twickenham on 14 July 1773, and was buried 
at Chelsea Hospital. 

Tyrawley married Mary, only surviving 
daughter of Lieutenant-general Sir W. 
Stewart, second viscount Mountjoy, but left 
no legitimate issue. He was considered 
' singularly licentious, even for the courts of 
Russia and Portugal ' (Walpole, George III, 



O'Hara 

i. 144) ; and * T y's crew ' is coupled with 

'KpnnoulTs lewd cargo' by Pope (Imita- 
tions of Horace, Epistles, i. 6, 201). An 
illegitimate son Charles (1740P-1802) [q. v.], 
who was much with him, rose to distinction 
in the army. A large mass of his official 
despatches of various periods from Ireland, 
Minorca, Portugal, Russia, and Gibraltar is 
in the British museum (Tyrawley Papers, 
Addit. MSS. 23627-23642; see also New- 
castle Papers, 32697-32895). 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland; Cannon's His- 
torical Records of the British Army, 7th Foot, 
10th Foot, 4th Dragoon Guards, &c. ; Walpole's 
Works and Chatham Correspondence, as above ; 
Ann. Reg. and Gent. Mag. 1773; Tindal's 
Kapin, iv. 10 n. ; dates can be checked by the 
lists of Brit. Mus. Cat. Addit. MSS.] 

H. E. D. B. 

O'HARA, KANE (1714 ?-l 782), writer 
of burlesques, born about 1714, came of an 
old Sligo stock famous for their musical taste. 
He was youngest son of Kane O'Hara of 
Temple House, co. Sligo, who in his will, 
dated 28 March 1719, named a sum to be ex- 
pended on his vounger sons, Adam and Kane, 
during their minorities. Kane, the younger, 
entered Trinity College, Dublin, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1732 and M.A. in 1735. He 
subsequently resided in Dublin, and inte- 
restea himself in music. The musical aca- 
demy at Dublin was founded in 1758 mainly 
by his exertions. Meanwhile the Italian 
burletta had been introduced into Ireland 
by a family of musicians and actors called 
D'Amici. Dublin ran mad after the new 
form of entertainment, and in 1759 O'Hara 
undertook a travesty of it at the instance 
of Lord Mornington, father of the Duke of 
Wellington. The result was an English bur- 
letta entitled ' Midas,' which he composed at 
the seat of William Brownlow, M.P., on 
Lough Neagh. 

O'Hara then lived in King Street, Dublin, 
where the Gaiety Theatre now stands, and 
John O'Keeffe states that he was present in 
this house with Lord Mornington and Brown- 
low when the latter, with a harpsichord, 
helped to settle the music for ' Midas.' The 
piece was played at Capel Street Theatre, 
Dublin, in 1761. It was repeated at Co vent 
Garden, with Shuter as Midas, on 22 Feb. 
1764, when it was published. It was con- 
stantly revived in London, and was per- 
formed at the Haymarket as late as 23 July 
1825. 

O'Hara followed up this success with a 
similar effort, entitled * The Golden Pippin,' a 
burlesque on the story of Paris and the three 

O 1 * esses, which was first acted at Covent 
en on 6 Feb. 1773, with Miss Catley in 



O'Hara 



64 



O'Hearn 



a prominent part On 21 Jan. 1775, at the 
same theatre, was produced O'Hara's ' Two 
Misers,' a musical farce, borrowed from the 
French (Genest, v. 462). The cast included 
Quick and Miss Catley. In the registry of 
deeds office, Dublin, under date 16 Nov. 1780, 
is a document by which Thomas Ryder, 
manager of the Theatre Royal, Crow Street, 
Dublin, covenanted to purchase this piece of 
O'Hara and produce it at his theatre. ' The 
Two Misers ' was published in 1781. A bur- 
letta of inferior quality, ' A Fine Day,' was 
performed for the first time at the Haymarket 
on 22 Aug. 1777, with Banister as Don 
Buffalo. It was published in the sameyear. 
O'Hara three years later converted Field- 
ing's ' Tom Thumb' (1733) into an opera, with 
original songs. It was first performed at 
Covent Garden on 3 Oct. 1780 (i& vi. 186). 

Before 1780, when he signed with his 
' mark ' the covenant with Ryder, O'Hara was 
completely blind, but, despite his affliction, 
posed as a brilliant wit and tine gentleman. 
He was notably tall, and was nicknamed 
St. Patrick's Steeple. A favourite Italian 
glee of the day contained the refrain ' Che 
no' hanno crudelta,' and a parody on this, 
' Kane O'Hara's cruel tall/ was written by 
a local wag, which had much popularity in 
Dublin as a slang song. In his old age he is 
described as having the appearance of ' an 
old fop with spectacles ana an antiquated 
wig, yet withal a polite, sensible, agreeable 
man, the pink of gentility and good breed- 
ing, and an am using companion, though some- 
what prosy .' O'Hara in later life moved from 
King Street, Dublin, to Molesworth Street ; 
but much of his time was spent on visits to 
the country seats of his friends. He died on 
17 June 1782 in Dublin. He left no will. 

Among the songs composed by Torlogh 
O'Carolan [q. v.] on Sligo men from whom 
he had received, hospitality is one entitled 
' Kian O'Hara.' A translation from the Irish, 
by Furlong, of another — 'The Cup of O'Hara' 
— appears in Hardiman's ' Irish Minstrelsy ' 
(vol. i. p. viii). 

O'Hara, like O'Keeffe, was also gifted as 
an artist ; his etching of Dr. William King, 
the learned Anglican archbishop of Dublin, 
was copied by Richardson. OHara's own 

Eortrait is still at Annaghmore, the seat of 
is family in co. Sligo. 
A skit called ' Gngri, translated from the 
Japanese into Portuguese,' and clearly shown 
to be O'Hara's, was first published in the 
' Dublin Monthly Magazine* for 1832. ' Irish 
Varieties' by J. D. Herbert, whose real name 
was Dowling, assigns to O'Hara the Dublin 
slang song, ' The night before Larry was 
stretched;' but we know, on the authority 



of Thomas Moore, that the writer was the 
Rev. Dr. Burroughes. 

[Recollections of John O'Keeffe ; Register of 
Trinity Coll. Dublin ; Reminiscences of Michael 
Kelly; Biographia Dramatica, Dublin, 1782 ; Gil- 
bert s Dublin ; Archdeacon O'Rorke's Hist, of 
Sligo; Registry of Deeds Office, Dublin; Records 
of the Irish Probate Court ; letter from Caldwell 
to Garrick, 3 June 1766 ; Manuscript Account- 
book of Kane O'Hara in possession of the present 
writer ; Irish Monthly Mag. 1832 ; Genest's 
Account of the Stage.] W. J. F. 

O'HARTAGAIN, CINETH (d. 975), 
Irish poet, was a native of the north of Ire- 
land, and his death is recorded by Tighear- 
nach under the year 975. A poem on the 
former grandeur and present desolation of 
Tara, beginning ' Domhan duthain alainne ' 
('Transitory, beautiful World'), is attri- 
buted to him in the ' Leabhar Gabhala ' of 
the O'Clerys. Several long poems ascribed 
to him occur in the ' Dinnsenchus,' a work 
which relates the legendary history of the 
duns, lakes, plains, mountains, and other 
topographical features of Ireland. It gives 
a prose account of each place, followed by an 
account in verse. 

[Book of Leinster, facsimile ; Book of Bally- 
mote, photograph; Transactions of Iberno-Celtic 
Society, Dublin, 1820.] N. M. 

O'HEARN, FRANCIS (1753-1801), 
Irish catholic divine, was born at Lismore, 
co. Waterford, in 1753, and educated at the 
Irish College in Louvain, where he was or- 
dained, and afterwards became a professor, and 
finally rector. Daniel O'Connell [q. v.j was 
for a short time a pupil of his in this college. 
While a student there, O'Hearn attended the 
university of Louvain, and became a member 
of the Flemish ' nation,' one of the groups into 
which, in 'accordance with old custom, the 
university was divided. He became a diligent 
student of the Flemish language; and, more- 
over, did much to foster the language, then 
much in neglect, among the Flemings them- 
selves. He wrote several poems in Flemish, 
of one of which the Bollandist Father de 
Buck has remarked that few Flemings of 
that day could produce so good a poem. 

O'Hearn was an accomplished scholar, and 
spoke several European languages fluently. 
He was also an enthusiastic traveller, and 
had made journeys through most of the con- 
tinental countries on foot. On one occasion, 
while travelling in Turkey, he was suspected 
of instigating a rebellion against the sultan, 
and his arrest was ordered ; but he escaped 
to Russia, and, it is stated, wandered through 
a portion of Siberia, and returned to Belgium 
by Norway, a remarkable feat of travelling 
in those days. 



O'Hely 



65 



O'Hempsy 



On the outbreak of the revolution in 
Flanders in 1790, O'Hearn took sides with 
the popular leader, Van Vonck, but, finding 
the tatter's views too advanced, he gave his 
support to another leader of the popular 
party, Van der Noot, whose intimate friend 
and counsellor he became. Van der Noot 
sought to enlist the sympathies of the Eng- 
lish, German, and Dutch courts, and published 
a manifesto, which he despatched to those 
courts, O'Hearn being sent as envoy to the 
Hague. When the French occupied Belgium 
in 1792, the members of the Irish College of 
Louvain became dispersed, and the building 
was used as a powder-magazine. O'Hearn 
took refuge in Germany, thence returned 
to Ireland, and was appointed parish priest 
of St. Thomas's in Waterford, where he died 
in 1801. 

[Van Even's De Ierlander, Francis O'Hearn, 
Louvain, 1890.] P. L. N. 

O'HELY, PATRICK (d. 1578), Roman 
catholic bishop of Mayo, called in Irish Ua 
Heilighe, was a native of Connaught, and 
earlv became a Franciscan. Proceeding to 
Spain in the fifth year after making his pro- 
fession, he entered the university of Alcala. 
After making much progress in the study of 
theology there, he was summoned to Rome by 
the provincial of his order, and resided in the 
1 convent of Ara Coali.' His learning came 
to the notice of Gregory XIII, who, on 4 July 
1576, appointed him to the see of Mayo. 
O'Hely set out for his diocese almost imme- 
diately, with a companion, Conagh O'Rourke ; 
passing through Paris, he landed at Dingle, 
co. Kerry. He was at once arrested and 
brought before the Countess of Desmond, in 
the absence of her husband. She sent him to 
Limerick to be examined, and after impri- 
sonment there he was conveyed to Kilmal- 
lock. There O'Hely and his companion, 
O'Rourke, were tried by Sir William Drury 
[q.v.], condemned, and hanged, according 
to Renehan, on 22 Aug. 1578. Other au- 
thorities state that at the trial O'Hely sum- 
moned Drury to appear before the judgment- 
seat of heaven ; and, by deferring the date of 
the trial till late in 1579, they suggest a 
close connection between O'Hely's exhorta- 
tion and Drury's death in October of that 
year. There is no mention, however, of the 
trial or execution in the ' State Papers/ Ca- 
rew MSS., or ' Annals of the Four Masters/ 
O'Hely was buried in the Franciscan con- 
vent at Askeaton, co. Limerick. 

[Wadding's Annales Trium Ordinum, xxi. 
155-6; Bruodinus's Propugnaculum Catholic® 
Fidei, pp. 433-7 ; Roth's Analecta, ed. Moran, 
pp. 368, 382 ; O'Sullevan's Historic Cath. Hi- 

VOL. XLII. 



bernise Compendium, pp.77, 104-6; DeBurgo's 
Hibernia Dominicana ; Brady's Episcopal Suc- 
cession, ii. 155-6 ; Gams's Series Epipcopornm ; 
Moran's Spicilegium Ossoriense, iii. 36-7 ; 
O'Reilly's Irish Martyrs and Confessors, pp. 51- 
53, and Memorials, pp. 28-30 ; Renehan's Col- 
lections, pp. 276, 389, &c. ; Webb's Irish Bio- 
graphy ; Cal. State Papers, Ireland, 1574-85, 
p. 133.] A. F. P. 

O'HEMPSY, DENIS (1695 P-1807), Irish 
harper, whose name is sometimes written 
Hempson, was son of Brian O'Hempsy, and 
was Dorn on his father's farm at Craigmore, 
near Garvagh, co. Derry. Local tradition 
assigns his birth to 1695. At three years of 
age he had small-pox and lost his sight, and 
at twelve began to learn to play the harp from 
Bridget O'Cahan, a female harper. He after- 
wards received instruction from John Gar- 
ragher, Lochlann O'Fanning, and Patrick 
O'Connor, all Connaughtmen. When eighteen 
he lived for a half-year in the house of the 
Canning family at JGarvagh. Mr. Canning, 
Squire Gage, and Dr. Bacon subscribed and 
bought him a harp. He then travelled in Ire- 
land and Scotland for ten years. Sir J. Camp- 
bell of Aghanbrach and many other Scottish 
gentlemen entertained him. He paid a second 
visit to Scotland in 1745, and played before 
Prince Charles Edward at Holyrood. 

Subsequently he travelled all over Ireland, 
and at last Frederick Augustus Hervey, 
fourth earl of Bristol and bishop of Deny 
[q.v.], gave him a house at Magilligan, 
co. Derry, where he ended his days. Lord 
and Lady Bristol came to the house-warm- 
ing, and their children danced to his harp. 
In 1781, at the reputed age of eighty-six, 
he married a woman from the opposite coast 
of Inishowen, and had one daughter. He 
attended the Belfast meeting of harpers in 
1792. He used to play the harp with his 
long crooked nails, catching the string be- 
tween the flesh and the nail. Edward Bunt- 
ing, who heard him, says that the intricacy 
and peculiarity of his playing amazed him, 
and that his staccato and legato passages, 
double slurs, shakes, turns, graces, &c, com- 
prised as great a range of execution as has ever 
been devised by modern improvers. His harp, 
which was long preserved at Downhill, co. 
Derry, was made by Cormac Kelly in 1 702 of 
white willow, with a back of fir dug out of 
the bog. The day before he died O'Hempsy 
eat up in bed and played a few notes on his 
harp to the Rev. Sir Harvey Bruce. He was 
temperate throughout life, drank milk and 
water, and ate potatoes. He died in 1807, 
having, according to the current belief in the 
north of Ireland, attained the age of 112. 
His portrait was published by Bunting. He 



y 



O'Heney 



66 



O'Higgin 



is mentioned in Lady Morgan's ' Wild Irish 
Girl/ 

[Banting's Ancient Music of Ireland, Dublin, 
1840.] N. M. 

O'HENEY, MATTHEW (d. 1206), Cis- 
tercian biographer and archbishop of Cashel, 
called in Irish Ua Heinni, was a monk of 
the Cistercian house of Holy Cross in what 
is now Tipperary. He afterwards became 
archbishop of Cashel, and was made papal 
legate for Ireland in 1192 (Ann. Inisfalenses, 
ap. O'Conor, Rer. Hibern. Script, ii. 120). 
In the same year he held a great synod in 
Dublin, at which the Irish magnates attended 
(ib.) His name rarely appears except in offi- 
cial documents, usually undated, relating to 
the affairs of various Irish churches (Char- 
tularies of St. Mary 1 8 Abbey, Dublin, i. 143, 
145, ii. 28, 29, 198, Rolls Ser. ; Register of 
St. Thomas, Dublin, pp. 308, 317, Rolls Ser.) 
In 1195 he is mentioned as one of the pre- 
lates who brought the body of Hugh de Lacy, 
first lord of Meath [q. v.], one of the con- 
querors of Ireland, to the abbey of Bective 
on the Boyne in Meath, for re-interment 
(Annals of Ireland in Chartularies of St. 
Mary's, Dublin, ii. 307). He is said to have 
founded many churches, and to have been an 
able man, a worker of miracles, and religious 
beyond his fellow-countrymen. Retiring to 
his old monastery of Holy Cross, he died there, 
as a humble Cistercian monk, in 1206 (ib. ii. 
278 ; Annals of Loch CS, i. 235, Rolls Ser.) 

O'Heney wrote a life of St. Cuthbert of 
Lindisfarne, letters to Popes Celestine in 
and Innocent III, and other tracts, none of 
which are known to be extant. 

[In addition to the authorities cited in the 
text, see Hardy's Descriptive Catalogue of Brit. 
MSS. iii. 23 ; Cotton's Fasti Eccles. Hibern. i. 5, 
2nd ed. ; C. de Visch's Biblioth. Cisterc. p. 104; 
Tanner's Bibliotheca, p. 392 ; Ware's Works, ed. 
Harris, i. 469, ii. 72 ; Brady's Episcopal Succes- 
sion.] A. M. C-b. 

CHIGOE*, TEAGUE (d. 1617), Irish 
poet, known in Irish writings as Tadhg dall 
Ua hUiginn, the most famous of his ramily 
of hereditary poets, was son of Cairbre 
O'Higgin, and brother of Maelmuire O'Hig- 
gin, catholic archbishop of Tuam (State 
Papers, Eliz. clix. No. 44). He was born in 
Magh Nenda, the plain between the rivers 
Erne and Drobhais, on the southern boun- 
dary of Ulster, and was blind most of his 
life, whence his Irish sobriquet of * dall.' His 
earliest extant poem was written before 1554, 
an address of fifty stanzas to Eo^han 6g Mac- 
Suibhne na dtuath, urging him to make 
friends with Manus O'Donnell [q. v.] and 
Shane O'Neill [q. v.] He wrote, between 
1566 and 1589, a poem of thirty-three stanzas, 



urging the fusion under Cuchonnacht Ma- 
guire of the tribes called, from their an- 
cestor Colla DaChrioch, Sil Colla, and in- 
cluding Maguire, MacMahon, and O'Kelly, 
beginning • Daoine saora siol gColla ' (' Noble 
folk the seed of Colla'). In 1573 he ad- 
dressed a verse panegyric on the O'Neills 
in fifty-two stanzas to Turlough Luineach 
O'Neill [q. v.], ' Imda sochar ag cloinn Neill' 
(' Many tne privileges belonging to the chil- 
dren of Niall '). In another poem of eighteen 
quatrains, ' Lios greine as Emhain dUlltaibh ' 
('A sunny fort is an Emania to Ulster- 
men '), he praises Shane O'Neill's residence, 
comparing it to Emhain Macha, or Emania, 
the residence of the most ancient race of 
the kings of Ulster (Addit. MS. 29614 in 
Brit. Mus.) At Christmas 1577 he wrote 
a poem of seventy-seven stanzas describing 
a party at which he was a guest at Turkmen 
Luineach O'Neill's house of Craoibhe at tne 
mouth of the Ban, ' Nodhlaig do chuamar 
do'n chraoibh ' (* At Christmas we were at 
the Craoibh') (Egerton MS. Ill, in British 
Museum! Between 1570 and 1578 was com- 
posed his poem of sixty-eight stanzas in 
praise of Sir Shane MacOliver MacShane 
Mac William Burke, 'Ferainn cloidhim 
crioch Bhanba ' (' Swordland, the realm of 
Ireland'), in which Burke's descent from 
Charlemagne is traced. Five texts of this 

fm are extant: in the British Museum 
ferton MS. 11 l),in Trinity College, Dublin 
4. 13), in the Royal Irish Academy (23. L. 
and 23 N. 11), and one in Mr. S. H. 
O'Grady's collection. A poetical address to 
Richard MacOliver Burke of sixty stanzas, 
' Mar ionghabail anma rig ' (' Great circum- 
spection to the name of king *), was written 
about 1580. It asserts that chief's right to 
be inaugurated Mac William, the Irish title 
corresponding to the marquisate of Clan- 
ricarde. After 1581 he wrote a poem of 
forty-two stanzas, ' Tanac oidhche go heas- 
coille' ('One night I came to Eascoille'), 
which describes a night which he spent in 
the house of Maelmora MacSuibhne in the 
north of Donegal. He was at Drumleene 
in the parish of Clonleigh, co. Donegal, in 
June 1583, and there wrote ' Maighen dioghla 
druim lighen' (' A field of vengeance is Drum- 
leene '), a poem of forty-five stanzas, lament- 
ing the battle about to take place between 
Sir Hugh O'Donnell and Turlough Luineach 
O'Neill, then encamped on the other side 
of the river Finn. He advises O'Donnell to 
go home and dismiss his clansmen. In 1587 
he composed a feeling lament of thirty- 
seven stanzas for Cathal og O'Connor Sligo, 
his patron, ' Derram cuntas a chathail ' (' Let 
us balance our account, O Cathal ! ') j and be- 



X 



O'Higgin 



67 



O'Higgin 



fore 1688 an address of forty-five stanzas to 
Mdr, wife of Domhnall MacTadhg Mac- 
Cathail 6g O'Connor Sligo, ' A mhor cuim- 
nig in cumonn' ('0 Mor, remember the 
affection '). About 1588 he wrote a warlike 
address of seventy stanzas urging Sir Brian 
na Murtha O'Rourke [q.v.J to organise a 
great attack on the English ; it begins, * D'fior 
chogaid chomaillter sithchain senfhocal nach 
saroighter ' (' With a man of war it is that 
peace is observed, the proverb cannot be 
overcome '). Between 1566 and 1589 he 
wrote a poem of thirty-nine stanzas, ' Mairg 
fhechus ar inischeithleann ' (' Woe for him 
that looks on Enniskillen '), telling of a 
visit paid by him to Cuchonnacht 6g, chief 
of the Maguires, and containing an admi- 
rable description of the daily life and sur- 
roundings of a powerful Irish chief in his 
castle. Other poems, undoubtedly his, but 
of uncertain date, are 'Ionmhuin baile 
brugh Leithbhir ' (f Dear town of Lifford '), 
forty-four verses in praise of the county 
town of Donegal ; ' Dia do bheatha a 
mheic Mhagnuis ' (' God save you, son of 
Manus '), an address of 124 verses to Aedh 
MacMaghnuis O'Donnell ; an epigram on the 
sept of Mac an Bhaird ; ' Fuaras fein im 
maith o mhnaoi ' (' I myself got good butter 
from a woman '), a poem against bad butter 
(copies of these four poems exist in the 
library of the Royal Irish Academy) ; 'Fear 
dana an fear so shiar ' (* A man of song this 
western man '), printed, with a translation 
by Theophilus OTlanagan, in 1808 (Trans- 
actions of Gaelic Society of Dublin), His 
last poem, ' Sluagseisir tainic dom thig ' (' A 
band of six men came into my house'), nas 
been printed, with a translation by S. H. 
O'Grady (Catalogue of Irish Manscripts in 
the British Museum). There is a copy in the 
library of Trinity College, Dublin (H. 1. 17. 
f. 116 b). The poem is a satire on six 
O'Haras who had plundered his house. 

O'Higgin's verses are written in natural and 
not pedantic language, and most of them show 
a genuine vein of poetry, while they give a 
complete view of the learning, the habits, the 
friends, and the political views of an Irish 
hereditary poet, and of the rewards and 
dangers of his calling. He consistently ad- 
vocated the laying aside of old feuds, the 
union of the Irish nations or clans, and the 
expulsion or extermination of the English. 
Sixteen other men of letters of his family 
are mentioned in the chronicles, of whom 
the more important were : 

Tadhg Mdr O'Higgin (d. 1315), poet, 
described by the chroniclers as ' a universal 
proficient in every branch of art appertain- 
ing to poetry.' He was tutor to Maghnus 



O'Connor Connacht, who died in 1293. He 
instructed him in warlike exercises, as well 
as in letters, and taught him to despise any 
bed-clothes but a shirt of mail. O'Higgin 
wrote ' Cach 6n mar a adhba ' ( l Every bird 
after his nest '), a poem of forty-two four-line 
stanzas, in the hectasyllabic metre known 
as rinnard, addressed to his pupil. 

Tadhg dg O'Higgin (d. 1448), poet, son 
of Tadhg, son of Gillacolumb, the elder 
O'Higgin, was trained in the poetic art by 
his brother, Ferghal ruadh, chief of the 
O'Higgins, and became bard to Tadhg O'Con- 
nor Sligo, and afterwards from 1403 to 
1410 to Tadhg MacMaelsheachainn O'Kelly, 
chief of Ui Maine in Connaught. In 1397 
he wrote ' Da roinn comhthroma ar chrich 
Neill ' (' Two equal parts in the territory of 
Nial '), a poem of forty-seven stanzas, on the 
inauguration as O'Neill of Nial 6g O'Neill, in 
which he explains that Ulster alone is equal 
to Connaught, Leinster,Munster, and Meath 
combined. He wrote another poem of 
thirty-six stanzas to the same chief, * O naird 
tuaid tic in chabair ' (* Help comes from the 
north '). In 1403 he wrote ' Mor mo chuid 
do chunnaid Thaidg ' (' Great my share in 
the grief for Tadhg 5 ) on the death of O'Con- 
nor Sligo, and in 1410 one of forty stanzas 
on the death of Tadhg O'Kelly, ' Anois do 
tuigfide Tadhg' ('Now Tadhg might be 
understood'). He also wrote forty-one 
stanzas, ' Fuilngidh bar len a leth Chuinn ' 
(' Endure your woe, O northern half of 
Ireland ! '), on the death of Ulick Mac Wil- 
liam Iochtair, or Burke; a religious poem 
of thirty-one stanzas, 'Atait tri comnraic 
im chionn ' (' Three combatants are before 
me ') ; and a lament of twenty-eight verses, 
' Anocht sgaoiledh na scola ' (' To-night the 
schools are loosed'), for his elder brother, 
Ferghal ruadh. This last was written when 
he was thirty years old. 

Domhnall O'Higgin (d. 1502), poet, born 
in Sligo, was son of Brian O'Higgin, and 
is described in the ' Annals of the Four 
Masters ' as ' professor of poetry to the 
schools of Ireland.' He wrote a poem of 
thirty-three stanzas in praise of Ian Mac- 
Donald, ' Misde nach 6dmar Eire ' (' So much 
the worse that Ireland is not jealous'). He 
died on his return from a pilgrimage to 
Compostella. 

Mathghamhain O'Higgin (fl. 1584), poet, 
was bard to the O'Byrnes of Wicklow. He 
wrote a poem of 120 verses in praise of 
Leinster, and of Feidhlimidh O'Byrne, 
' Cred do chosg cogadh Laigheann ' (' What 
has checked the war of Leinster?'); and 
a devotional poem, ' Naomhtha an obair 
iomradh De ' ('A holy work it is to hold 

f2 



O'Higgins 



68 



O'Higgins 



discourse of God '), of which there is a copy 
in the British Museum (Egerton MS. 111). 

Cormac O'Higgin (ft. 1590), poet, son of 
Gillacolumb O'Higgin, wrote a lament of 
forty-five stanzas on the death of Sir 
Donnchadh 6g O'Connor Sligo, < Sion choit- 
chenn chumaidh Ghaoidhel ' (' Common 
blast of Irish sorrow '). 

Maolmuire O'Higgin (d. 1591), poet, bro- 
ther of Tadhg dall O'Higgin, became arch- 
bishop of Tuam, was a friend of O'Connor 
Sligo, and died at Antwerp, after visiting 
Rome, early in 1591. He wrote a touching 
poem of twelve verses on the uncertainty 
of life, even in the time between sowing corn 
and eating bread, 'A fhir threbas in tulaig' 
('0 man that ploughest the hillside'), of 
which there is a copy in the British Museum 
(Egerton MS. 111). He also wrote ' A fhir 
theidh go fiodh funnidh ' (« O man who goest 
to the land of sunset '), a poem in praise of 
Ireland, of 136 verses; and some religious 
poems. 

Domhnall O'Higgin (Jl. 1600), poet, son 
of Thomas O'Higgin, wTote a poem of 164 
verses on the inauguration of Turlough 
Luineach O'Neill, ' Do thog Eire fear gaire ' 
(' Ireland has chosen a watchman '). 

[S. H. O'Grady's Catalogue of the Irish Manu- 
scripts in the British Museum, in which several 
illustrative examples of the poems of the O'Hig- 
gins are printed for the first time, with excellent 
translations ; E. O'Reilly in Transactions of the 
Iberno-Celtic Society, Dublin, 1820; Annala 
Rioghachta Eireann, ed. O'Donoyan, Dublin, 
1851; Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many, ed. 
O'Donovan ; Annals of Loch Ce (Rolls Ser.), ed. 
Hennessy, 1871 ; Manuscripts in British Museum, 
Egerton 111 and Additional 29614.] N. M. 

O'HIGGINS, Don AMBROSIO, Mar- 
quis de Osorno (1720P-1801), viceroy of 
Peru, originally Ambrose Higgins, was born 
about 1720, of humble parents, on the Sum- 
merhill estate, near Dangan Castle, co. Meath, 
and as a small boy used to carry letters to the 
post for Lady Bective. He was sent to an 
uncle, a Jesuit, in Cadiz, but, having no incli- 
nation for the church, went out with a small 
parcel of goods to South America to try his 
fortune. He landed at Buenos Ayres, made 
his way across the pampas and cordilleras to 
Santiago, and thence to Lima, where he set 
up a stall under the platform of the cathe- 
dral, and hawked his goods as a pedlar, with 
little success. Subsequently he got leave to 
construct casuchas, or rest-places, in the Cor- 
dillera, so as to open up a route between 
Chili and Mendoza, in which work he was 
employed about 1760. Ten years later the 
viceroy of Chili sent him as a captain of 
cavalry against the Araucanian Indians, 



whom he defeated, and founded the fort of 
San Carlos, which still exists. He pained 
the goodwill of the Indians by his justice 
and humanity, and recovered some territory 
which the Spaniards had lost. In recogni- 
tion of his services he was made a colonel 
7 Sept. 1777, and soon after became a briga- 
dier-general. In 1786 the viceroy Croix 
appointed him intendant of Concepcion. He 
entertained the French circumnavigator 
Galaup de la Perouse with great courtesy 
when he visited Concepcion on his last 
voyage. He appears to have romanced to La 
Perouse about his origin, as the Frenchman 
records that 'Monsr. Iliguins , was one of 
those who suffered for their devotion to the 
Stuart cause. He founded the city of San 
Ambrosio de Ballenar, and constructed the 
road from Santiago to Valparaiso. In 1789 
he became a major-general, and was appointed 
viceroy of Chili. At this time he prefixed 
the 0* to his patronymic of Higgins. He sent 
home a sum of money to a London banking 
house for his relatives, and appointed as his 
almoner Father Kellet, the parish priest ot 
Summerhill, who reported that his kinsfolk 
were very poor and very improvident. In 1792 
he rebuilt the city of Osorno, which had been 
burned by the Indians, and was created a mar- 
quis. In 1794 he became a lieutenant-general, 
and the year after viceroy of Peru. On 1 6 May 
1796 he handed over the government of Chili 
to Rezabal y Ugarte, proceeded to Callao, 
and entered Lima in state on 24 July 1796. 
The eulogy pronounced at his public recep- 
tion in the theatre of Lima, 10 Aug. 1796, 
was published (Brit. Mus.) Early in his vice- 
royalty he befriended his fellow-countryman 
John or Juan Mackenna [q. v.], who thus 
commenced a distinguished career under his 
auspices. 

When the war broke out between Eng- 
land and Spain in 1797, O'Higgins took 
active measures for the defence of the coast, 
strengthening Callao and erecting a fort at 
Pisco. During his brief administration he 
devoted his chief attention to the improve- 
ment of the lines of communication. He 
died suddenly at Lima, after a short illness, 
on 18 March 1801. He left a natural son, 
Bernardo O'Higgins, born in 1780, and edu- 
cated in England, who served on the popu- 
lar side in Chili during the war of liberation, 
and became liberator of Chili and president 
of the congress. After passing many years in 
retirement, he died in 1846 (see Appleton ; 
Diego Barras Arana, Historic* General de 
Chile, 1891, and Brit. Mus. Cat.) 

[Appleton's Enc. Amer. Biogr. under 'O'Hig- 
gins ;' Markbam's Hist, of Peru, Chicago, 1893.] 

H. M. C. 



Ohthere 



6 9 



O'Hurley 



OHTHERE (Jl. 880), maritime explorer, 
was a Norseman by birth, who entered the 
service of Alfred the Great probably soon 
after the peace of Wedmore (878), or the 
frith of 886. He was rich, he tells us, when 
he came to seek King JElfred, in what was 
the chief wealth of the Northmen. For he 
had six hundred reindeer, all tamed by him- 
self, a score of sheep, and one of swine ; he even 
did a little tillage ; ' and what he ploughed, 
he ploughed with horses. 7 He may possibly 
have been connected with the house of Ottar 
(Ohthere) Heimsce, mentioned in the ' Ice- 
landic Land-nama-bok,' or Settler's Regis- 
ter. What we know of him for certain comes 
■entirely from the account of himself and his 
voyages that he gave ' his lord King iElfred.' 
This account appeared in the West-Saxon 
king's version of the universal history of 
Paulus Orosius, completed between 878 and 
"901, the year of Alfred's death. In it refe- 
rence appears to be made to two distinct 
journeys made by Ohthere at the bidding of 
King Alfred— one to the north, the other to 
the south. Both were probably undertaken 
between 880 and 900. 

On his first journey, which he undertook 
for the objects of discovery and trade, Ohthere 
started from his native district of Haloga- 
land, the furthest of the Norse settlements 
towards Lapland, ' by the West Sea/ He 
wished to 'find out how far the country 
went on to the north, and whether any one 
lived north of the waste ' that lay beyond 
Halogaland ; he also went to find the walrus 
or ' horse whale/ because of the ' good bone 
in its teeth ' and the usefulness of its hide 
for ship ropes. 

To begin with, he sailed due north for 
three days, ' as far as the whale hunters 
ever go,' and then beyond this for three days 
more, round the North Cape of Europe. Now 
the land began to turn eastward, and he 
stayed a little, waiting for a western wind, 
with the help of which he went eastward, 
along the north coast of Lapland, for four 
days; and then, as the land began to run 
south, ' quite to the inland sea/ he sailed five 
days more before the north wind. Crossing 
what we now call the White Sea, he entered 
the mouth of the Dwina, close to the spot 
where Archangel was built in 1583, and where 
«ven then he found the country inhabited. 
Beween Halogaland and this point all was 
waste, except for a few hunters and fishers. 
Ohthere traded, as no English sailors and few 
Norsemen had done, with these ' Biarmians ' 
of the Dwina — Russians of ' Permia/ a dis- 
trict in the north-east of Russia — and they 
told him many stories about the country, 
which he leaves as doubtful, 'because he 



could not see the things they spoke of with 
his own eyes/ But he thought the language 
of these people was the same as that of the 
Finns. Beyond the White Sea he does not 
seem to have gone. 

On his second voyage he started from Halo- 
galand, north of Trondhjem, and reached a 
port on the south of Norway, called Scirin- 
gesheal, apparently in the fiord of Christiania, 
and thence sailed on to Haddeby, near Sles- 
wick, * where the English dwelt before they 
came into this country ' (Britain). The chief 
interest of the second journey is in relation 
to Alfred's * Description of Europe ; ' for it 
helped the king to fix with remarkable accu- 
racy, for the time, the localities of the people 
ana countries of the European ' Northland.' 

[Mlfred'a Anglo-Saxon version of Orosius'g 
Universal History; Dr. Bosworth's edition of 
Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan, &c. ; Pauli's 
Life of Alfred the Great ; Corpus Poetarum 
Boreale.] C. R. B. 

O'HURLEY, DERMOT (1519 P-1584), 
archbishop of Cashel, called in Irish Diar- 
mait Ua Hurthuile, the son of William 
O'Hurley, by his wife, Honora O'Brien of 
the O'Briens of Thomond, was born about 
1519. His father, a well-to-do farmer at 
Lycodoon in the parish of Knockea, near 
Limerick, also acted as agent for the Earl of 
Desmond. Being destined for a learned pro- 
fession, he was sent, after receiving what edu- 
cation was possible for him in Ireland, to Lou- 
vain, where he took his degree with applause 
in the canon and civil law. Afterwards he 
appears to have gone to Paris, and about 1559 
he was appointed professor of philosophy at 
Louvain. Subsequently he held the chair of 
canon law for four years at Rheims, where he 
acquired an unhappy notoriety for contract- 
ing debts. He then proceeded to Rome, where 
he became deeply engaged in the plans of the 
Irish exiles against Elizabeth's government. 
On 11 Sept. 1581 he was appointed by Gre- 
gory XIII to the see of Cashel, vacant since 
1578 by the death of Maurice Fitzgibbon, 
and on 27 Nov. he received the pallium in 
full consistory. He was a mere layman at the 
time, and a contemporary congratulates him 
on the triple honour thus conferred on him : — 

Quid dicam? vel quid mirer? nova culmina? 
mirer 

Uno te passu tot saliisse gradus ! 
Una sacerdotem creat, una et episcopon hora, 

Archiepiscopon et te facit hora simul. 

In the following summer he set out from 
Rome to take possession of his diocese, pro- 
ceeding by way of Rheims, where he dis- 
charged his debts ' recte et gratiose,' and 
where he was in August detained for a time 



O'Hurley 



70 



O'Hussey 



by a severe illness. He embarked at Cher- 
bourg, and landed at Skerries, a little to the 
north of Dublin, about the beginning of 
September. His baggage and papers he had 
sent by another vessel, which was captured 
by pirates, and in this way government was 
apprised of his intentions, and caused a sharp 
outlook to be kept for him at the principal 
ports. Disguising himself, and attended by 
only one companion, Father John Dillon, he 
made his way to Waterford ; but being re- 
cognised there by a government agent, he 
retraced his steps to Slane Castle, where he 
lay for some time concealed in a secret 
chamber. Becoming more confident, he ap- 
peared at the public table, where his con- 
versation aroused the suspicions of the chan- 
cellor, Sir Robert Dillon. Finding himself 
suspected, he proceeded by a circuitous route 
to uarrick-on-Suir, where, with Ormonde's 
help, he was shortly afterwards, about the 
beginning of October, captured. He was 
taken to Dublin, and committed to prison. 
Being brought before the lords-justices Arch- 
bishop Loft us and Sir Henry Wallop for 
examination, little of importance was elicited 
from him, though he admitted that he was 
'one of the House of Inquisition,' and his 
papers revealed his correspondence with the 
Earl of Desmond and Viscount Baltinglas. 
"Walsingham recommended the use of ' tor- 
ture, or any other severe manner of proceed- 
ing to gain his knowledge of all foreign prac- 
tices against her majesty's state ; ' but the 
lords justices, especially Loft us, were loth, 
out of respect for his position and learning, 
to resort to such extreme measures, and, on 
the ground that they had neither rack nor 
other instrument of terror, advised that he 
should be sent to London. Walsingham, 
however, impressed with the dangerous na- 
ture of his mission, suggested toasting his 
feet against the fire with hot boots, and a 
commission having been made out to Water- 
house and Fenton for that purpose, O'Hurley 
was subjected to the most excruciating tor- 
ture, lie bore the ordeal with extraordinary 
patience and heroism, and was taken back to 
prison more dead than alive. Torture having 
failed, and government being advised that 
an indictment for treason committed abroad 
would not lie, and fearing to run the risk of 
a trial by jury, O'Hurley, after nine months' 
imprisonment, was condemned by martial 
law. The warrant for his execution was 
signed by Loftus and Wallop on 20 June 
1684, and next day, very early in the morn- 
ing, he was executed, being hanged for 
greater ignominy with a withen rope, at a 
lonely spot in the outskirts of the city, pro- 
bably near where the Catholic University 



Church now stands in St. Stephen's Green. 
His remains were interred at the place of 
execution, but were privately removed by 
William Fitzsimon, a citizen of Dublin, who 
placed them in a wooden urn, and deposited 
them in the church of St. Kevin. His grave 
became famous among the faithful for several 
miracles reputed to have taken place there. 
According to Stanihurst (Descript. of Ireland, 
ch. vii.), one Derby Hurley, i a civilian and 
philosopher,' wrote ' In Aristotelis Physica/ 

[Rothe's Analecta Sacra nova et mira de 
rebus Catholicorum in Hibernia, ed. Moran, 
Dublin, 1884, contains nearly all that is known 
about him. Rothe's account has been trans- 
lated, with additions and notes, by Myles 
O'Reilly in Memorials of those who suffered for 
the Catholic Faith in Ireland, London, 1868, pp. 
56-84. A short devotional life by Dean Kinane 
was published at Dublin in 1893. In R. Ver- 
stegan's Theatrum Crudelitatum Haereticorum 
nostri temporis there is a sketch of O'Hurley 
undergoing torture and of his death by hanging. 
Bruodinus (Catalogue Martyrum Hibernorura,p. 
447) adds other tortures besides ' the boot,' for 
which there is no good authority. Other refer- 
ences are : Records of the English Catholics, 
vol. ii., containing Letters and Memorials of 
Cardinal Allen, pp. 151, 155, 156, 162; Car- 
dinal Moran's Spicilegium Ossoriense, i. 80; 
Brady's Episcopal Succession, ii. 10-22 ; O'Sul- 
levan Beare's Historia? Iberniae Compendium, 
torn. 2, lib. iv. ch. xix, translated in Renehan's 
Collections, p. 253; Irish Ecclesiastical Record, 
i. 475 ; Bagwell's Ireland under the Tudors, iii. 
116.] R. D. 

O'HUSSEY, EOCHAIDH (/. 1630), 
Irish poet, in Irish Ua hEodhasa, belonged to 
a northern family of hereditary poets and his- 
torians, of which the earliest famous member 
was Aenghus, who died in 1350. Another 
Aenghus died in 1480, and inl518Ciothruadh, 
son of Athairne O'Hussey, whose poem, 
1 Buime na bhfileadh fuil Ruarcach ' (' Nurse 
of the poets, the blood of the O'Rourkes '), is 
still extant. Soon after his time the family 
became chief poets to Maguire of Fermanagh. 
Eochaidh began to write when very young 
(in 1593), and liis earliest poem is on the escape 
of Aedh ruadh O'Donnell from Dublin Castle 
in 1592. It contains 228 verses. He wrote four 
poems, of 508 verses in all, on Cuchonacht 
Maguire, lord of Fermanagh, and seven poems 
on his son, Hugh Maguire [q. v.] He travelled 
and, like ail the poets, wrote panegyrics on 
his hosts. Of this kind are his poems, of 
two hundred verses, on Tadhg O'Rourke of 
Breifne ; on Eoghan 6g MacSweeny of Done- 
gal; onFeidhlimidh 0'Beirne,and on Richard 
de Burgo MacWilliam of Connaught. He 
wrote a poetic address of 152 verses to Hugh 
O'Neill, the great earl of Tyrone [q. v.], and 



X 



O'Hussey 



71 



O'Kane 



one of forty-four verses to Rory O'Donnell, 
earl of Tyrconnel [q. v.] He also wrote nu- 
merous poems on general subjects, such as ' A 
dhuine na heaslainte ' (' O man of ill-health ! '), 
in praise of temperance, and an address to 
the Deity. There are copies of his poems in 
the library of the Royal Irish Academy. 

[Transactions of Iberno-Celtic Society, Dub- 
lin, 1820; Annala Rioghachta Eireann, ed. 
O'Donovan, Dublin, 1851.] N. M. 

t O'HUSSEY or O'HEOGHUS^MAELr. 
BRIGHDE (d. 1614), who siffned himself in 
Latin Brigidus Hosseus, and adopted in re- 
ligion the name Bonaventuba, Irisn Francis- 
can, was born in the diocese of Clogher in 
Ulster, and admitted on 1 Nov. 1607 one of 
the original members of the Irish Franciscan 
monastery or college of St. Anthony of Padua 
at Louvain (Irish Eccl. Record, 1870, vii. 41). 
He had previously been at Douay (September 
1606), and wrote thence in Irish to Father 
Robert Nugent asking him to use his influence 
to get the president of the college to send him 
to Louvain, because it was the best place for 
theological studies, and because the son of 
O'Neill was likely to be in that neighbour- 
hood. He mentions that he had been asked 
to go to Salamanca or Valladolid (Ualedulit) 
(Cal. State Papers, Ireland, 1603-6, o. 311). 
He became lecturer at Louvain, first in 
philosophy, and afterwards in theology, and 
he held the office of guardian of the college 
at the time of his death from small-pox, on 
15 Nov. 1614 (Moran, Spicilegium Ossoriense, 
iii. 62). He was held in the greatest esteem 
by his countrymen on account of his pro- 
found knowledge of the language and history 
of Ireland. 

His works, all composed in the Irish lan- 
guage, are : 1. A Christian catechism, en- 
titled ' An Teagasg Criosdaidhe ann so, Arna 
chuma do Bonabhentura o Eodhasa, brathair 
bochd dord San Proinsias accolaisde S. Antoin 
a Lobhiin ' [Louvain, 1608, 16mo], reprinted 
Antwerp, 1611, 8vo; and Rome, 1707, 8vo. 
It has a preface of thirty-two lines of verse. 
The Roman edition is called the second on 
the title-page ; it was revised by Philip Ma- 
guire of the college of St. Isidore in Rome 
and a friar of the order of St. Francis (Irish 
note, p. 259, recte 256). The copy of the 
edition of 1611 in the Grenville Library in 
the British Museum has the frontispiece of 
St. Patrick, which is wanting in most copies. 
2. A metrical abridgment of Christian doc- 
trine, beginning ' Ataid tri Doirse air teach 
nDe ' ( 4 There are three doors to the house 
of God'). Printed at the end of Andrew 
Donlevy's ' Irish Catechism/ Paris, 1642, pp. 
487-98. 3. A poem for a dear friend of his 



who fell into heresy, ' Truagh liom a chom- 
pain do chor ' (' Sad to me, oh companion, 
thy turn '), printed in the 1707 edition of his 
4 Teagasg Criosdaidhe/ pp. 237-65. Manu- 
scripts in Sloane collection, British Museum, 
No. 3567, art. 7, and Egerton MS. 128, art. 4. 
The friend was Miler Magrath [q. v.], first 
protestant archbishop of Cashel. 4. ' Gabh 
aithr eachas uaim ' ('Accept my repentance '), 
written on entering the order of St. Francis, 
Sloane MS. 3567, art. 8; another copy in 
Egerton MS. 195, art. 15. 6. « Truagh cor 
chloinne adhaimh ' (' Sad the state of Adam's 
family '), on the vanity of the world, trans- 
lated from the Latin of St. Bernard, Sloane 
MS. 3567, art. 9 ; another copy in Egerton 
MS. 195, art. 16. 6. A poem of 184 verses, 
' Idngnadh m'aslaing a nEamhain ' (' Won- 
drous my vision in the Navan fort '), on the 
inauguration of Roife MacMahon as chief 
of his clan, Egerton MS. Ill, art. 80. 7. ' A 
Poem for the Daughter of Walter [. . .] to 
console her for the Death of her Son and 
heir/ Egerton MS. Ill, art. 81. 8. A poem 
in praise of Felim, son of Feagh Mcllugh 
O'Byrne, and of the province of Leinster, 
manuscript in Royal Irish Academy. 

[Anderson's Native Irish, pp. 56, 273 ».; Bibl. 
Grenvilliana ; O'Curry's Cat. of Irish MSS. in 
Brit. Mus. ; O'Reilly's Irish Writers, p. 168; 
Cat.of Library of Trinity College, Dublin ; Wad- 
ding's Script ores Ordinis Minorum, p. 56 ; Ware's 
Writers of Ireland (Harris), p. 102.] T. C. 

O'KANE, EACHMARCACH (1720- 
1790), Irish harper, for whose Irish chris- 
tian name Acland or Echlin is sometimes 
substituted, was born at Drogheda in 1720. 
He was of a northern family, and was taught 
to play the harp by Cornelius Lyons, harper 
to the Earl of Antrim. He travelled to Rome 
and played before Prince Charles Edward 
Stuart there. He then visited France, and 
went on to Madrid, where he played to the 
Irish gentlemen living at that court, who 

E raised him to the king ; but his uproarious 
abits did not suit Spanish decorum, and he 
had to walk to Bilbao with his harp on his 
back. After returning to Ireland he went to 
Scotland, and there made many journeys 
from house to house. Sir Alexander Mac- 
Donald in Skye gfave him a silver harp-key, 
long in the family, and originally left by 
another Irish harper, Ruaidhri DaU O'Cath- 
ain, or O'Kane. The gift is mentioned by Bos- 
well in the ' Tour to the Hebrides/ O Kane 
played all the old native airs, as well as the 
treble and bass parts of Corelli's correnti in 
concert with other music. 

[Bunting's Ancient Music of Ireland; Bos- 
well's Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides.] 

N. M. 



Oke 



72 



O'Keeffe 



OKE, GEORGE COLWELL (1821- 
1874), legal writer, born at St. Columb 
Major, Cornwall, on 8 Feb. 1821, was son 
of William Jane Oke. He commenced life 
as a solicitor's accountant, but by 1848 was 
acting as assistant-clerk to the Newmarket 
bench of justices. In 1855 he became assist- 
ant-clerk to the lord mayor of London, and 
in 1864 succeeded to the chief clerkship. 
Oke's knowledge of criminal law and of its 
practical application brought him a high re- 

Sutation. He died on 9 Jan. 1874 at Kose- 
ale, St. Mary's Road, Peckham, and was 
buried on the 15th at Nun head cemetery. 
He married first Eliza Neile Hawkins (d. 
1868), and secondly, on 20 April 1870, 
Georgiana Percy, stepdaughter of G. M. 
Harvey, of Upper Norwood. 

Oke was author of many standard legal 
works, including : 1. ' The Synopsis of Sum- 
mary Convictions/ 8vo, 1848, better known 
by the title of its second edition (1849) as 
' Oke's Magisterial Synopsis ' (14th edit, by 
Mr. H. L. Stephen, 1893). 2. 'An Im- 
proved System of Solicitors' Book-keeping/ 
8vo, 1849. 3. ' Oke's Magisterial Formulist/ 
8vo, 1850 (7th edit, by Mr. H. L. Stephen, 
1893). 4. 'The Laws of Turnpike Roads/ 
12mo, 1854 (and 1860). 5. 'The Friendly 
Societies' Manual/ 12mo, 1855 ; withdrawn 
from circulation owing to its infringing the 
copyright of another work. 6. ' A Handy 
Book of the Game and Fishery Laws/ 12mo, 
1861 (enlarged editions by J. W. Willis 
Bund). 7. 'Justices 1 Clerks' Accounts/ 8vo, 
1863. 8. ' London Police and Magistracy/ 
8vo, 1863. 9. ' Friendly Societies' Accounts/ 
12mo, 1864. 10. ' The Laws as to Licensing 
Inns/ 8vo, 1872 (2nd edit, by W. Cunning- 
ham Glen, 1874). He wrote also 'The 
Magisterial Laws of London/ which was 
announced in 1863 to be published by sub- 
scription, but it never appeared. 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ; Boase's 
Collect. Cornub.; Times, 10 and 12 Jan. 1874; 
Illustr. Lond. News, lxiv. 80 (with portrait) ; 
Graphic, ix. 124, 131 (with portrait); Law 
Times, 17 Jan. 1874, p. 207.] Gk G. 

O KEARNEY or CARNEY (OCEAR- 
NUIDH), JOHN (d. 1600 ?), Irish divine. 
[See Keabney.] 

O'KEEFE, EOGHAN (1656-1726), Irish 
poet, was born at Glenville, co. Cork, in 
1666. He married early, and had a son, 
whom he brought up to be a priest, but who 
died at Rochelie in France in 1709 while 
studying theology. He wrote a poem of 
fifty-six verses, 4 An tan nach faicim fear ' 
(' When I do not see a man '), on the death 
of this son* His wife had died in 1707, and 



Eoghan himself entered the church and be- 
came parish priest of Doneraile, co. Cork. He 
was president of the bardic meetings held 
at Charleville, co. Cork, till his ordination. 
He wrote 'Ajr treasgradh i nEachdhruim 
do shiol Eibhir' ('All that at Aughrim 
are laid low of the seed of Eber '), a poem 
of eight stanzas, lamenting the defeat and 
denouncing the victors. Ithas been printed, 
with a translation, by S. H. O'Grady. He 
also wrote many other poems which were 
current in the south of Ireland as long as 
Irish was generally read there. He died on 
5 April 1726, and was buried at Oldcourt, 
near Doneraile. A local stonecutter named 
Donough O'Daly carved an epitaph on his 
tombstone, which states that he was a wise 
and amiable man, an active parish priest, and 
a learned scholarly poet ' a bpriomhthean- 
gadh a dhuithche agus a shinnsear ' (' in the 
original language of his country and his 
ancestors '). Dr. John O'Brien, bishop of 
Cioyne, also wrote a short epitaph in verse. 

[O'Daly 's Poets and Poetry of Monster, Dub- 
lin, 1849 ; S. H. O'Grady's Catalogue of the Irish 
Manuscripts in the British Museum ; O'Reilly 
in Transactions of Iberno-Celtic Society, 1820 ; 
Egerton MS. 154 in British Museum.] N. M. 

O'KEEFFE, JOHN (1747-1833), dra- 
matist, descended from an old catholic stock 
which had gradually sunk under the burden 
of the penal laws, was born in Abbey Street, 
Dublin, on 24 June 1747. His father was 
a native of King's County, his mother an 
O'Connor of co. Wexford. He was educated 
by Father Austin, a Jesuit, who kept a school 
in Saul's Court. He afterwards studied art 
in the Dublin school of design, together 
with a brother Daniel. The latter exhibited 
fourteen miniatures at the Royal Academy, 
London, between 1771 and 1786 (Graves, 
Catalogue). But John had meanwhile been 
attracted to the stage by a perusal of 
Farquhar's plays. At fifteen he attempted 
a comedy—' The Gallant/ in five acts — and 
he afterwards obtained an engagement as an 
actor with Henry Mossop [q. v.J, the Dublin 
lessee, after reciting to him some passages 
from Jaffier's part. He remained a member 
of Mossop's stock company for twelve years. 
In the season of 1770-1 he played Gratiano 
at the Capel Street Theatre to Macklin's 
Shylock. But when he had reached his 
twenty-third year his eyesight began to fail, 
an affliction against which he long struggled, 
but, as in the case of his dramatic contem- 
porary, Kane O'Hara [q.v.l it ended in 
complete blindness about 179/. 

While still an actor, O'Keeffe tried his 
hand at playwriting, and in 1773 his farce 
' Tony Lumpkin in Town/ founded on Gold- 



O'Keeffe 



73 



O'Keeffe 



smith's ' She Stoops to Conquer/ was pro- 
duced in Dublin. The author sent it 
anonymously to Colman, the manager of the 
Haymarket Theatre in London, and on 
2 July 1778 it was put on the stage there 
with considerable success. It was published 
in the same year. From that date O'Keeffe 
proved an exceptionally prolific playwright, 
out mainly confined his efforts to farces and 
comic operas. His phraseology was quaint, 
and sometimes barely intelligible, but gave 
opportunities for 'gag' to comedians, of 
which they took full advantage. The songs 
in his operas had an attractive sparkle, and 
some, liae 'lama Friar of Orders Grey ' and 
* Amo Amas I love a Lass/ are still popular. 
He was always a facile if not a very finished 
rhymester. 

About 1780 O'Keeffe removed from Dublin 
to London, with a view to obtaining an 
engagement as an actor. But in this en- 
deavour he was not successful, and he con- 
sequently devoted himself to writing comic 
pieces, chiefly for the Haymarket and Covent 
Garden Theatres. He also sent verses for 
many years to the ' Morning Herald.' His 
failing sight compelled him to depend largely 
on an amanuensis, but his gaiety was not 
diminished. He dictated many of his plays 
in his garden at Acton, whither he went to 
reside about 1798. 

At the Haymarket were produced his 
t ' Son-in-Law, comic opera (14 Aug. 1779 ; 
London, 1779, 8vo); t'The Dead Alive/ 
comic opera (16 June 1781; 1783, 8vo); 
I'The AgreaWe Surprise/ comic opera, 
with music by Dr. Arnold (3 Sept. 1781 ; 
London, 1786, 8vo ; Dublin, 1784 and 1787; 
printed in Cumberland's ' British Theatre/ 
No. 232) ; t ' The Young Quaker ' (26 July 
1783) ; ' The Birthday, or Prince of Ara- 

fon/ comic opera (12 Aug. 1783; 1783, 
vo) ; t ' Peeping Tom of Coventry/ comic 
opera (6 Sept. 1784; 1787, 8vo); *'A 
Beggar on Horseback/ comic opera (16 June 
1786; 1785, 8vo); 'The Siege of Curzoia/ 
comic opera (12 Aug. 1786 ; not published^ ; 
1 Prisoner at Large/ a comedy (2 July 1788) ; 
• ' The Basket-Maker/ musical piece (4 Sept. 
1790) ; ' London Hermit/ a comedy (29 June 
1793) ; * ' The Magic Banner/ opera (22 June 
1796; not nublished separately, but appa- 
rently identical with ' Alfred/ a drama, in 
the collected edition of 1798 ; on it James 
Pocock [q. v.] based his ' Alfred the Great, 
or the Enchanted Standard/ produced at 
Covent Garden on 3 Nov. 1827. 

At Covent Garden were represented 
O'Keeffe's • ' The Positive Man » (16 March 
1782) ; * ' Castle of Andalusia/ comic opera 
(2 Nov. 1782) ; *' Poor Soldier/ comic opera 



(4 Nov. 1783) ; * ' Fontainebleau ' (16 Nov. 
1784); •'The Blacksmith of Antwerp' 
(7 Feb. 1785) ; ' Omai/ a pantomime (20 Dec. 
1785) ; * ' Love in a Camp, or Patrick in Prus- 
sia/ musical piece(17Feb. 1786) ; *'TheMan 
Milliner' (27 Jan. 1787); *'The Farmer/ 
musical piece (31 Oct. 1787) ; * ' Tantara- 
rara Roguesall' (1 March 1788); *'The 
Highland Reel ' (6 Nov. 1788); 'The Toy/ a 
comedy (3 Feb. 1789) ; * 'Little Hunchback/ 
farce (14 April 1789); *' The Czar Peter/ 
comic opera (8 March 1790); ' The Fugitive/ 
musical piece (4 Nov. 1790); *' Modern An- 
tiques/ a farce (14 March 1791) ; ' Wild 
Oats/ a comedy (16 Anril 1791) ; ' Tony 
Lumpkin's Rambles/ musical piece (10 April 
1792 ) ; • ' The Sprigs of Laurel/ comic opera 
(11 May 1793) ; 'World in a Village/ a co- 
medy (23 Nov. 1793); 'Life's Vagaries/ a 
comedy (19 March 1795) ; ' The Irish Mimic ' 
(23 April 1795); 'The Lie of the Day' 
(19 March 1796) ; * ' The Lad of the Hills/ 
comic opera, 9 April 1796 (reproduced 
with alterations as 'The Wicklow Moun- 
tains/ 10 Oct. 1796 ; * ' Doldrum/ a farce 
(23 April 1796) ; < Olympus in an Uproar/ 
5 Nov. 1796 (altered from 'The Golden 
Pippin/ a burletta, by Kane O'Hara) ; ' Alad- 
din, or the Wonderful Lamp/ a melodra- 
matic romance (19 April 1813). 

At Drury Lane appeared in 1798 O'Keeffe's 
' She's Eloped/ a comedy (19 May) ; ' The 
Eleventh of June, or the Dagger- Woods at 
Dunstable ' (5 June) ; ' A Nose Gay of Weeds/ 
interlude (6 June). 

O'Keeffe is also credited with producing 
many pieces which, unlike those already 
enumerated, are not mentioned by Genest. 
The additional pieces include ' The Ban- 
ditti '(1781); 'Lord Mayor's Day' (1782); 
' Maid the Mistress/ ' Shamrock/ and 'Friar 
Bacon ' (1783) ; ' Harlequin Teague ; ' ' The 
Definitive Treaty ; ' ' The Loyal Bandeau ' 
(opera) ; ' Female Club ; ' ' Jenny's Whim ; ' 
'Ail to St. Paul's ;' ' The She-Gallant.' In 1798, 
when O'Keeffe claimed to have composed 
fifty pieces, and he was totally blind, he 
published a selection from them by subscrip- 
tion in four volumes. He had disposed 
of the copyright of those marked t in the 
list already given, and was unable to include 
them. The volumes only contained those 
marked * above, all of which were now 
printed for the first time, together with ' Le 
Granadier/ intended for production at 
Covent Garden in 1789, but not performed. 

On 12 June 1800, owing to O'Keeffe's 
financial embarrassments, he was accorded 
a benefit at Covent Garden, under the 
patronage of the Prince of Wales. His 
' Lie of the Day ' was performed, and, at the 



O'Keeffe 



74 



O'Kelly 



end of the second act, he was led on the 
stage to deliver a poetical address of his own 
composition. The benefit produced 360/., 
and the Prince of Wales sent him 50/. be- 
sides. In December 1803 he obtained an 
annuity of twenty guineas from Covent Gar- 
den Theatre, and sent to Harris, the manager, 
six new plays, of which no use appears to 
have been made. In January 1820 a royal 
pension from the privy purse of one hundred 
guineas a year was conferred on him. In 
1826 O'Keeffe issued his rambling ' Recol- 
lections,' replete with social and dramatic 
Oip, but not remarkable for accuracy, 
y Morgan described the book as * feeble, 
but amiable.' It was dedicated to George IV. 
In it O'Keeffe enumerates sixty-eight pieces 
of his own composition. The ' Recollections ' 
were condensed by Richard Henry Stoddard 
for his volume, ' Personal Reminiscences by 
O'Keeffe, Kelly, and Taylor,' in the Bric-a- 
Brac series (New York, 1876). 

In his later years he was affectionately 
tended by his only daughter, Adelaide (see 
an interesting manuscript letter by Ade- 
laide O'Keefle, bound in one of the copies 
of the * Recollections ' in the British Museum. 
In the same copy are a few lines scrawled 
in O'Keeffe's own hand). About 1815 he re- 
tired from London to Chichester (Notes and 
Queries, 7th ser. ii. 9). From Chichester he 
removed in 1830 to Southampton. As late as 
that year he could dictate verse epistles with 
all his youthful alacrity (ib. 3rd ser. x. 307). 
Before his death his aaughter read to him 
most of Sir Walter Scott's novels, and he 
was gratified by the ' two mentions ' of Cow- 
slip, the leading character of his ' Agreable 
Surprise,' in Scott's ' Tales of my Landlord ;' 
but when he found that Scott used the 
phrase * From Shakespeare to O'Keeffe ' in 
i St. Ronan's Well,' he remarked sardoni- 
cally, ' Ah ! the top and the bottom of the 
ladder; he might have shoved me a few sticks 
higher.' He died at Bedford Cottage, South- 
ampton, on 4 Feb. 1833, aged 85, after re- 
ceiving the last rites of the Roman catholic 
church. A half-length portrait of O'Keeffe 
was painted in 1786 by Thomas Lawrenson 

S. \7], and is now in the National Portrait 
allery, London. It was engraved in line 
bv Bragg as a frontispiece to the ' Recollec- 
tions.' 

O'Keeffe's ' Wild Oats ' is played to this 
day, and one of the most successful of Buck- 
stone's revivals was ' The Castle of Anda- 
lusia,' in which that actor took a leading part. 
But O'Keeffe's popularity has not proved 
permanent, and his unpublished and un- 
acted pieces, which his aaughter offered for 
sale at his death, did not find a purchaser. 



Miss O'Keeffe published his poetical works 
as 'A Father's Legacy to his Daughter' in 
1834. He had already issued in 1795 a 
volume of verse, entitled ' Oatlands, or the 
Transfer of the Laurel.' 

His son, John Tottenham O'Keeffe (1775- 
1803), who was brought up as a protes- 
tant, matriculated at Exeter College, Ox- 
ford, 22 Nov. 1798 (B.A. 1801), became 
chaplain to H.R.H. the Duke of Clarence, 
went out in 1803 to Jamaica to take pos- 
session of a lucrative living, but died three 
weeks after his arrival, aged 28. 

His only daughter and third child, Ade- 
laide O'Keeffe (1776-1855?), born 5 Nov. 
1776 in Eustace Street, Dublin, contributed 
thirty-four poems to Taylor's ' Original 
Poems for Infant Minds by Several Young 
Persons,' London, 1804, 2 vols. (cf. Notes and 
Queries, 7th ser. iii. 361-2), and was author 
of ' National Characters/ 1808 ; ' Patriarchal 
Times,' London, 1811, 2 vols. (6th edit. 
1842) ; « A Trip to the Coast ' (poems), 1819, 
12mo; * Dudley,' a novel, 3 vols. 1819, 
12mo ; ' Poems for Young Children,' 1849, 
12mo; and 'The Broken Sword, a Tale/ 
1854, 8vo. She also wrote ' Zenobia, Queen 
of Palmyra. A Narrative founded on His- 
tory/ 2 vols. 12mo, 1814 ; but this must be 
distinguished from the better known 'Zeno- 
bia, or the Fall of Palmyra. An Historical 
Romance' (New York, 1837 ; London, 1838), 
by William Ware, author of ' Julian.' Miss 
O'Keeffe died about 1855. 

[Recollections of John O'Keeffe, London ; Lady 
Morgan's Memoirs, p. 381 ; Gilbert's Dublin, 
3 vols. 1859 ; Bioprr. Diet, of Living Authors, 
1816; Clark Russell's Representative Actors, 
London, 1875 ; Annual Biography, 1833; Dublin 
University Magazine, 1833; Webb's Compend. 
Irish Biography ; Epitaph on O'Keeffe's tomb in 
Southampton churchyard; Gent. Mag. 1833, i. 
375 seq. ; Baker's Biogr. Dramatica ; Genest's 
Account of the Stage, passim ; Notes and Queries, 
7th ser. iii. 361; O'Donoghue's Dictionary of 
Irish Poets.] W. J. F. 

O'KELLY, CHARLES (1621-1696), 
Irish historian, the elder son of John O'Kelly, 
eighth lord of the manor of Screen, co. Galway, 
by Isma, daughter of Sir William Hill of 
Ballybeg, co. Carlow, was born at the castle 
of Screen in 1621, and educated in the Irish 
College at St. Omer. Soon after the outbreak 
of the civil war in Ireland he was summoned 
home to join the royal army. He accord- 
ingly returned in 1642, and obtained the 
command of a troop of horse under the Mar- 
quis of Ormonde. After the ultimate triumph 
of the parliamentarians he retired, with two 
thousand of his countrymen, into Spain to 
serve Charles II. On hearing, however, that 



O'Kelly 



75 



O'Kelly 



Charles was in France, he proceeded thither 
with most of the officers and soldiers be- 
longing to the corps which he was appointed 
to command. When Cardinal Mazarin and 
Oliver Cromwell concluded the treaty of al- 
liance against Spain, in consequence of which 
the royal family of England were obliged to 
quit France, O'Kelly and other exiles trans- 
ferred their services to the crown of Spain. 

He came to England on the restoration of 
Charles II, and, his father dying in 1674, he 
succeeded to the family estate, becoming 
ninth lord of the manor of Screen. His name 
appears on the list of the twenty-four bur- 
gesses of the reformed corporation of Athlone 
in 1687. In the parliament summoned by 
James U to meet at Dublin in 1689, O'Kelly 
sat as member for the county of Roscommon. 
He was commissioned in the same year to 
levy a regiment of infantry for the king's 
service, to be commanded by himself, with his 
brother John as his lieutenant-colonel. This 
regiment was not long maintained, though he 
continued to serve the king with the title of 
colonel. He undertook to defend the province 
of Connaught, under the direction of Brigadier 
Patrick Sarsfield[q. v.], with such force of the 
county militia as could be collected. Colonel 
Thomas Lloyd [q. v.] defeated this force on 
19 Sept. 1689, but O'Kelly, on the rout of 
his infantry, escaped with his cavalry. He 
was one of the garrison of the island ot Bofin, 
on the western coast, at the time of its 
capitulation to the forces of King William 
on 20 Aug. 1691. Subsequently he was ap- 

S)inted to guard a strong castle near Lough 
lin, but he was compelled to surrender this 
post about 9 Sept., whereupon he proceeded 
to Limerick, then besieged by Baron de Gin- 
kell. On the conclusion of the treaty of 
Limerick he retired to his residence at Augh- 
rane, or Castle Kelly, where he died in 1695. 

He married Margaret, daughter of Teige 
O'Kelly, esq., of Gallagh, co. Gal way, and 
had one son, Denis, who became a captain in 
the Irish army of King James II, and on 
whose death in 1740 the family in the male 
line became extinct. 

Under disguised names he described the 
struggle between James II and William HI 
in Ireland in a curious work entitled * Ma- 
carise Excidium ; or the Destruction of Cyprus, 
containing the last Warr and Conquest of 
that Kingdom. Written originally in Syriac 
by Philotas Phylocypres. Translated into 
Latin by Gratianus Ragallusj P.R. And 
now Made into English by Colonel Charles 
O'Kelly,' 1692. This was first printed in 
1841 by the Camden Society in ' Narratives 
illustrative of the Contests in Ireland in 1641 
and 1690/ under the editorship of Thomas 



Crofton Croker, and from a manuscript in his 
possession. It was afterwards ' edited, from 
tour English conies, and a Latin manuscript 
in the Royal Irish Academy,' by John Cor- 
nelius O'Callaghan, and printed for the Irish 
Archaeological Society, Dublin, 1850, 4to. 
The Latin translation, made by the Rev. John 
O'Reilly, preserves many passages not found 
in the English version. O'Caliaghan's notes 
abound in curious and valuable matter, and 
contain references to all the original sources 
of the history of that period. O'Kelly asserts 
that the successes of William III could not 
be ascribed to the cowardice or infidelity 
of the Irish troops, who were abandoned 
by James II without sufficient trial, under- 
valued and neglected by their French allies, 
and betrayed by the policy of Tyrconnel. 
A new edition of the work, brought out 
under the superintendence of Count Plunket 
and the Rev. Edmund Hogan, S. J., under 
the title of * The Jacobite War in Ireland/ 
was published at Dublin in 1894, as a volume 
of the ' New Irish Home Library.' 

O'Kelly was also the author of ' The O'Kelly 
Memoirs.' The manuscript volume contain- 
ing them was at the time of the French 
revolution in the possession of Count John 
James O'Kelly Farrell, minister-plenipo- 
tentiary from Louis XVI to the elector of 
Mayence,but it was lost in the disturbances 
of that period. These memoirs are stated 
to have embraced narratives of the parlia- 
mentarian war which commenced in 1641, 
and of the subsequent war of the revolution. 

[Keating's Hist, of Ireland, 1723, genealogical 
append, p. 10; Memoir by O'Callaghan; Nichols's 
Cat. of the Works of the Camden Soc. p. 13; 
Croker's Narratives illustrative of the Contests 
in Ireland (Camden Soc.), Introd. p. xi ; O'Dono- 
van's Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many (Irish 
Archseol. Soc.), p. 115; Story's Impartial Hist, 
of the Wars in Ireland, 1693.] T. C. 

O'KELLY, DENNIS (1720 P-1787), 
owner of racehorses, born in Ireland about 
1720, was brother of a cobbler. He came to 
England, when young, as a chair-man. His 
strength and presence of mind attracted a 
lady of high position, but the liaison came 
to an early end. O'Kelly was again thrown 
upon the world, and made his livelihood as a 
billiard and tennis marker. He seems to have 
bettered his fortunes by a permanent con- 
nection with a noted courtesan, Charlotte 
Hayes, who afterwards became his wife. 
His first important step towards wealth was 
the purchase of the racehorse Eclipse. This 
horse, foaled in 1764, was bought when one 
year old after the death of his breeder, the 
Duke of Cumberland, by a cattle salesman 
named Wildman, for seventy-five guineas. 



O'Kelly 



76 



O'Kelly 



Before the horse ran, O'Kelly acquired a ' 
share in him for the sum of 650 guineas, 
a vast price in those days for an untried 
horse. It was on the occasion of Eclipse's 
first race, the Queen's Plate at Winchester, 
that, over the second heat, O'Kelly made his 
famous bet of placing the horses in order, 
which he won by running Eclipse first and 
the rest nowhere. In heat races a flag was 
dropped when the winner passed the post, and 
all horses that were not within 240 yards of 
the post were ignored by the judge and were 
ineligible to start in another heat. Not 
long after O'Kelly became the sole owner of 
Eclipse for a further sum of eleven hun- 
dred guineas. In those days all the valuable 
sweepstakes at Newmarket were confined 
to members of the Jockey Club, and Eclipse's 
reputation made it impossible to match 
him for money. Consequently O'Kelly's 
profits from him must have been derived 
more from his value as a sire than from his 
winnings. In July 1774 he bought Scara- 
mouch (by Snap) at the sale of the Duke of 
Kingston's stud. In 1788 the Prince of 
Wales won a Jockey Club plate with Gun- 
powder, which he had bought of O'Kelly. 
O'Kelly improved his social position by ob- 
taining a commission in the Middlesex militia, 
in which he was successively captain, major, 
and colonel. He bought a country house, Clay 
Hill, at Epsom, and subsequently the famous 
estate of Cannons, near Edgware, previously 
the property of the Duke of Chandos. 

O Kelly was additionally famous in his 
-day as the owner of a talking parrot, which 
whistled the 104th Psalm, and was among 
parrots what Eclipse was among racehorses. 
O'Kelly is described by a contemporary as ' a 
short, thick-set, dark, harsh- visaged, and ruf- 
fian-looking fellow,' yet with ' the ease, the 
rmens, the manners of a gentleman, and 
attractive quaintness 01 a humourist.' 
He evidently snowed no wish to turn his 
back on his poor relations, and it is to his 
•credit that, although a professional gamester, 
he would never allow play at his own table. 
But he is said to have held post-obits to the 
amount of 20,000/. from Lord Belfast. He 
died at his house in Piccadilly on 28 Dec. 
1787. 

Eclipse, his colt Dungannon, and a number 
of mares, were left to O'Kelly's brother to 
be carried on as a breeding stud. The rest 
of the property went to a nephew, who be- 
came a member of the Jockey Club, and ran 
Cardock for a Jockey Club plate in 1793. 
O'Kelly was determined that his property 
should not go as it had come ; and, acting on 
the same principle as another noted game- 
ster, Lord Chesterfield, he inserted a clause 



in his will that his heir should forfeit 400/. 
for every wager that he made. 

[A Genuine Memoir of Dennis O'Kelly, Lon- 
don, 1788 ; Gent. Mag. 1 787, pt.ii. p. 1196; Scott's 
Sportsman's Repository; Black's Jockey Club and 
its Founders, 1891, passim.] J. A. D. 

O'KELLY, JOSEPH (1832-1883), geolo- 
list, born in Dublin on 31 Oct. 1832, was the 
second son of Matthias Joseph O'Kelly, who 
had married Margaret Shannon. His father 
was noted for a love of natural history, es- 
pecially of conchoiogy, and yet more for his 
activity in the cause of catholic emancipation. 
Joseph O'Kelly entered Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, in 1848, proceeded B.A. in 1862, and 
M.A. in 1860. He also obtained a diploma 
in engineering. After working for a few 
years under Sir Richard John Griffith [q. v.], 
he was appointed to a post on the Geological 
Survey ot Ireland in 1854. In this capacity 
he was chiefly occupied in the field with the 
district around Cork, the igneous rocks of 
Limerick, and the coalfields ofQueen's County 
and Tipperary, investigating the last named, 
with the aid of colleagues, in great detail. 
But the work involved real hardships, such as 
exposure to stormy weather and accommoda- 
tion worse than humble. By these O'Kelly's 
health was seriously impaired, so that, after 
working for a time in Galway, he was trans- 
ferred, in October 1865, to the post of secre- 
tary to the Survey. In his new office his 
services were of great value, not only from 
his extensive knowledge of Irish geology, 
but also from his straightforward honesty and 
genial disposition, which enabled him to 
diminish motion and to promote cordial 
co-operation in official circles. 

His health proved to be permanently in- 
jured, and he died of acute bronchitis on 
13 April 1883. His contributions to the 
literature of geology, practically restricted 
to the memoirs published by the Survey, 
indicate his powers and his thoroughness as a 
geological observer. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Royal Irish Academy early in 
1866, and married in 1870 Miss Dorothea 
Smyth, by whom he had a family of five sons 
and four daughters ; these all survived him. 

[Obituary notice in Geological Magazine, 1883, 
p. 288, and information from Mrs. O'Kelly and 
friends.] T. G. B. 

O'KELLY, PATRICK Q754-1835?), 

eccentric poet, known as the ' Bard O'Kelly/ 
was born at Loughrea, co. Galway, in 17o4. 
He seems to have obtained a local reputation 
as a poet before he published his first volume, 
'Killarney: a Poem,' in 1791. His fame 
rapidly spread, and subsequent volumes were 
issued by subscription. When George IV 



O'Kelly 



77 



was in Ireland, O'Kelly was presented to him 
in Dublin. His majesty, when Prince of 
Wales, had subscribed for fifty copies of his 
second volume of poems. He travelled over 
the south and west of Ireland selling his 
books. In July 1808 he wrote the well- 
known ' Doneraile Litany/ which is his best 
production. It is a string of curses on the 
town and people of Doneraile, co. Cork, where 
he had been robbed of his watch and chain 
in the locality. On Lady Doneraile replacing 
his property, he wrote ' The Palinode/ re- 
voking all the former curses. He met Sir 
Walter Scott at Limerick in the summer of 
1825 (LocKHABT,Zt/<? of Sir W. Scott, 1 vol. 
Edinburgh, 1845, p. 562). O'Kelly died 
about 1835. 

His works, which are all in verse of a very 
pedestrian order, are : 1. ' Killarney : a De- 
scriptive Poem/ 8vo, Dublin, 1791. O'Kelly 
complained that Michael McCarthys ' Lacus 
Delectabilis/ 1816, was almost entirely taken 
from his poem. 2. ' The Eudoxologist, or an 
Ethicographical Survey of the Western Parts 
of Ireland: a Poem/ &c, 8vo, Dublin, 1812 
(containing the ' Doneraile Litany '). 3« ' The 
Aonian Kaleidoscope/ 8vo, Cork, 1824. 
4. 'The Hippocrene/ 8vo, Dublin, 1831 (with 
portrait). 

There was another Patrick 0* Kelly who 
published, in 1842, a * General History of the 
Rebellion of 1798/ and translated works by 
Abb6 McGeoghegan and W. D. O'Kelly on 
Ireland. 

[Brit. Mas. Cat. ; O'Donogbue's Poets of Ire- 
land ; Croker's Popular Songs of Ireland ; Watty 
Cox's Irish Magazine, September 1810.] 

D. J. O'D. 

O'KELLY, RALPH (d. 1361), archbishop 
of Cashel. [See Kelly.] 

OKELY, FRANCIS (1719 P - 1794), 
minister of the Unitas Fratrum, was born at 
Bedford about 1719. He was educated at 
the Charterhouse school and at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, graduating B.A.in 1739. 
About 1740 he took part with Jacob Rogers, 
an Anglican clergyman, in an evangelical 
mission at Bedford. On the advice of Ben- 
jamin Ingham [a. v.], this movement was 
connected in 1742 with the Moravian mis- 
sion. Okely was ordained deacon by a 
bishop of the Unitas Fratrum. On seeking 
priests orders in the Anglican church, re- 
cognition of his deacon's order was refused ; 
the act of parliament recognising the Unitas 
Fratrum as ' an ancient protestant episcopal 
church ' was not passed till 6 June 1749. 
Okely adhered to the Unitas Fratrum. In 
March 1744 he was with John Gambol d [q. v.] 
at the synod of the brethren at Herrnhaag. 



Okely 

In 1745 a regular congregation was formed at 
Bedford, ana a chapel erected in 1751. Later 
another chapel was built in the neighbouring 
village of Riseley. Okely was the first regu- 
lar minister (1755) of the Moravian chapel 
at Dukinfield, Cheshire, but left after two 
years to conduct a mission in Yorkshire. In 
March 1768 he accompanied John Wesley 
from Manchester to Bolton and Liverpool. 
About 1766, having again been settled at 
Bedford, he removea to Northampton, where* 
a chapel was built for him. Here he minis- 
tered to a congregation of the Unitas Fratrum 
till his death. 

Early in life Okely had been greatly in- 
fluenced by Law's ' Serious Call/ 1728. He 
made the acquaintance of the author a few 
months before Law died, 9 April 1761, and this 
led him to study the works of Jacob Behmen 
(Boehme), to which he had first been intro- 
duced in his earlier acquaintance with John 
Byrom [q. v.] In a curious list of sympa- 
thisers with mysticism drawn up in Novem- 
ber 1775 by Richard Mather [q. v.], it is men- 
tioned that Okely ' professes great love to the 
mystics/ He devoted his later years to trans- 
lating works of this type in prose and verse, 
with commendatory prefaces and notes of 
some value. 

He died, while on a visit at Bedford, on 
9 May 1794, leaving a high character for 
piety and benevolence. 

lie published : 1. ' Twenty-one Discourses 
. . . upon the Augsburgh Confession . . . 
the Brethren's Confession of Faith,' &c, 1754, 
8vo (translated from the German). 2. ' Psal- 
morum aliquot Davidis Metaphrasis Grseca 
Joan n is Serrani,' &c, 1770, 12mo (with other 
Greek sacred verse, and a Latin version by 
Okely). 3. 'The Nature . . . of the New Crea- 
ture . . . by Johanna EleonoradeMerlau,' &c. f 
1772, 12mo (translated from the German). 
4. 'Dawnings of the Everlasting Gospel- 
Light, glimmering out of a Private Heart's 
Epistolary Correspondence,' &c, Northamp- 
ton, 1775, 8vo. 5. ' A Seasonable and Salu- 
tary Word,' &c. (collection of mystical pieces ; 
not seen). 6. ' Seasonably Alarming and . . . 
Exhilarating Truths,' &c. 1778, 8vo (metrical 
version of passages from Law). 7. 'Memoirs 
of . . . Jacob Behmen,' &c. 1780, 12mo (trans- 
lated from several German writers). 8. ' The 
Divine Visions of John Engelbrecht,' &c. 1 781 , 
8vo, 2 vols. 9. ' A Display of God's Wonders 
. . . upon . . . John Engelbrecht,' 1781, &c. 
10. 'A Faithful Narrative of God's . . . Deal- 
ings with Hiel [Hendrik Jansenl' &c. 1781, 
8vo. 11. 'The Indispensable Necessity of 
Faith,' &c. 1781, 12mo (sermon at Eydon, 
Northamptonshire). 12. 'The Disjointed 
Watch ... a Similitude ... in Metre/ &c. 



Okeover 



78 



Okes 



1783, 12mo. He prepared for publication a 
translation of Boehme's 'Way to Christ,' 
which was superseded by a reprint of an 
older version; also translations of Pierre 
Poiret's * Mystic Library/ Gerlac Petersen's 
* Divine Soliloquies/ Joannes Theophilus's 
' Germanic Theology/ Tauler^s ' Conversion/ 
Hiei's 'Letters' and 'Treatises/ and 'Me- 
moirs of J. G. Gichtel.' The ' Gentleman's 
Magazine ' speaks of him as ' a valuable cor- 
respondent.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1794, i. 48.5, 694; Protestant 
Dissenter's Magazine, 1794, p. 336; Cranz's Hist, 
of the Brethren, 1780, pp. 229, 570; Nichols's 
Anecdotes of W. Bowyer, 1782; Klinesmith's 
Historical Records relative to the Moravian 
Church, 1831, p. 294 ; Walton's Notes and Ma- 
terials for Biography of W. Law, 1854, p. 596 ; 
Tyerraan's Life and Times of John Wesley, 1870, 
ii. 301, and Oxford Methodists, 1873, pp. 122, 
130 ; list of writings appended to Okely's Me- 
moirs of Behmen ; information from the Rev. R. 
Hutton, Dukinfield.] A. G. 

OKEOVER, OKEVER, or OKER, 
JOHN (Jl. 1619-1634), organist and com- 
poser, succeeded Richard Browne as vicar- 
choral and organist of Wells Cathedral on 
16 Feb. 1619 (Wood). He graduated M.B. 
from New College, Oxford, on 5 July 1633. 
On 2 Jan. 1634, when master of the choristers 
at Wells, he was charged with ' having given 
notice to the vicars that there should be no 
antumne sung in steede of Nunc dimittis or 
Benedictus, but only according to the forme 
of common prayer,' without first consulting 
with the canons resident. He answered that 
he was commanded by the bishop to give 
the notice, but the dean pronounced him 
contumacious, and removed him from his 
office of vicar for a week. He appears to 
have married Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Beaumont, a member of a well-known family 
in Wells. John Beaumont left in his will, 
dated 5 March 1634, legacies to his ' daughter 
Elizabeth and to her husband John Oker.' 

Okeover was a writer of ' fancies/ Five 
of his pieces, together with a pavan, all in 
five parts, are in Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 
17786, ff. 19-25. Another fantasia by 
Okeover, in five parts, is in MS. 17792, f. 92. 

[Wood's Fasti, i. 386, 468 ; Hist. MSS. Coram. 
Rep. on MSS. of Wells Cathedral, 1885, p. 256 ; 
Reg. of Wills, P. C. C. (Sadler).] L. M. M. 

OKES, RICHARD (1797-1888), provost 
of King's College, Cambridge, was son of 
Thomas Verney Okes, a surgeon in extensive 
practice at Cambridge. Of his twenty chil- 
dren, Richard was the nineteenth, and was 
born at Cambridge on 25 Dec. 1797. Porson 
was a visitor at the house, and took a kindly 
interest in young Richard. Educated on the 



foundation at Eton, where he was contem- 

E>rary with William Mackworth Praed, 
ord Derby (the future premier), Pusey, and 
Shelley (who was some years his senior), he 
became in due course a scholar and fellow of 
King's; was Browne's medallist in 1819 and 
1820, was appointed assistant-master at Eton 
in 1823, and lower master in 1838. During 
the years of his mastership, and afterwards 
at Cambridge, he was a conspicuous figure 
in the school and college world, and innume- 
rable anecdotes grew up round his marked 
and vivid personality. Many school gene- 
rations of Etonians carried away a lively 
recollection of his dry and caustic wit, his 
shrewd remarks, his slow and deliberate 
speech, his inimitable Latin quotat ions, drawn 
chiefly from familiar sources, such as Horace 
or the Eton Latin grammar, his curious 
punctiliousness about minutiae of school dis- 
cipline, usages, and phraseology. He was a 
successful tutor, having at times as many as 
ninety pupils, and impressed his colleagues, 
as well as the boys, with a strong sense of his 
painstaking accuracy. During the latter part 
of Dr. Keate's headmastership he took much 
interest in the improvement of geographical 
studies by the introduction of Arrowsmith's 
1 Atlas ' and compendium, to which he con- 
tributed most of the illustrative notes. On 
his election to the provostship of King's in 
1860, one of his first acts was to abandon 
the privilege which entitled members of 
King's College to take the B.A. degree with- 
out examination. The wisdom of this re- 
form has been proved by the success of 
King's men in the tripos lists. His provost- 
ship coincided with the introduction of great 
changes in the university, the result of two 
successive university commissions, and with 
the establishment of the new governing body 
of Eton, of which he became a member. 
Though conservative in principle and feel- 
ing, he took part loyally in the introduction 
and conduct of reforms, and presided over 
the college with much dignity and kindli- 
ness for thirty-eight years. The year follow- 
ing his appointment as provost he filled the 
office of vice-chancellor, but after the expi- 
ration of his year of office he could never 
again be induced to serve. He was the edi- 
tor of a new series of l Musae Etonenses ' for 
1796-1833, which he enriched with sketches 
of the authors written in Latin, full of felici- 
tous and witty phrases. The heraldic window 
in the school museum at Eton was his gift 
in conjunction with Dr. Hawtrey. He died 
at Cambridge on 25 Nov. 1888, and was buried 
in King's College Chapel. 

[Personal information from old pupils and 
colleagues.] J. J. H. 



Okey 



79 



Okey 



OKEY, JOHN (d. 1662), regicide, was, 
according to Wood, ' originally a drayman, 
afterwards a stoker in a brewhouse at Is- 
lington near London, and then a poor 
chandler near Lion-key in Thames Street in 
London' (Fasti, 19 May 1649). Ludlow 
states that he was a citizen of London, had 
been ' first a captain of foot, then captain of 
horse, and afterwards major in the regiment 
of Sir Arthur Haslerig* (Memoirs, ed. 1894, 
ii. 333). He was quartermaster of a troop 
of horse in Essex's army in 1642, and, as 
captain of horse, Okey took part in the 
defence of Lichfield in April 1643 (Valour 
Crowned, or a True Relation of the Proceed- 
ings of the Parliament Forces in the Close at 
Lichfield, 4to, 1643 ; Peacock, Army Lists, 
p. 48). In the new model Okey was colonel 
of the dragoons, and fought at Naseby, where 
his regiment was set to line the hedges on 
the left flank of the parliamentary army (A 
Letter from Colonel Okey to a Citizen of Lon- 
don, 4to, 1645). On 13 July Burrough Hill 
fort in Somersetshire surrendered to him, and 
he led the storming party at Bath on 29 July. 
On 1 Sept., during the siege of Bristol, he 
was taken prisoner by a sally of the garrison, 
but was released when it capitulated, and 
took part in the siege of Exeter (Sprigge, 
Anglxa Rediviva, ed. 1864, pp. 75, 84, 104, 
173). Okey adhered to the army in its dis- 
pute with the parliament in 1647 (Rush- 
worth, vi. 471). During the second civil 
war he served in South Wales and took part 
in the battle of St. Fagan's (8 May 1648 ; 
Phillips, Civil War in Wales, ii. 361). He 
was appointed one of the king's judges, at- 
tended every sitting of that body excepting 
three, and signed the warrant for the king's 
execution (Nalson, Trial of Charles I). 

Okey assisted in the suppression of the 
levellers in May 1649, and was one of the 
officers created masters of arts at Oxford on 
19 May 1649 (Wood, Fasti). He took no 
part in the Irish campaign, but accompanied 
Cromwell to Scotlana in July 1650, and was 
left behind under the command of Monck 
when Cromwell pursued Charles II into 
England in August 1661. In August 1651 
he captured some Scottish commissioners 
who were raising forces near Glasgow, and 
in September took part in the storming of 
Dundee, of which he has left a graphic ac- 
count (Old Parliamentary History, xx. 23 ; 
MacKinnon, Coldstream Guards, i. 43). 

Politically, Okey belonged to the extreme 
party in the army, was one of the presenters 
of the petition of 12 Aug. 1652, and was 
eager for the dissolution of the Long parlia- 
ment (Mercurius Politicus, 12-19 Aug. 
1652). Cromwell's expulsion of it, however, 



aroused his fears and suspicions, and he dis- 
approved of the terms of the instrument of 
government and of Cromwell's assumption 
of the protectorate (Ludlow, ii. 347, 356, 
406). In the parliament of 1654 Okey sat as 
member for Linlithgow and other Scottish 
boroughs. In November 1654 he and two 
other colonels circulated a petition, intended 
to be presented to parliament, setting forth 
their objections' to the new constitution. 
For this offence he was arrested, tried by 
court-martial, and condemned ; but, on sub- 
mitting himself to the Protector's mercy, was 
pardoned as to his life, and simply cashiered 
(CaL State Papers, Dom. 1653-1664, p. 302 ; 
Thurloe, iii. 64, 147 ; Burton, Diary, iv. 
157 ; Vaughan, Protectorate of Oliver Crom- 
well, i. 85, 88). He retired to Bedfordshire, 
where he had bought a lease of the lord- 
ship of Leighton Buzzard and also the honour 
of Ampthill and Brogboro' Park (CaL State 
Papers, Dom. 1660-1, p. 248 ; Ltsons, Bed- 
fordshire, pp. 39, 127, 683). Parliament had 
also settled upon him lands to the value oi 
300/. a year for his services in Scotland, so 
that, in spite of the loss of his commission, 
he was a rich man (Commons 1 Journals, 
vol. vii.) In 1657 Okey was concerned in 
getting up a protest against Cromwell's 
proposed assumption of the crown, entitled 
'The Humble and Serious Testimony of 
many Hundreds of Godly People in the 
County of Bedford' (Thurloe, vi. 228-30). 
He had been apprehended in July 1656 on 
suspicion of a share in the plots of the fifth 
monarchy men, and he appears to have been 
again arrested in the spring of 1658 (CaL 
State Papers, Dom. 1656-7, p. 581 ; ib. 1657- 
1658, p. 346; Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep.) 
In Richard Cromwell's parliament he repre- 
sented Bedfordshire, but his speeches were 
few and brief (Burton, Diary, iii. 41, 43, 78, 
248). When the Long parliament again 
took the place of Richard, one of their first 
acts was to vote Okey the command of a 
regiment (CaL State Papers, Dom. 1668-9, 
p. 383). In October 1659 he supported the 
parliament against the army, but was de- 
serted by his regiment when he sought to 
resist Lambert, and was cashiered by the 
council of officers (Ludlow, ii. 134-7 ; 
Thurloe, vii. 755, 774 ; Commons 1 Jour- 
nals, vii. 796). He continued, nevertheless, 
actively to oppose Lambert's action, planned 
the surprise of the Tower, and when his 
scheme was discovered took refuge with 
Admiral Lawson and the fleet (Ludlow, 
ii. 169, 176). When the parliament was 
restored Okey regained his regiment, and was 
one of the seven commissioners appointed 
on 26 Dec. for the temporary government of 



Okey 



80 



Okey 



the army (Commons 9 Journals, vii. 797, 805). 
As one 01 the commanders of the parlia- 
ment's guard, he forcibly kept the secluded 
members out of the house when they tried to 
take their seats (27 Dec. 1659), and was con- 
sequently indicted for assault (Old Parlia- 
mentary History, xxii. 31 ; Prynne, A Copy 
of the Indictment found by the Grand Jury 
of Middlesex against Colonel Matthew Alured, 
Colonel John Okey, and others, 4to, 1660). 
Two months later Monck deprived him of 
his regiment and gave it to Colonel Rossiter 
(Mercurius Politicus, 29 March-5 April 1660). 
Okey joined Lambert in his attempted rising, 
and was with him at Daventry, but contrived 
to escape when Lambert was taken (Kennett, 
Reg. and Chron.Ecel. and Civil, p. 119). At 
the Restoration he fled from England, though, 
it is said, not till he had sought an interview 
with the king, and unsuccessfully begged for 
pardon ( Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. p. 207). 
Capitally excepted from the act of indemnity, 
he sought a refuge in Germany, and was ad- 
mitted as a burgess of Ilanau. In 1662 
Okey and two other regicides, Barkstead and 
Corbet, went to Delft in Holland, intending 
to meet some friends. Okey called himself 
by the name of Frederick Williamson, and is 
said to have taken the additional precaution 
of obtaining from Sir George Downing, the 
English minister to the United Provinces, 
an assurance that he had no warrant for his 
arrest. But Downing's assurances were false, 
and all three were arrested and shipped 
off to England. As they had already been 
attainted by act of parliament, only proof of 
their identity was required, and the jury at 
once found a verdict of guilty (16 April). 
All three were executed on 19 April (Lud- 
low, ii. 330-4). In Okey's speech on the 
scaffold he professed that he acted with- 
out any malice against the king, and had 
gained nothing by his death, saying that he 
was fully satisfied of the justice of the cause 
for which he had fought, but exhorting his 
friends to submit peaceably to the existing 

fovernment (The Speeches, Discourses, and 
layers of Colonel John Barkstead, Colonel 
John Okey, and Mr. Miles Corbet, together 
with an Account of the Occasion and Man- 
ner of their Taking ; Mercurius Publicus, 
10-24 March 1662; Pontalis, Jean de 
Witt, i. 281). 

On the ground that Okey had shown ' a 
sense of his horrid crime/ and recommended 
submission to the kin£, Charles IT granted 
his wife, Mary Okey, license to give her hus- 
band's remains Christian burial (21 April). 
Preparations were made to bury him at 
Stepney, but the order was revoked two 
days later, on the ground that the relatives 



intended to turn the funeral into a political 
demonstration. He was consequently pri- 
vately interred in the Tower (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1661-2, pp. 344, 346). A por- 
tion of his forfeited property was regranted 
to his widow by the Duke of York (Ltsons, 
Environs of London, ii. 460). His portrait 
was engraved by P. Stent. 

[Authorities mentioned in the article ; Noble's 
Lives of the Regicides, ii. 104 ; Ludlow's Me- 
moirs, ed. Firth, 1894. The following contem- 
porary tracts may be added to those already 
named : A Narrative of Colonel Okey, Colonel 
Barkstead, &c., their Departure out of England, 
and the Unparalleled Treachery of Sir G. D., 
1662; The Speeches and Prayers of John Bark- 
stead, John Okey, &c, with some due and 
sober Animadversions, 1662 ; Colonel John 
Okey's Lamentation, or a Rum per Cashiered (a 
ballad, 1659).] C. H. F. 

OKEY, SAMUEL (ft. 1765-1780), 
mezzotint engraver, is first described as 
Samuel Okey junior, and obtained premiums 
in 1765 and 1/67 from the Society of Arts, 
the first being for a mezzotint engraving of 
' Nancy Reynolds,' copied from that done by 
C. Phillips, after a picture by Sir J. Reynolds. 
In 1767 he exhibited at the Incorporated 
Society of Artists an engraving of ' An Old 
Man with a Scroll ' after Reynolds, and in 
1768 * A Mezzotinto after Mr. Cosway.' He 
produced a few fair engravings in mezzo- 
tint, among his earlier works being Mrs. 
Anderson, after R. E. Pine; Lady Anne 
Dawson, after Reynolds: Miss Gunning, 
and ' The Gunnings as Hibernian Sisters ; r 
Nelly O'Brien, after Reynolds; William 
Powell the actor, after R. Pyle ; i Miss 
Green and a Lamb/ after T. Kettle; 'A 
Burgomaster/ after F. Hals, &c. In 1770 
he engraved a print, ' Sweets of Liberty/ 
after J. Collett ; this was published by him 
and a Mr. Reaks, near Temple Bar. In 1773 
their names appear asjoint publishers of an 
engraved portrait by Okey of Thomas His- 
cox, and as 'print sellers and stationers on 
the Parade, Newport, Rhode Island ' (U. S.) 
They published a portrait of Thomas Hony- 
man there in 1774, and one of Samuel 
Adams in 1776. It is uncertain whether 
Okey remained in America or returned to> 
England. A print by him, ' A Modern 
Courtezan/ was published in 1778, but ap- 
pears to have been executed earlier. Neither 
his name nor that of Reaks appears in the 
census of Newport, Rhode Island (U. S.), 
taken in 1774. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artiste : Chaloner Smith's 
British Mezzotinto Portraits; Dodd's manuscript 
Hist, of English Engravers (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 
33403).] L. C. 



Okham 



81 



Olaf 



OKHAM, JOHN db (fl. 1317), iudge, 
was in 1311 appointed to act with the "king's 
eecheator beyond Trent in enforcing the royal 
rights on the death of Antony Bek [q. v.], 
bishop of Durham. During the next few 
years he was clerk to the keeper of the ward- 
robe, Sir Ingelard de Warlee {Bolls of Par- 
liament, ii. 437), and cofferer of the ward- 
robe (Patent Polls, p. 74). On 18 June 1317 
he was appointed a baron of the exchequer 
in succession to Richard de Abingdon [q.v.], 
incapacitated by sickness, and appears acting 
as judge until 1322, receiving summonses to 
parliament during that period, the last being 
a summons to tne parliament at York in 
1322. He appears as canon of the free 
chapel of St. Martin, London, in 1345, in 
which year he received the custody of the 
deanery of the chapel. He is not to be con- 
fused with the ' Sire Johan de Okham' men- 
tioned in a copy of the proposals of the 
ordainers of 1311 (Annates Londonienses, p. 
200). The latter was John de Hotham or 
Hothun [q. v.], afterwards bishop of Ely. 

[Foss's Judges, iii. 282; Dugdale'sOrig. Jurid. 
Ohron. Ser. p. 36 ; Abbr. Rot. Orig. i. 175, 290 ; 
Cal. Rot. Pat. p. 74; Rot. Pari. ii. 437; Pari. 
Writs, vol. ii. pt. iii. p. 1244 ; Ann. London, ap. 
Chron. Edw. I and Edw. II, i. 200 (Rolls Ser.)] 

W. H. 

OKING, ROBERT (fl. 1526-1654), arch- 
deacon of Salisbury, was educated at Cam- 
bridge. It may be presumed that he was at 
Trinity Hall under Gardiner; according to 
a letter sent to Cromwell in 1538, he was 
brought up under the Bishop of Winchester. 
He was bachelor of civil law in 1525, com- 
missary of the university in 1529, and doctor 
of civil law in 1534. Probably in 1534- he 
was appointed commissary to Dr. Salcot or 
Capon, bishop of Bangor. He was also proc- 
tor of St. Lazar, and hence allowed to sell 
indulgences. There had been serious disputes 
in the chapter in the time of the late bishop, 
and Oking fell out with Richard Gibbons, the 
registrar, who in 1535 seized various papers, 
and accused Oking to Cromwell of reaction- 
ary sympathies. Oking suspended Gibbons, 
who appealed, according to Cooper (Athena 
Cantabr. i. 197), to Sir Richard Bulkeley, 
chamberlain of North Wales. Bulkeley, how- 
ever, wrote to Cromwell that he had always 
heard Oking ' speak for annulling the Bishop 
of Rome's authority* (Letters and Papers 
Henry VIII, viii. 644). At Christmas 1536-7 
the opposite party seem to have taken the 
law into their own hands, and Oking was 
nearly murdered while holding a consistory 
in Bangor Cathedral (ib. xn. 1 507). The 
bishop tried to get him preferment in 1538 ; 
and when he was translated to Salisbury in 

VOL. XLH. 



1539, he took Oking with him as his commis- 
sary and chancellor. He appears to have been 
a moderate advocate of the Reformation. In 
1537 he was one of those appointed to draw 
up ' the Institution of a Christian Man ; ' in 
1543 he was engaged in trials under the 
statute of the six articles. His name was 
also appended to the declaration made of the 
functions and divine institution of bishops 
and priests. In the convocation of 1547 he was 
one appointed to draw up a statute as to the 
payment of tithes in cities ; in the same con- 
vocation he was one of the minority opposed 
to the marriage of priests; and when, in 1547, 
Thomas Hancock preached in St. Thomas's 
Church, Salisbury, a sermon directed against 
superstition, Oking and Dr. Steward, who 
was Gardiner's chancellor, walked out of the 
church, and were reproved by the preacher. 
In spite of these indications of his belonging 
to the moderate party, he married as soon as 
it was legal to do so, and was deprived of his 
archdeaconry under Mary. He is supposed 
to have died before Elizabeth's accession. 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. i. 197 ; Dixon's 
Hist, of the Church of Engl. ii. 331 ; Letters and 
Papers, Hen. VIH. viii. 645, xii. i. 607 ; Strype's 
Memorials of the Reformation, i. i. 368, ii. 336, 
Cranmer, p. 77, &c. ; Foxe's Acts and Mon. v. 
465, 482-5 ; Le Neve's Fasti.] W. A. J. A. 

OLAF Godpbetson (d. 941), leader of 
the Ostmen, and king of Dublin and Deira, 
is to be clearly distinguished from his kins- 
man and contemporary, Olaf Sitricson [q. v.] 
He was the great-grandson of Ivar Bein- 
laus, son of Regnar Lodbrok, and therefore 
of the famous race of the Hy Ivar. His 
father was the Godfrey, king of Dublin, 
brother or cousin of Sitric, king of Deira, 
who vainly attempted to wrest Deira from 
^Ethelstan [q. v.] in 927. The earliest 
trustworthy mention of Olaf Godfreyson is 
in 938, when, in alliance with the Danes of 
Strangford Lough, he plundered Armagh. 
In the same year he allied himself with the 
lord of Ulster in the plunder of what is now 
Monaghan, but was overtaken and defeated 
by Muircheartach (d. 943) [q.v.], king of 
Ailech (Ann. Ultonienses, ap. O'Conor, Per. 
Hibern. Scriptt. iv. 260 ; Annals of the Four 
Masters, ed. O'Donovan, ii. 629). In 934 ho 
succeeded his father in the Norse kingdom of 
Dublin (Ann. TJlt. iv. 261, and Four Masters, 
ii. 631, where the dates given are two years 
behind the correct date). Next year he was 
again in the field, and took Lodore, nearDun- 
shaughlin, in what is now Meath. In 936 or 
937 he plundered the abbey of Clonmacnoise 
in Offaly, and billeted his soldiers for two 
nights on the monks (ib.) Possibly taking 



Olaf 



83 



Olaf 



advantage of Olaf s absence, Donnchadh, 
king of Ireland, burnt Dublin. The former, 
however, was not long delayed by the ruin 
of his capital, for on 1 Aug. 937 he led an 
expedition against certain Danes who were 
sojourning on Lough Rea. These he made 
prisoners and brought to Dublin, whence the 
inference (Todd, War of the Gaedhil with 
the Gaill, p. 281, Rolls Ser.) that the object 
of this attack was to compel the Danes to 
take part in the ensuing expedition to Eng- 
land (Four Masters, ii. 633, and Annals of 
Clonmacnoise, quoted by O'Donovan, %b. ; cf. 
also Ann. Ult. iv. 261). In 937 Olaf fought 
at the great battle of Brunanburh under the 
leadership of Olaf Sitricson [q. v.] In the 
rout of the northern forces he escaped to his 
ships, and returned to Dublin in 938 (Anglo- 
Saxon Chron. ii. 88, Rolls Ser.; Ann. Ult. 
iv. 263; Four Masters, ii. 635). The plun- 
der of Kilcullen in Kildare may more pro- 
bably be ascribed to Olaf Sitricson, and 
to a later date; but the year of Olaf God- 
freyson's return was again marked by the 
burning of Dublin and the plunder of the 
Norse territory by King Donnchadh (ib.) 
Shortly afterwards (in 939) Olaf apparently 
left Dublin, and, soon after ^thelstan's death 
in 940, accepted, jointly with Olaf Sitric- 
son, a vaguely recorded invitation from the 
Northumbrians to ' Olaf of Ireland ' to be 
their king (A.-S. Chron. ii. 89; Flob. Wig. 
i. 133, Engl. Hist. Soc; Will. Malm. i. 157, 
Rolls Ser. ; Roe. Hov. i. 55, Rolls Ser.) With 
his kinsman he probably shared the kingship 
until his death in an obscure fight at Tyn- 
ningham, near Dunbar, in 941 (A.-S. Chron. 
ii. 89 ; Sym. Dunelm. Hist. Reg. ii. 94, Rolls 
Ser. ; Rog. Hov. i. 55 ; Hen. Hunt. p. 162, 
Rolls Ser.) 

Olaf married Alditha, daughter of a certain 
jarl named Orm (Matt.Westmon. ap. Luard, 
Flores Historiarum, i. 498, Rolls Ser.) 

[In addition to the authorities cited in the text, 
see Ware's Antiq. Hibern. p. 131 ; Hodgson's 
Northumberland, ed. Hinde, i. 148 seq. ; Robert- 
son's Early Kings of Scotland, i. 63; Skene's 
Celtic Scotland, i. 361.] A. M. C-e. 

OLAF Sithicson (d. 981), known in the 
sagas as Olaf the Red and Olaf Cxtaban 
(i.e. of the Sandal), leader of the Ostmen 
and king of Dublin and Deira, has been fre- 
quently confused with Olaf Godfreyson [q. v.] 
tike the latter, Olaf Sitricson was of the race 
of the Hy Ivar, and the great-grandson of 
Ivar Beinlaus, son of Regnar Lodbrok. His 
father was the Sitric, king of Deira, who 
married ^Ethelstan's sister, and died in 927. 
The ' Egil-saga^ap. Johnstone, Antiq. Celto- 
Scand. p. 32) is wrong in saying that Olaf 



was a Scot by his father's, a Dane by his 
mother's, side ; but he probably had Celtic 
blood; and Florence of Worcester (i. 132, 
Engl. Hist. Soc.) calls him ' kinjy of many 
islands.' Upon the death of Sitric, iEthel- 
stan at once annexed Deira, driving out Olaf, 
who appears to have been too young at 
this time to resist effectively. His uncle or 
cousin, however, Godfrey, king of Dublin, 
immediately left Ireland, and attempted to 
secure the succession to the Northumbrian 
throne. He was unsuccessful in obtaining 
the help of Constantino II of Scotland, who 
was at that time in alliance with ^Sthel- 
stan; and, after a vain attempt on York, 
was driven from the country with Olaf Sit- 
ricson. 

Probably a few years later Olaf married a 
daughter of Constantino II of Scotland, and 
the latter now changed his policy and sup- 
ported Olaf in his preparation for the im- 
pending struggle for the recovery of the 
Danish kingdom of Deira. This alliance 
between Constantine and Olaf seems to have 
been the cause of ^Ethelstan's raid into Scot- 
land in 934, which probably kept the allies 
in check for three years. 

In 937 the great confederacy of Scots, 
Britons, and Irish was formed under Olaf 
Sitricson, Constantine, and Olaf Godfreyson 
of Dublin. Entering the Humber with a 

EDwerful fleet, Olaf Sitricson drove back the 
eutenants of ^theistan in the north, but 
foolishly permitted himself to be held in 
check by negotiations while ^Ethelstan 
gathered his forces together. William of 
Malmesbury lOesta Begum, i. 143) tells the 
story that Olai appeared in^Ethelstan's camp 
in the guise 01 a harper, to which much 
credit cannot be given ; but he seems to have 
made a night attack on the camp, which 
failed. The armies finally met on the famous 
field of Brunanburh, probably in Yorkshire. 
iEthelstan was completely victorious, and 
the northmen were driven to their ships. 
Though it is difficult to distinguish the ac- 
tions of the two Olafs in the account of the 
battle given in the poem preserved in the 
'Anglo-Saxon Chronicle/ it is clear that 
neither Olaf Sitricson, as is stated in the 
'Egil-saga,' nor Olaf Godfreyson, was among 
the ' death-doom'd in fight ; and the former 
probably went back as he had come, by way 
of the Humber into Scotland. 

For the next few years the chroniclers are 
again confused as to the actions respectively 
of Olaf Sitricson and Olaf Godfreyson, who 
had succeeded his father in the kingdom 
of the Dublin Danes in 934. The latter 
certainly returned to Ireland after Brunan- 
burh, and it is probable that Olaf Sitricson 



Olaf 



83 



Olaf 



joined him there, and that it was he who in 
940 plundered Kilcullen in Kildare. Mean- 
while ^Ethelstan, shortly after his victory 
at Brunanburh, had handed over North- 
umbria to Eric of the Bloody Axe, son of 
Harold Harfafjpr of Norway, to hold against 
the Danes (Htst. Reg. Olavi Tryggvii JUii in 
Island. Script Hist. i. 22). Soon after ^Ethel- 
stan'8 death in 940, the Northumbrians threw 
off their allegiance to his successor, Ead- 
mund, and called ' Olaf of Ireland ' to be their 
king. Olaf Sitricson is probably meant; 
but he was soon followed to England by 
Olaf Godfreyson, with whom he apparently 
shared the kingship until the latters death 
in 941. Olaf Sitricson went first to York, 
then, turning south, besieged Northampton 
and stormed Tamworth. Eadmund met him, 
probably near Lincoln, and, though the 
order of events is variously given, the arch- 
bishops Odo and Wulfstan appear at this 
point to have intervened and effected a com- 

Eromise. By it all Deira north of Wat- 
ng Street was ceded to the Danes. In 942 
Eadmund won back the five boroughs, Lin- 
coln, Leicester, Stamford, Nottingham, and 
Derby; and this success has been connected 
with the death of Olaf Godfreyson shortly 
before. But in 942 Olaf Sitricson, who now 
shared the kineship with Reginald Godfrey- 
son, obtained tne powerful support of Arch- 
bishop Wulfstan of York, with whom he was 
besieged in Leicester by Eadmund in 943, and 
forced to flee by night. Again a treaty was 
made this year, but not, it is to be inferred, 
so favourable to the Danes. Both Olaf 
Sitricson and Reginald Godfreyson were re- 
ceived into Eadmund's friendship and into the 
Christian church. 

Such a state of things was clearly ab- 
normal, and in 944, when Eadmund had gone 
south into Wessex, Olaf and Reginald seized 
the opportunity to make a raid into the terri- 
tory from which they had been cut off. Ead- 
mund returned, drove them from the country, 
and formally annexed Deira. 

In the year of Olafs expulsion from 
Northumbria, Dublin, the capital of the Irish 
dominions of his house, was sacked by the 
native Irish. Next year Olaf reappeared in 
Ireland, and either drove out Blacar God- 
freyson, who had been left in command, or, 
entering into alliance with him, restored 
Dublin and firmly established his rule over 
the Irish dominions of his family. In the 
same year he allied himself with the bitter 
enemy of his race, Congalach, king of Ire- 
land, against the Irish clan of theO'Cananain, 
and in 946 doubtless led the Dublin Danes 
in their attack upon the monastery of Clon- 
xnacnoise in Offaly. In 947 Olaf, still in 



alliance apparently with King Congalach, 
was severely defeated by Ruadhri O'Ganan- 
nain at Slane in Meath, and lost many of 
his men. The alliance with King Congalach 
certainly terminated in this year ; for Dublin 
was again plundered, and Blacar Godfrey- 
son, who was in command on this occasion, 
was defeated and slain. It is possible that 
this was an attack made in Olaf 's absence ; 
for it was in 949 that he made his last 
attempt to regain his father's kingdom of 
Deira. He then succeeded in establishing 
his power for three years, till the North- 
umbrians, with their usual faithlessness, rose 
against him, and he was finally driven from 
the country in 952. Northumbria submitted 
to Edred, and after 954 was ruled by his 
earls. 

In 953 Olaf was again in Ireland, and, in 
alliance with Toole, son of the king of 
Leinster, made plundering raids into the 
modern counties of Waterford and Wick- 
low. Three years later he took in ambush 
and slew his old enemy, King Congalach. 
In 962, with the Gaill of Dublin, he pursued, 
defeated, and drove back to his ships a cer- 
tain Sitric Cam, possibly a Scottish chief- 
tain, who had landed in Ireland, and pene- 
trated as far as Kildare {Four Masters, ii. 
683; but cf. Todd, War of the Qaedhil, p. 
286). Two years later Olaf met with a re- 
verse at Inistioge in the modern county of 
Kilkenny, and lost many of his men, but 
had apparently sufficiently recovered in 970 
to join the Leinstermen in the plunder of 
Kells, in what is now Meath, where he seized 
many hundred cows. He also gained a vic- 
tory over one of the Irish clans near Navan 
in Meath. It was possibly in this same year 
(970) that he entered into a short-lived alli- 
ance with the son of the late King Congalach, 
and defeated the reigning king, Domhnall 
O'Neill, at Kilmoon, near Dunshaughlin in 
Meath. A few years later, probably in 977 or 
978, Olaf slew the heir to the throne of Ireland 
of each of the two contending royal lines, 
those, namely, of the northern and southern 
O'Neill, and shortly after probably led the 
Dublin Danes to his last victory at Belan, 
near Athy in Kildare. 

In 980 was fought the fatal battle of Tara, 
which broke the power of the Norse king- 
dom of Dublin. With the Dublin Danes 
were fighting their kinsmen from the islands. 
It is uncertain whether Olaf was himself 
present ; but the battle was fiercely contested 
by his sons, ' and it was woe/ says the chro- 
nicler, 'to both sides/ The Danes were 
completely defeated, Olafs heir, Reginald, 
and a great number of his chieftains slain. 
With them Olaf saw the power he had 

g2 



Olaf 



84 



Olaf 



carried to a height far greater than any of 
his predecessors laid low, and the fierce spirit 
of the old Norse king was at last broken. 
He resigned his kingdom, and went on a 
pilgrimage to Iona. Here, in 981, he closed 
nis stormy life in penitence and peace. 

Olaf had a sister Gyda who married the fa- 
mous Olaf Tryggvason (Heimskringla, transl. 
S. Laing, i. 399-400). He was thrice mar- 
ried : first, to the daughter of Constantine II 
of Scotland ; secondly, to the sister of Mail- 
mora, king of Leinster,Gormflaith or Korm- 
loda, who is quaintly described in the ' NjaTs 
Saga ' (cap. civ. p. 268) ; thirdly to Donnflaith, 
daughter of Muircheartach (d. 943) [q.v.] 
His sons were Reginald, who perished at 
Tara; Gluniaraim, who succeeded him in 
Dublin, and died in 989; Sitric,also king of 
Dublin, died 1042; Aralt, slain in 1000; 
Amancus or Amaccus, slain in Northumbria 
in 954 ; and Gillapatraic (?). He had also 
one daughter, Maelmuire, who married 
Malachy or Maelsechlainn n [q. v.], and 
died in 1021 {War of the GaedMl, p. 278). 

[Anglo-Saxon Chron. ii. 85-91, Will, of 
Malmesbary's Gesta Regum t i. 147-58, Henry 
of Huntingdon, pp. 159-63, Symeon of Dur- 
ham's Hist. Reg. ii. 124-6, and Hist. Dunelm. 
Eccles. i. 176, Roger of Hoveden, i. 54-6, Gai- 
mar, i. 148-9, War of the Gaedhil with the 
Gaill, p. 283, &c. (all in the Rolls Ser.) ; Flo- 
rence of Worcester (Engl. Hist. Soc.) i. 131-4 ; 
Annates Ultonenses, Ann ales Inisfalenses, and 
Tighearnach inO'Conor's Rernm Hibern. Scriptt. 
iv. 258, 262, dec. ; Annals of the Four Masters, 
ed. O'Donovan, ii. 617-57 ; Chron. of Picts and 
Scots in Rolls of Scotland, p. 363 ; Hemingius'9 
Chartul. Eccl. Wigorn. ii. 441 ; Johnstone's 
Antiq. Celto-Scand. pp. 32-4 ; Petrie's Mon. 
Hist. Brit. p. 520 ; see also Ware's Antiq. Hibern. 
pp. 131 seq. ; Langebek's Script. Rer. Dan. ii. 
415, iii. 212-13 n. ; Robertson's Scotland under 
her Early Kings, i. 56, 60 seq., and Historical 
Essays, pp. 197-8 ; Skene's Celtic Scotland, i. 
352 seq. ; Raine's Fasti Eboracenses, i. 114 seq. ; 
Green's Conquest of England, pp. 252 seq., 270, 
289 seq.; Hodgson's Northumberland, ed.Hinde, 
i. 142 seq.] A. M. C-b. 

OLAF (1177P-1238), called the Black, 
king of the Isles, was the son of Godred, king 
of the Isles, and of Fingola, granddaughter of 
Muircheartach (d. 1166V king of Ireland [see 
O'LocHLAiNN, Muib]. His parents had been 
united in religious marriage through the in- 
tervention of Cardinal Vivian, papal legate, 
in 1176 (Chron. JRegum Mannice et Insu- 
larum, ed. Munch, i. 76, Manx Soc.) Olaf *s 
father died in 1187, and though he had be- 
queathed his dominions to his legitimate son 
Olaf, the latter, being a child, was set aside 
in favour of his half-brother Reginald. Some 
years later Reginald assigned to Olaf the 



miserable patrimony of the island of Lewis 
in the Hebrides, where he dwelt for some 
time. Growing discontented with his lot, 
he applied to Reginald for a larger share of 
his rightful inheritance. This was refused, 
and about 1208 Reginald handed Olaf over to 
the custody of William the Lion of Scotland, 
who kept him in prison until his own death 
in 1214. On the accession of Alexander II 
Olaf was released, and returned to Man, 
whence he shortly set out with a considerable 
following of men of rank for Spain, on a 
pilgrimage to the shrine of St. James at 
Compostella. On his return, Reginald, who 
was apparently reconciled to him, caused 
him to marry his own wife's sister, the 
daughter of a noble of Cantyre, and again 
assigned to him Lewis for his maintenance 
(ib. pp. 82-4). Olaf accepted the gift, and 
departed to Lewis. Soon after his arrival 
there, Reginald (?), bishop of the Isles, visited 
the churches, and canon 1 call y separated Olaf 
and his wife as being within the prohibited 
degrees of relationship, whereupon Olaf mar- 
ried Christina, daughter of Ferquhard, earl 
of Ross. 

ALroused to an^er, Reginald's queen, the 
sister of Olaf 's divorced wife, called upon 
her son Godred to avenge the wrong done to 
her house. The latter collected a force and 
sailed for Lewis, but Olaf escaped to his 
father-in-law, the Earl of Ross, abandoning 
Lewis to Godred. Olaf was shortly joined 
by Paul Balkason, the leading chieftain of 
SKye, who had refused to join in the attack 
on Lewis. Entering into alliance, the two 
chieftains in 1223 successfully carried out a 
night attack upon the little island of St. 
Colra, where Godred was. The latter was 
taken and blinded, it is said, without Olaf 's 
consent (ib. pp. 86-8 ; cf. Ann. Regii Islan- 
dorum, ap. Langebek, Scriptt. Rer. Dan. iii. 
84). 

Next summer Olaf, who had won over the 
chiefs of the isles, came to Man to claim 
once more a portion of his inheritance. 
Reginald was forced to agree to a com- 
promise by which he retained Man, with the 
title of king, while Olaf was to have the 
isles — namely, the Sudreys. The peace was 
of short duration, for in 1225 Reginald, sup- 
ported by Alan, lord of Galloway, attempted 
to win back the isles. The Manxmen, how- 
ever, refused to fight against Olaf and the 
men of the isles, and the attempt failed. 
Shortly after Reginald, under pretext of a 
visit to his suzerain, Henry III of England, 
extorted one hundred marks from his sub- 
jects, wherewith he went to the court of 
Alan of Galloway and contracted a highly 
unpopular alliance between his daughter and 



Olaf 



85 



Alan's son. The Manxmen rose in revolt, 
and called Olaf to the kingship. Thus, in 
1226, the latter obtained his inheritance of 
Man and the Isles, and reigned in peace two 
years {ib. p. 90). 

That Olaf did, however, possess both the 
title of king and considerable influence be- 
fore this date, would seem probable if two 
extant documents are rightly held to relate 
to him. The former of these shows him to 
have been at issue with the monks of Furness 
in Lancashire with regard to the election of 
their abbot, Nicholas of Meaux [q. v.], to the 
bishopric of the isles (Dugdale, Monasticon 
Anghcanum, viii. 1186). The second, dated 
1217, is from Henry III of England to Olaf, 
king of Man, threatening vengeance should 
he do further injury to the abbey of Furness 
(Olivbb, Monumenta de Insula Mannue, 
ii. 42, Manx Soc.) 

In 1228 an attempt was made at negotia- 
tion for the settlement of the differences 
between Olaf and Reginald. Letters of 
safe-conduct to England were granted by 
Henry lU to Olaf for the purpose (Rymeb, 
Fcedera, i. 303). The attempt, however, 
seems to have failed, for about 1229, while 
Olaf was absent in the isles, King Regi- 
nald took the opportunity to attack Man 
in alliance with Alan, lord of Galloway. 
Olaf, on his return, drove them out, but 
during the winter of the same year Reginald 
made another attempt. Olaf, who appears 
to have exercised great personal influence 
over his men, met and defeated him at 
Dingwall in Orkney. Here Reginald was 
slain on 14 Feb. 1230 {Annals of England, i. 
148 ; cf. Chron. Mannue, i. 92 ; Ann. Regii 
Islandorum, ap. Langebek, Scriptt, Rerum 
Danicarum, iii. 88). 

Soon after this event Olaf set out to the 
court of his suzerain, the king of Norway ; 
for in spite of Reginald's formal surrender 
of the kingdom to the pope and king of 
England in 1219, Olaf had remained faithful 
to Hakon V of Norway {Annals of Eng- 
land, i. 147; Flateyan MS. ap. Oliver, 
Monumenta, i. 43). Before Olaf s arrival in 
Norway, however, Hakon had appointed 
a noble of royal race named Ospac to the 
kingship of the Isles, and in his train Olaf 
and Godred Don, Reginald's son, were 
obliged to return. After varied adventures 
in the western islands of Scotland {ib. 
i. 43 seq.), Ospac was killed in Bute, and 
Olaf was chosen as the new leader of the 
expedition, which was next directed against 
Man. The Manxmen, who had assembled 
to resist the Norwegians, again, it is said, 
refused to fight against Olaf, and he and 
Godred Don divided the kingdom between 



Old 

them. Shortly after Godred was slain in 
Lewis, and Olaf henceforth ruled alone. 

In 1235 Olaf appears to have been in 
England on a visit to Henry III, who 
granted him letters of safe-conduct and of 
security to his dominions during his absence 
(Rymeb, Fosdera, i. 303). It was possibly 
during this visit that Henry committed to 
him the guardianship of the coasts both of 
England and Ireland towards the Isle of 
Man, for which service he was to receive one 
hundred marks yearly and certain quantities 
of corn and wine {ib. p. 341). In accepting 
this duty Olaf apparently renounced his 
allegiance to Hakon V of Norway, who at 
this time threatened the coasts, and who, in 
consequence of Olaf s defection, had to aban- 
don his expedition. In 1236-7 Olaf appears, 
nevertheless, to have been in Norway on 
business to the king, and with the consent, 
moreover, of Henry III, who guaranteed the 
safety of his dominions during his absence 
{ib. pp. 363, 371). Shortly after his return 
he died on 21 May 1238 {Annals of England, 
i. 150 ; cf. Chron. Mannue, i. 94). 

Olaf had several sons : Harold {d. 1249), 
who succeeded him ; Godfrey {d. 1238) ; 
Reginald {d. 1249), king of Man ; Magnus 
(d. 1265), king of Man from 1252; and 
Harold (d. 1256) (Langebek, Scriptt. Iter. 
Dan. ii. 212). 

[In addition to the authorities cited in the 
text, see Robertson's Early Kings of Scotland, 
ii. 98 seq. ; Beck's Ann. Furnesienses, pp. 169, 
187 ; Torfaeus's Orcades, pp. 161 -2; Hist. Rer. 
Norveg. iv. 195-6.] A. M. C-e. 

OLD, JOHN {fl. 1545-1555), translator 
and religious writer, was educated in all 
probability at Cambridge, and about 1545 
was presented to the vicarage of Cubington, 
Warwickshire, by the Duchess of Somerset. 
He was probably the John Old, chaplain to 
Lord Ferrars, who was accused before the 
council, on 10 July 1546, of having been a 
' man of light disposicion concerning matiers 
of religion/ but, having confessed his fault 
and shown signs of repentance, 'was with a 
good lesson dismissed. In his ' Confession 
of the most Auncient and True Christen 
Catholike Olde Belefe,' 1556, he admits that 
he had been a Roman catholic at one time, 
and dates his conversion ' some ten or eleven 
years ago.' He was a commissioner for the 
dioceses of Peterborough, Oxford, Lincoln, 
and Lichfield, and also 'Register' in the 
visitation of 1547, and made allusion to his 
experiences in the prologue to ' The Epistle 
to the Enhesians' in one of his transla- 
tions. It is suggested by Strype that at one 
time he kept a school, which he must have 



Oldcastle 



86 



Oldcastle 



done, if he did it at all, about this time. He 
was made prebendary of Bedford Minor in the 
cathedral of Lincoln, and of Dunford in the 
cathedral of Lichfield in 1561. When Mary 
came to the throne he fled. He seems after- 
wards not to hare been altogether satisfied 
with his conduct at the crisis, for he con- 
fesses that he had left his vicarage ' some- 
what before extreme trouble came (A Con- 
fession, &c.) ; but he adds that there were 
other reasons than fear. He does not seem 
to have left England at once, as Becon has 
recorded that Old entertained him and Ro- 
bert Wisdome when they were in hiding 
(Becon, Jewel of Joy). When Elizabeth 
succeeded Mary, he must have been dead, 
afi he was not restored to his prebends. 

Old took part in the translation of Eras- 
mus's ' Paraphrase of the New Testament/ 
London 1648, fol. ; his share embraced the 
canonical epistles. He is said to have after- 
wards translated the books themselves. He 
also published a translation of five of Gual- 
ter^s * Homilies/ under the title of ' Anti- 
christ/ London, 1566; republished as 'A 
short Description of Antichrist ' in 1657. 
He edited ' Certaine Godly Conferences be- 
t weene N. Ridley . . . and H. Latimer/ London, 
1656, 8vo; another edition, 1574. He wrote: 
1. 'The Acquital or Purgation of the moost 
Catholyke Christen Prince, Edward VI/ 
Waterford, 1655, 4to. This has been said 
to have been the second book ever printed 
in Ireland, but it seems more probable that, 
like most of the books of the same kind, it 
appeared really at Antwerp (cf. Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. iii. 29). 2. 'A Confession 
of the most Auncient and True Christen 
Catholike Olde Belefe/ Southwark, 1566, 
8vo. 

[Strype's Cranmer, i. 897, Memorials, it. i. 
47, &c. ; Le Neve's Fasti, i. 597, ii. 110 ; Wood's 
Athene Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 664, Fasti, i. 101 ; 
Acts of the Privy Council, 1542-7, p. 479; 
Colville's Worthies of Warwickshire, pp. 553-4 ; 
Becon 's Works, vol. i. p. ix, ii. 422-4, Cranmer s 
Works, i. 9, ii. 63, Ridley's Works, 151 (all in 
the Parker Soc.) ; Dixon's Hist, of the Church of 
England, ii. 481.] W. A. J. A. 

OLDCASTLE, Sib JOHN, styled Lord 
Cob ham (d. 1417), came of a family of 
consideration, who were lords of the manor 
of Almeley near Weobley, in Western 
Herefordshire, and whose estates touched 
the Wye at Letton (Cal. Inquis. post 
mortem, iv. 124). A parcel of their lands in 
Almeley was called Oldcastle, and this, no 
doubt, was the mound beside the church on 
which ruins were still visible in the seven- 
teenth century. The name Old Castle, which 
was probably derived from some ancient, 



perhaps Roman, fortification, which had dis- 
appeared by the fifteenth century, is still, 
or was until recently, attached to a farm- 
house occupying the site (Robinson, Castles 
of Herefordshire, 1869, p. 3; cf. Kelly, 
Directory of Herefordshire). It is probably 
unnecessary then to suppose that the family 
had ever been connected with the small vil- 
lage of Oldcastle in the north-west corner 
of Monmouthshire, which one tradition has 
confidently pointed to as the birthplace of 
Sir John Oldcastle. Oldcastle has been 
claimed as a Welshman (Archteologia Cam" 
brensis, 1st ser. i. 47; 4th ser. viii. 125). But 
of this there is certainly no proof, least of 
all in the fact, if fact it be, that he was known 
amoncf the Welsh as ' Sion Hendy o Went 
Iscoea/ which is a mere translation of John 
Oldcastle of Herefordshire. On the other hand, 
it is quite likely that a family living so close 
to the marches, even if originally of purely 
English extraction, would have Welsh blood 
in its veins, and some might fancy that they 
could detect Celtic traits in his career. Of 
that career practically nothing is known 

Srior to 1401, and even his parentage and the 
ate of his birth are unsettled. According 
to the pedigree which Mr. Robinson gives in 
the work quoted above from the ' Visitation ' 
of 1589 (?), he was a son of Sir Richard Old- 
castle, and a grandson of the John Oldcastle 
who represented Herefordshire in the par- 
liaments of 1368 and 1372 {Return of Mem- 
bers of Parliament, i. 179, 188 ; cf. Cookb, 
Visitation of 1569, ed. F. W. Weaver). 
Thomas Oldcastle, who held the same posi- 
tion in 1390 and 1393, and was sheriff of 
the county in 1386 and 1391, was probably 
his uncle ; he died between 1397 and 1402, 
having married the heiress of the neighbour- 
ing family of Pembridge,and his son Richard, 
who died in 1422, held lands in Herefordshire 
and Worcestershire (Robinson, Appendix, i. ; 
Cal. Inquis. post mortem, iv. 65, 253 ; Devon, 
Issues, p. 299 ; Rot. Pari. iv. 99; Ralendars 
and Inventories, ii. 53). 

Oldcastle's biographers have usually repre- 
sented him as an old man j)f nearly sixty 
years of age at his death, and have placed his 
birth with some confidence in 1360 (Arche&o- 
logia Cambrensis, 4th ser. viii. 1 25 ; Gaspey, 
i. 49). But the evidence available points to 
a considerable over-statement. Bale confused 
him with John, third lord Cobham [q. v.], the 
grandfather of his future wife, and thus erro- 
neously made him the leader of the lollards 
in the parliaments of 1391 and 1395. These 
errors, and the way in which the fifteenth 
and sixteenth century writers played upon 
the first syllable of his name, have doubtless 
led to an exaggerated estimate of the length 



Oldcastle 



87 



Oldcastle 



of his life (Bale, ' Brefe Chronycle ' in Har- 
leian Miscellany, i. 251). Misled by this, the 
Elizabethan dramatists pictured Oldcastle, 
4 my old lad of the castle, the supposed com- 
panion of Henry Vs early follies, as the ' aged 
counsellor to youthful sin.' We have the 
statement of a not very trustworthy con- 
temporary that he was born in 1378, which 
is probably much nearer the truth (Elmham, 
Liber Metricus, p. 156). 

The conjecture that Oldcastle met Wi- 
clif in hiding at some castle of John of 
Gaunt's in the west must be relegated to the 
same category as Bale's assumption that he 
was prominent in securing the passing of the 
great act of praemunire (Archceologia Cam- 
brensis, 4th ser. viii. 125). Weever asserts, 
in his poetical life of Oldcastle (1601), that 
in his youth he had been page to Thomas 
Mowbray, duke of Norfolk fq. v.], who was 
banished in 1398 and died abroad in 1399. 

He makes his first appearance in contem- 
porary authorities as a trusted servant of the 
crown in the Welsh marches under Henry IV, 
nearly twenty years after Wiclifs death, 
and we hear little of his lollard opinions until 
the clergy took open action against him in 
the first year of Henry V. In November 
1401 * Monsieur Johan Oldecastille* was sent 
up the Wye to take charge of the castle of 
Builth (Ordinances of the Privy Council, i. 
174V A year or two later Oldcastle was 
tola off to assist the constable of Kidwelly 
Castle on the Carmarthenshire coast with 
forty lances and a hundred and twenty 
archers (ib. ii. 68). In the September fol- 
lowing the battle of Shrewsbury, the king 
empowered Oldcastle to pardon or punish 
such of his Welsh tenants as were rebels 
(Fcedera, viii. 831). He sat as knight of 
the shire for Herefordshire in the lenffthy 
parliament which opened on 14 Jan. 1404 
{Returns of Members, i. 265; Wylib, i. 
400 seq.) In the summer, however, he was 
called upon to take temporary charge of the 
castle of Hay on the Wye, some eight miles 
south-west of Almeley (Ord. Pricy Council, 
L 237). A few months later he was placed 
on a commission entrusted with the impos- 
sible task of stopping the conveyance of pro- 
visions and arms into the rebel districts of 
Wales (Wylib, ii. 5). He was sheriff of 
Herefordshire in the eighth year of the reign 
(1406-7), and in the tenth joint custodian of 
the lordship of Dinas in the present Breck- 
nockshire (Dugdale, Baronage, ii. 67 ; Calend. 
Rotul. Chart, p. 359). 

The personal friendship between Oldcastle 
and the Prince of Wales doubtless dated 
from the years in which Henry was his father's 
lieutenant in Wales ; and in the quieter times 



which followed the subsidence of Glendower's 
revolt the fortunes of the Herefordshire 
knight continued to rise. He was now, for 
the second time, a widower, and by October 
1409 he had secured the hand of a Kentish 
heiress, Joan, lady Cobham, granddaughter 
of John, third lord Cobham of Kent, a pro- 
minent figure under Richard II, who died at 
an extreme old age on 10 Jan. 1408 (Dug- 
dale, i. 67). Cobham Manor and Cowling 
or Cooling Castle, some four miles north of 
Rochester, at the edge of the marshes, passed 
to Joan, who was the only child of Cobham's 
daughter Joan and Sir John de la Pole of 
Chri8hall in Essex. She was at this time 
thirty years of age, and had just (9 Oct. 1407) 
lost her third husband, Sir Nicholas Haw- 
berk, who had served in Wales ( Collectanea 
Topographica et Genealogica ,vii. 329 ; Hasted, 
Hist, of Kent, iii. 429 ; Archceologia Can- 
tiana, xi. 49 seq., xii. 113 seq.) Shortly after, 
and probably in consequence of his mar- 
riage with Lady Cobham, Oldcastle was sum- 
moned to parliament as a baron by a writ 
directed to ' Johannes Oldcastell, chevalier/ 
on 26 Oct. 1409, and received similar writs 
down to 22 March 1413 {Complete Peerage, 
by G. E. C, ii. 317). This is now usually 
regarded as the creation of a new barony in 
his favour. He is commonly styled, even 
in official documents, ' John Oldcastle, 
Knight, and Lord Cobham [dominus de Cob- 
hamj ; ' but we find Lady Cobham's second 
husband, Sir Reginald Braybroke, called 
* Dominus de Cowling/ after a portion of the 
property which she was to inherit from her 
grandfather (Collectanea Topographica, vii. 
341 ; cf. Walsingham, ii. 291). 

The favour of the prince presently secured 
the newly created baron a further oppor- 
tunity of military distinction. In September 
1411 the prince, who was practically acting 
as viceroy for his sick father, took upon him- 
self to despatch an English force under the 
Earl of Arundel to the assistance of the Duke 
of Burgundy, and Oldcastle was associated 
with Arundel and Robert and Gilbert Um- 
phraville in the command (Ramsay, i. 130). 
Small as the force was, it at once turned the 
scale between the warring French factions in 
Burgundy's favour. By the middle of De- 
cember the English auxiliaries were dismissed 
with a remuneration, to raise which the duke 
had to pawn his jewels. Oldcastle in these 
years undoubtedly stood high in the favour 
of the prince, to whose household he seems 
to have been officially attached (Elmham, 
Vita, p. 81 ; Walsingham, ii. 291). There is 
no hint, however, in the contemporary au- 
thorities, hostile as they are, to support the 
view adopted by the Elizabethan dramatists 



Oldcastle 



88 



Oldcastle 



that he was one of Henry's boon companions. 
Bale, indeed, makes him confess at his trial 
to 'gluttony, covetousness, and lechery in 
his mill youth/ but whether he had au- 
thority for this is by np means clear ; and 
in any case he cannot refer to the time of 
Henry's wild life in London. For Oldcastle 
was tnen already a convinced and prominent 
lollard, and any inconsistency in his life would 
no doubt have been eagerly noted. How he 
became a lollard it is now impossible to say. 
But it is worth noticing that Herefordshire, 
and especially the district in which Almeley 
lay, was a hotbed of lollardy in the last de- 
cade of the fourteenth century. "William 
Swinderby, the proceedings against whom in 
1391 are given at length by Foxe, was charged 
with having denied the validity of absolu- 
tion by a priest in deadly sin, at Whitney, 
four miles south-west of Almeley ; Walter 
Brute, a Herefordshire layman, made him- 
self very obnoxious to the clergy by his here- 
tical preaching, and was supported by force, 
so that the king had in September 1393 to 
order the officials and notabilities of Here- 
fordshire, among them Thomas Oldcastle, to 
see that the bishop was not interfered with, 
and that illegal conventicles were no longer 
held (Foxe, Acts and Monuments, iii. Ill, 
131, 196). 

The earliest evidence of Oldcastle's own 
lollard opinions belongs to 1410, when, owing 
to the unlicensed preaching of ' Sir John the 
Chaplain/ the churches of Hoo, Halstow, 
and Cooling, all on the estates of his wife, 
were laid under interdict (Wilkins, Con- 
cilia, iii. 329). He is said to have done his 
utmost to convert the prince himself to his 
views (Gesta Henrici V,T). 2). Elmham 
(Vita, p. 31) declares that Henry had already 
dismissed him from his service on account 
of his lollard heresies before he came to the 
throne. But this 6eems to be contradicted 
by the evidence of the proceedings against 
him in 1413. Oldcastle s position and ear- 
nestness certainly made him a most formi- 
dable leader of the lollard party. He was 
striving to secure the reformation of the 
clergy in the lollard sense, and, according to 
Thomas Netter or Walden [q. v. J, he had, at 
the instance of John Huss, provided for the 
diffusion of Wiclif's writings (Goodwin, 
Henry V, p. 167 ; Bale, p. 261). 

At the first meeting of the convocation 
which assembled at St. Paul's on 6 March 
1413, a fortnight before the death of Henry IV, 
John Lay, a chaplain there present, was de- 
nounced as a heretic, and confessed to having 
1 celebrated ' that very morning in the pre- 
sence of Oldcastle, though unable to produce 
the license of his ordinary (Wilkins, iii. 



338). Convocation sat well on into the- 
summer, and accumulated fresh evidence 
against Oldcastle. A large number of Wi- 
clifite tracts were seized, condemned, and 
burnt. In the course of the search a book 
containing a number of small tracts much 
more dangerous in tendency was discovered 
in the shop of an illuminator in Paternoster 
Row, who confessed that Oldcastle was the 
owner. The latter was summoned to Ken- 
nington, and in the king's closet there on 
6 June the tracts were read in the presence- 
of Henry and ' almost all the prelates and 
nobles of England/ The king expressed his 
abhorrence of the views expounded in them 
as the worst against the faith and the 
church he had ever heard. Oldcastle, being 
appealed to by him, is alleged to have con- 
fessed that they were justly condemned, and 
pleaded that he had not read more than two* 
leaves of the book (ib. iii. 352). This en- 
couraged the clergy to make a general at- 
tack upon him for his open maintenance- 
of heresy and heretical preachers, especially 
in the dioceses of London, Rochester, and 
Hereford. It was thought prudent, how- 
ever, in view of the close relation in which 
the culprit stood to the king, to consult 
Henry before taking any further steps. The- 
bishops accordingly went to Kennington and 
laid the matter before the king, who thanked 
them, but begged them, out of respect for 
Oldcastle's connection with himself and for 
the order of knighthood, to postpone any ac- 
tion until he had tried what persuasion could 
do to wean Sir John from his errors. If he 
failed, he promised that the law should be put 
into force in all its rigour. The clergy, we are- 
told, were inclined to resent the delay, but 
their leaders acquiesced in the king's wishes. 
Henry must have had good hopes of the suc- 
cess of his intervention, for on 20 July he- 
issued a warrant for the payment at Michael- 
mas 1414 of four hundred marks, the balance- 
of the purchase-money of a valuable buckle, 
perhaps part of the spoil of the French ex- 
pedition of 1411, sold to him by Oldcastle- 
and four other persons (Fcedera, ix. 41). But 
Oldcastle was proof against the royal argu- 
ments, and after a final stormy interview at 
Windsor early in August, when the king chid 
him sharply for his obstinacy, he went off 
without leave and shut himself up in Cowling 
Castle. Henry thereupon authorised Arun- 
del (about 15 Aug.) to proceed against him r 
and issued (21 Aug.) a stringent proclama- 
tion against unlicensed lollard preaching (ib. 
ix. 46; Wilkins, iii. 352-3; cf. Bale, p. 
255). The archbishop sent his summoner 
with a citation to Cowling ; but Oldcastle 
refusing to accept personal service, another 



Oldcastle 



89 



Oldcastle 



citation was affixed to the doors of Rochester 
Cathedral on 5 Sept. requiring him to appear 
before the archbishop at Leeds Castle, near 
Maidstone, on the 11th of the month (ib. 
p. 266, cf. ed. 1729, p. 117 ; Fasciculi Ziza- 
niorum, p. 436; Walsingham, ii. 292). 
These citations were, according to one ac- 
count, twice torn down byOldcastle's friends, 
and, as he failed to appear at Leeds on the 
appointed day, he was declared contumacious 
and excommunicated. A further summons 
was issued calling upon him to appear on 
Saturday, 23 Sept., to show cause why he 
should not be condemned as a heretic and 
handed over to the secular arm. Bale here 
inserts a confession of faith, beginning with 
the Apostles' Creed and including a defini- 
tion of the functions of the three estates of 
the church militant — priesthood, knighthood, 
and commons — which Oldcastle is alleged to 
have taken to the king. Henry declined to 
receive it, and, turning a deaf ear to his 
further suggestions that a hundred knights 
and esquires should clear him of heresy or 
that he should clear himself in single com- 
bat, allowed a summons to be served upon 
him in his own presence. Whereupon Old- 
castle produced a written appeal from the 
jurisdiction of the archbishop to the pope, 
whom, according to Bale, he had roundly 
denounced as antichrist in his previous in- 
terviews with the king. Bale's narrative is 
generally based upon the archbishop's offi- 
cial account, of which the fullest form is 
printed in the ' Fasciculi Zizaniorum,' but he 
adds a good deal from sources which cannot 
always be traced even when he mentions his 
authority. 

Oldcastle was arrested under a royal writ ; 
and when the archbishop opened his court in 
the chapter-house of St. Paul's on 23 Sept., he 
was produced by the lieutenant of the Tower 
(Devon, Issues, p. 324; Fasciculi Zizaniorum, 
p. 437). Arunael, with whom sat Richard 
Clifford, bishop of London, and Henry Beau- 
fort, bishop of Winchester, was clearly un- 
willing to go to extremities, and gave Old- 
castle another opportunity of securing abso- 
lution by submission. But he presented 
instead a written confession of faith in Eng- 
lish, in which he defined his position on the 
four or five points on which his orthodoxv 
was principally impugned. He expressed his 
belief in all the sacraments ordained by God, 
believed the sacrament of the altar to be 
' Christ's body in form of bread,' and, with 
regard to the sacrament of penance, held that 
men must forsake sin and do due penance 
therefor with true confession, or they could 
not be saved. Images, he said, were merely 
calendars for the unlearned, to represent 



and bring to mind the passion of our Lord 
Jesus Christ and the martyrdom and good 
living of other saints. * Hoso putteth feyth, 
hope, or trust in helpe of hem, as he scholde 
do to God, he doth in that the grete synne 
of mawmetrie [idolatry].' As to pilgrimages, 
he held that a man might go on pilgrimage 
to all the world and yet be damned ; but that 
if he knew and kept God's commandments, 
he should be saved, * though he nevyr in hys 
lyff go on pilgrimage as men use now, to Can- 
tirbery or to Rome, or to eny other place ' (ib. 
p. 438 ; cf. Bale, ed. 1729, p. 121). Arundel, 
after consultation with his assessors, informed 
Oldcastle that his ' schedule ' contained much 
that was good and sufficiently catholic, but 
insisted on a fuller statement of his belief on 
the two points, whether in the eucharist the 
consecrated bread remained material bread 
or not, and whether confession to a duly 
qualified priest where possible was or was not 
necessary to the efficacy of the sacrament of 
penance. Oldcastle, however, refused to add 
anything to what he had said in his schedule 
on these sacraments, although warned by the 
archbishop that by refusal he ran the risk of 
being pronounced a heretic. Informed by the 
court of what the * holy Roman Church had 
laid down on these points in accordance with 
the teaching of the fathers, heprofessed perfect 
willingness to believe ana observe what 
* holy church ' had decreed and God wished 
him to believe and observe, but denied that 
the pope, cardinals, and prelates had any 
power of determining such things. The in- 
quiry was then adjourned untu the Mon- 
day (25 Sept.), when the court met at the 
convent of the Black Friars 'within Lud- 
gate ' (ib. p. 263 ; Gregory, p. 107). It waa 
now reinforced by the presence of Benedict 
Nicolls [q. v.], bishop of Bangor; besides the 
bishops, twelve doctors of law or divinity sat 
as assessors, including Philip Morgan [q. v.], 
John Kemp [a. v.], and the heads of the four 
mendicant orders, among whom was Thomas 
Netter or Walden. Urged again to seek 
absolution, Oldcastle declared he would do 
so from none but God (Fasciculi Zizanio- 
rum, p. 443). The scene described by Bale 
— Oldcastle going down on his knees and 
imploring the divine absolution for the sins 
of nis youth — is perhaps only an expansion 
of this declaration. The archbishop tnen de- 
manded what answer he had to give to the 
summary of the church's faith and deter- 
mination on the eucharist, confession, the 
power of the keys and pilgrimages which 
had been handed to him ' in English for hia 
better understanding thereof on the Sunday. 
In reply, he defined quite unmistakably hia 
position on the two critical points raised at 



Oldcastle 



90 



Oldcastle 



the end of his first examination. If the 
church had determined that the consecrated 
bread was bread no longer, it must have been 
since the poison of property had infected 
her. As to confession to a priest, it was 
often salutary, but he could not hold it essen- 
tial to salvation. There followed an argu- 
ment of which Bale rives a much fuller 
account than Arundel, partly based on 
Walden's writings, and in the main, perhaps, 
trustworthy. Both sides quoted scripture 
freely in support of their views, and grew 
so warm that at length Oldcastle roundly 
denounced the pope as the head of anti- 
christ, the prelates his members, and the 
friars his tail. He finally turned to the 
bystanders and warned them against his 
judges, whose teaching would lead them to 
perdition if they listened to it (ib. pp. 443-6 ; 
Bale, pp. 264-72). Arundel then delivered 
sentence. Oldcastle was declared a heretic, 
and handed over to the secular arm. But 
the king, if not the archbishop, was anxious 
to save nis life if possible, and a respite of 
forty days was allowed him in the hope that 
he would recant (Gesta Henrici, p. 3; cf. 
Walsingham, ii. 296). Nevertheless, the 
lollards were driven desperate by the pro- 
spect of what awaited tnem if the kingfs 
own friend were only spared on such con- 
ditions, and a hundred thousand men were 
declared to be ready to rise in arms for the 
lord of Cobham. The government is said 
to have replied by publishing the abjuration 
purporting to be made by Oldcastle, which 
is printed in the * Fasciculi Zizaniorum 1 
414 ; cf. Ramsay, i. 178, n. 5). It is un- 
dated, and may only be a draft prepared for 
a signature which was withheld. 

Henry's chaplain, who wrote before 1418, 
says that Oldcastle was relieved of his fetters 
by promising to recant and submit to the j udg- 
ment of the convocation which was to meet 
in November, and seized the opportunity to 
escape from the Tower. His escape, which 
some of his enemies ascribed to demoniacal 
agency, was certainly rather mysterious 
(Elmham, Liber Metrtcus, p. 99). One Wil- 
liam Fisher, a parchment-maker in Smith- 
field, in whose house he secreted himself, 
was hanged in 1416 on a charge of arrang- 
ing the escape (Ramsay, i. 180 ; Chron. ed. 
Davies, p. 183). Sir James Ramsay ffives 
evidence to show that it was effectea on 
19 Oct. ; but a royal prohibition to harbour 
Oldcastle, dated 10 Oct., the very day on 
which Arundel finally ordered the sentence 
to be published throughout England, points 
to an earlier date (Fasciculi Zizaniorum, 
p. 449; Tyler, Life of Henry V, ii. 373). 
That a widespread lollard conspiracy was 



t 



Sresently on foot, and that the fugitive 
Hdcastle was engaged in it, cannot be 
seriously doubted, though the evidence is im- 
perfect, and their treason is perhaps painted 
blacker than it was. The official indictment 
afterwards charged them with plotting the 
death of the king and his brothers, with the 
prelates and other magnates of the realm, 
the transference of the religious to secular 
employments, the spoliation and destruction 
of all cathedrals, churches, and monasteries, 
and the elevation of Oldcastle to the position 
of regent of the kingdom (Rot. Pari. iv. 
108). A plan was laid to get possession of 
the king at his quiet manor of Eltham under 
cover of a ' mommynge ' on the day of the 
Epiphany, 6 Jan. (Gesta Hen. p. 4; Gregory, 
p. 108). But it was detected or betrayed 
beforehand, and Henry removed to West- 
minster. News had reached him that twenty 
thousand armed lollards from all parts of 
the kingdom were to meet in the fields near 
St. Giles's Hospital on the western road out 
of London, and little more than a mile from 
the palace, onWednesday the 10th (Rot. Pari. 
iv. 108 ; Gesta Hen. p. 4). The night before 
the king ordered the city gates to be closed, 
thus cutting off the London lollards from 
those who would presently be flocking from 
the country into St. Giles s Fields, and drew 
up his force either in the fields themselves, 
or, as the mention of Fickett's Field, now 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, may seem to imply, 
between St. Giles and the city (Elmham, 
Vita, p. 31 ; the editor of the ' Liber Metricus ' 
is probably wrong in translating * In Lanacri 
luce' (p. 97) by 'In Longacre.' It occurs in 
the passage relating the Eltham attempt, and 
the glossator renders it ' in festo Epiphani® *). 
The darkness, which caused several bodies of 
lollards to take the royal force for their friends, 
and the absence of the London contingent, 
which no doubt]would have been the largest of 
all, made the task of dispersing a force which 
was never allowed to consolidate itself an 
easy and almost a bloodless one (Walsing- 
ham, ii. 298). The greater part, perhaps, heard 
of what was happening in time to turn and 
hasten homewards. Many, however, were 
taken prisoners, and at once brought to 
trial, but Oldcastle was not among them. 

Oldcastfe had been lying concealed' in 
London since his escape from the Tower. The 
day after the collapse of the rising (11 Jan.) a 
thousand marks was offered by proclamation 
to any one who should succeed in arresting 
Oldcastle. If the capture were effected by 
a corporate community, it should be granted 
perpetual exemption from taxation (Fcedera, 
ix. 89; Bale, ed. 1729, App. p. 143). Redman 
(p. 17), who wrote under Henry VIII, says 



Oldcastle 



91 



Oldcastle 



villeins were promised their liberty if they 
took him ; but there is no such promise 
in this proclamation. At all events the 
loyalty of his lollard friends was proof 
against the temptation, and he remained at 
large for nearly four years. He was sum- 
moned in five county courts at Brentford to 
give himself up, and as he did not appear 
was (1 July) formally outlawed {Rot. Pari. 
iv. 108). He took refuge in the first place, 
it would seem, in his own county, for in 
1415 he was lurking near Malvern, and a 
premature report of the king's departure to 
France emboldened him to send word to 
Richard Beauchamp, lord Bergavenny, at 
the neighbouring Hanley Castle, that he in- 
tended to have revenge upon him for the 
injuries he had suffered at his hands. On re- 
ceiving this notification Bergavenny hastily 
collected nearly five thousand men from his 
estates, and tried to hunt Oldcastle down. 
He escaped, but some of his followers were 
taken, and torture elicited from them infor- 
mation as to the place where Oldcastle kept 
his arms and money in the hollow of a double 
wall. His standard and banner, on which 
were depicted the cup and the host in the 
form of bread, were found with the rest. 
The news of the failure of Scrope's con- 
spiracy in July 1416 compelled him to lie 
in strict concealment ag^in (Walsingham, 
ii. 306). It was at this time that Hoc- 
cleve wrote his appeal to Oldcastle to aban- 
don his lollard errors [see below]. When 
the impression made by Agincourt had lost 
its first freshness, the lollards began to 
move again. An alleged plot against the 
king's life when he was at Kenilworth at 
Christmas 1416 was ascribed to a follower 
of Oldcastle, and fresh proclamations were 
immediately issued for the arrest of the 
' Lollardus Lollardorum ' (Ramsay, i. 264 ; 
Kaiendars and Inventories, ii. 102). He was 
believed to have been deeply engaged in 
intrigues with the Scots. His 'clerk and 
chief counsellor/ Thomas Payne, a Welsh- 
man from Glamorganshire, was thrown into 
prison on a charge of arranging an escape of 
Song James from Windsor, and Oldcastle 
himself was credited with instigating the 
attack which the Duke of Albany and the 
Earl of Douglas made upon Berwick and 
Roxburgh in October during the king's 
absence in France (Ramsay, i. 264-6). 
Walsingham (ii. 326) asserts that this was 
arranged in an interview between William 
Douglas and Oldcastle at Pontefract, and 
that he urged the Scots to send the pseudo- 
king Richard into England. Otterbourne 
adds (ii. 278) that indentures to this effect 
between Albany and the lollard leader fell 



into the hands of the government. If the 
former writer may be trusted, he lay 
concealed for some time in the house of a 
villein at St. Albans. His presence was at 
length discovered, and the house surrounded 
by the abbot's servants. They found the 
bird flown, but seized some of his friends and 
books, in which the images and names of the 
saints and of the Virgin had been carefully < 
erased. This may be doubtful, at least as 
to the time assigned, for local tradition 
declares that he had been in hiding for a 
twelvemonth or more in the Welsh marches 
among the hills between the upper Severn 
and the Vyrnwy. A secluded spot on Moel- 
y-sant, overlooking the latter river near 
Meifod, and on the Trefedrid estate, is still 
known as Cobham's Garden. But his refuge 
became known to his enemies, and towards 
the close of this year (1417) he was surprised 
by a number of the followers of Sir Edward 
Charlton, fifth lord Charlton of Powis [q. v.], 
one of the chief lords-marcher, headed W the 
brothers Ieuan ab Grufiydd and Gruffydd 
Vychan of Garth, near Welshpool. The scene 
of the encounter lay in the hilly district of 
Broniarth, between Garth and Meifod, and 
still bears the traditional name of Cae'r Barwn 
(Baron's field). Oldcastle was only taken 
after a desperate, resistance, in which several 
on both sides were injured or slain and he 
himself sorely wounded (Chron. ed. Davies, 
p. 46). In one version of the story a woman 
is said to have broken his leg with a stool 
as he struggled with his assailants (Liber Me- 
tricus, p. 168). His injuries were so serious 
that when an order of the regent Bedford 
(dated 1 Dec.) reached Welshpool or Powis 
Castle, whither he had been taken, that he 
should be brought up to London at once, he 
had to make the journey in a ' whirlicote ' or 
horse-litter (Bale, ed. 1/29, o. 144; Tyler, ii. 
391 ). Sir John Grey, son-in-law of the lord of 
Powis, conveyed him safely to the capital. No 
time was lost in bringing him before parlia- 
ment on 14 Dec, when he was summarily con* 
demned as an outlawed traitor and convicted 
heretic. Walsingham says he first implored 
his judges to temper justice with mercy, and 
afterwards denied their jurisdiction on the 
ground that King Richard still lived in 
Scotland ; but the official record says nothing 
of any protest, and none would have availed 
him. He was taken back to the Tower in 
the ' whirlicote,' and drawn thence the same 
day on a hurdle to the new lollard gallows 
at St. Giles's Fields, where he was 'hung 
and burnt hanging ' (Rot. Pari iv. 108). It 
is generally supposed that he was suspended 
horizontally in chains and burnt alive, but 
the statements of the authorities are con-. 



Oldcastle 



92 



Oldcastle 



sistent with bis having been hung first and 
afterwards burnt. The lord of Powis received 
the thanks of parliament, but the payment of 
the reward had not been completed when he 
died in 1421 (#. iv. Ill ; Tyleb, ii. 391 ; 
ArcJueologia Cambrensis, 1st ser. i. 47 ; Ellis, 
Letters, 2nd ser. i. 86). 

Oldcastle was thrice married. By his 
first wife, Catherine, he had a son Henry, and 
three daughters — Catherine, Joan, and Maud 
—one of whom married a Kentish squire, 
Roger, son of that Richard Cliderowe who 
was parliamentary admiral in 1406 (Archao- 
logia Cantiana, xi. 93 ; James, Poems, ed. Gro- 
sart, p. 187}. His second wife, whose name is 
unknown, bore him no children. By Lady 
Oobham he had apparently one daughter who 
died young. His widow married before 1428 
a fifth husband, Sir John Harpeden (d. 1458), 
and, dying in January 1434, was buried in 
Cobham Church, where a fine brass to her 
memory still remains (Archceologia Cantiana, 
u.s. ; Hasted, Kent, iii. 429). His son, Henry 
Oldcastle, ultimately retained possession of 
the entailed Herefordshire estates of his 
father, and represented the county in par- 
liament in 1437, 1442, and 1453 (Cal. of 
Patent Bolls, pp. 275, 277 ; Cal. Inquis. post 
mortem, iv. 124 ; Return of Members, i. 
829, 833, 347 ). Almeley afterwards passed, 
through females, first to the Milbournes, 
and then, under Henry VII, to the Monning- 
tons of Sarnesfield close by, who held it 
until 1670 (Robinson, Castles of Hereford- 
shire, p. 5). 

Until the heat of the battle, in which he 
was one of the first to fall, had passed away, 
a calm judgment of Oldcastle was hardly to 
be expected. His orthodox contemporaries, 
who had felt the ground trembling oeneath 
them, could of course make no allowances for 
his violent language and his treason. The best 
of them, the churchmen, Walsingham, and the 
author of the * Gesta Henrici ' not excluded, 
did full justice to the kniffhtly prowess and 
the uprightness which had commended him 
to young Prince Henry, but his heresy they 
could not pardon. BGoccleve, in the balade 
which he wrote at Southampton in August 
1415, on the eve of Henry's setting sail for 
France, entreated him to abandon a position 
where 

No man with thee holdith 

Sauf cursid caitiffs, heires of darkneese : 

For verray routhe of thee myn herte coldith. 
This poem has been recently twice printed : 
by Dr. Grosart in 1880, in his 'Poems ' of 
Richard James [q. v.], who prepared an 
annotated edition of it about 1626 j and by 
Miss Toulmin Smith from the unique manu- 
script (Phillipps, 8151) in < Anglia' (v. 9-42). 



The fierceness of the hatred Oldcastle aroused 
is best reflected in the verses of the prior of 
Lenton (Liber Metricus, pp. 82, 168; cf. 
Political Songs and Poems, ii. 244). He was 
popularly believed to have declared that he 
was Elijah, and that he would rise again on 
the third day. Capgrave charges him with de- 
nouncing civil property and marriage. With 
the rise of protestantism in the next century 
the tables were turned, and Bale, followed 
by Foxe, surpassed Elmham himself in their 
invectives upon the enemies of the ' blessed 
martyr of Cnrist, the good Lord Cobham.' 
But on the Elizabethan stage the old con- 
tempt of the heretic knight still lingered, 
and, on the strength of his friendship with 
Henry in his wild youth, he was pictured in 
Fuller's words as ' a boon companion, a jovial 
royster, and yet a coward to boot. He 
appears in the anonymous 'Famous Victories 
of Henry V/ written before 1588, as a cynical 
comrade of the prince in his robberies ; and 
Shakespeare, it seems clearly proved, elabo- 
rated the character into the fat knight of 
Henry IV, retaining the name in his first 
draft, and only substituting that of Falstaft 
in deference, so we learn on the authority of 
Richard James, writing about 1625, to the 
protests of the Lord Cobham of the time, and 
perhaps of the growing puritan party. This 
feeling was reflected in the old play, of which 
two editions were published in 1600, entitled 
'The First Part of the True and Honourable 
Historie of Sir John Oldcastle, the good 
Lord Cobham/ attributed to Munday, Dray- 
ton, and two other hands, and also in John 
Weever's poem, ' The Mirror of Martyrs ; or 
the Life and Death of Sir John Oldcastle/ 
which appeared in 1601, and was reprinted 
by Mr. H. H. Gibbs in 1873 for the Rox- 
burghe Club. But ' Henry IV ' seems to have 
been acted with the name of Oldcastle even 
after Shakespeare had made the change, and 
' fat Sir John Oldcastle ' makes an occasional 
appearance in the literature of the first half of 
the seventeenth century. In the eighteenth 
century the controversy between the sup- 
porters and opponents of divine right touched 
for a moment the career of the loUard martyr 
and rebel (Matthias Eaebbby, The Occa- 
sional Historian, 1730). In our own day 
Lord Tennyson has dealt with it in his 
' Ballads and Poems/ November 1880. 

Horace Walpole reckons Oldcastle as the 
first English 'noble author;' but the only 
foundation for this is Bale's mistaken ascrip- 
tion to him of the lollard articles of 1396 
{Fasciculi Zizaniorum pp. 360-9). 

[The official record of Oldcastle's trial, drawn 
tip by Archbishop Arundel, has often been 
printed : in Blackbourne's Appendix to his edition 



-s. 



Oldcastle 



93 



Oldcorne 



of Bale's Chronycle, in Rymer's Fcedera (ix. 
61-6), in Wilkins's Concilia (Hi. 363-6), and, in 
its best form, in the edition of the Fasciculi 
Zisaniorum in the Bolls Series. Walsingham's 
Historia Anglicana, in the same series, contains 
an abridgment of it. It forms the basis of John 
Bale's Brefe Chronycle concernjne the Examina- 
cyon and Death of the Blessed Martyr of Christ, 
Syr John Oldecastell, the Lorde Cobham. The 
first edition, printed in black letter, and in 
octavo, was published in 1544, probably at Mar- 
burg; another edition— according to Ames, the 
second — was printed at London apparently in 
1660, also in black letter and octavo. It was re- 
printed by the nonjuring Bishop Blackbourne 
m 1729, in the Harleian Miscellany (in vol. ii. of 
the 1744 edit, from the 3rd edit, of the work, and 
in vol. i. of the 1808 edit, from the 1st edit.), and 
in vol. xxxvi. of the Parker Society's Publica- 
tions (1849). In addition to Arundel's record, 
Bale also drew upon the Fasciculi Zizaniorum, 
and the Doctrinale Fidei contra Wiclevistas of 
Thomas Netter or Walden [q. v. ], and two sources 
vaguely described as Ex vetusto exemplari Lon- 
dinensium and Ex utroque exemplari. He men- 
tions a brief account by a friend of Oldcastle's, 
printed by Tyndale in 1530, of which no copy is 
now known to exist (cf. 'Three Fifteenth-century 
Chronicles,' p. 90). Foxe, in his Acts and Monu- 
ments of the Church (ed.Cattley, 1841), embodied 
Bale's narrative almost without change, and the 
special lives of Oldcastle which have appeared in 
this and the last century have been mainly based 
on Foxe. These are: 1. W.Gilpin's Lives of 
Wycliffe, Cobham, &c., 1765, which was several 
times reprinted. 2. Thomas Gaspey's Life and 
Times of the Good Lord Cobham, 2 vols. 12mo, 
1843. 3. Andrew Morton Brown's Leader of 
the Lollards: his Times and Trials, 8vo, 1848. 
4. C. E. Maurice's Lives of English Popular 
Leaders (1872, &c), 8vo, vol. ii. To these may 
be added The Writings and Examinations of 
Walter Brute, Lord Cobham, &c, 8vo, 1831. 
The general authorities for Oldcastle's life 
are : Kotuli Parliamentorum ; Ordinances of 
the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas ; Rymer's Fcedera, 
original edit. ; Calendars of Inquisitions post 
mortem and Patent Bolls, published by the 
Record Commission; Walsingham, Elmham's 
Liber Metricus and Redmana Historia Hen- 
rici V, in the Rolls Series; Elmham's Vita 
Henrici V (1727), and Otterbourne (1732), ed. 
Hearne ; Gesta Henrici V, ed. English Historical 
Society; English Chronicle, 1377-1461, ed. 
Davies, and Three Fifteenth-century Chronicles, 

Published by the Camden Society ; Collectanea 
'opographica et Genealogica, ed. Nichols ; Mont- 
gomeryshire Collections (Powysland Club), vol. i. ; 
JPauli's Geschichte Englands, vol. v. ; Wylie's 
History of Henry IV ; Ramsay's Lancaster and 
York. Other authorities in the text. For 
the literary history of Oldcastle, see Richard 
James's Iter Lancastrense, Chetham Soc. 1845 
(Introd.), and his Poems, ed. Grosart, 1880; 
Fuller's Church History and Worthies of Eng- 



land, ed. 1811; Halliwells Character of Falstaff, 
1841 ; New Shakspere Society's Publications, 
1879 (Ingleby's Centurie of Prayse); Gairdner 
and Spedding's Studies in English History, 1881 ; 
Anglia, v. 9.] J. T-t. 

OLDCORNE, EDWARD (1661-1606), 
Jesuit, who usually passed by the name of 
Hall, was born at York in 1561, being the 
son of John Oldcorne, a bricklayer of that 
city. He was intended for the medical pro- 
fession, but, having a vocation for the priest- 
hood, he crossed over to France, and after 
studying for some time in the English Col- 
lege at Rheims, he was sent in 1582 to the 
English College at Rome, where he received 
holy orders in August 1587. On 15 Aug. 

1588 he and John Gerard (1564-1637) [q. v.] 
were admitted into the Society of Jesus by 
the father-general Claudius Aquaviva, and 
five or six weeks later they were sent to Eng- 
land in company with two secular priests, and 
landed on the Norfolk coast. Oldcorne was 
employed for some time in London by Father 
Henry Garnett [q. v.], superior of the English 
Jesuits, whom he afterwards accompanied to 
Warwickshire. In February or March 1588- 

1589 Garnett placed him at Hindlip Hall, 
near Worcester, the seat of the ancient ca- 
tholic family of Habington. There he re- 
sided for sixteen years, labouring zealously 
as a missioner, and making many converts. 
After the discovery of the gunpowder plot, 
Humphrey Littleton, who had been impri- 
soned on a charge of harbouring some of 
the conspirators, sought to save his own 
life by informing the privy council that 
Oldcorne was at Hindlip, and that Garnett 
also would probably be found there. Garnett 
and Oldcorne were arrested there, brought 
to London and imprisoned, first in the Gate- 
house, and afterwards in the Tower [see 
Garnett, Henby], Oldcorne was put to the 
torture, but he persistently denied all know- 
ledge of the plot. On 21 March 1605-6 he 
was sent from the Tower to Worcester, where 
he was arraigned at the Lent assizes. The 
charges brought against him were, first, that 
he had invited Garnett, a denounced traitor, 
to lie concealed at Hindlip ; secondly, that 
he had written to Father Robert Jones in 
Herefordshire to aid in concealing two of the 
conspirators, thus making himself an accom- 
plice ; and, thirdly, that he had approved the 
plot as a good action, although it failed of 
effect. He was found guilty of high treason, 
and on 7 April 1606 he was drawn on a 
hurdle to Redhill, near Worcester, and there 
hanged, disembowelled, and quartered. Lit- 
tleton, who suffered at the same time, pub- 
licly asked pardon of God for having wrong- 
fully accused Oldcorne of the conspiracy. 



Olde 



94 



Oldenburg 



Oldcorne's head and quarters were set up in 
different parts of Worcester, and it is related 
that ' his heart and bowels were cast into 
the fire, which continued sending forth a 
lively flame for sixteen days, notwithstand- 
ing the rains that fell during that time, which 
was look'd upon as a prodigy, and a testimony 
of his innocence* (Challoner, Memoirs of 
Missionary Priests, ed. 1742, ii. 488). 

His portrait was engraved by Bouttats, 
and Bromley was told there was a print of 
him by Pass. 

[Bromley's Cat. of Engr. Portraits, p. 54 ; Chal- 
loner's Memoirs of Missionary Priests, 1742, ii. 
15, 476, 485; Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 415 ; 
Douay Diaries, p. 434 ; Granger's Biog. Hist, of 
England, 5th ed. ii. 83 ; Foley^s Records, iv. 202, 
vi. 154, vii. 558 ; Jardine's Narrative of the Gun- 
powder Plot, pp. 181, 182, 188, 200, 210 ; London 
and Dublin Orthodox Journal, 1836, ii. 405 ; 
More's Hist. Provincise Anglicans S. J. p. 332 ; 
Morris's Condition of Catholics under James I, 
p. 272 ; Morris's Troubles of our Catholic Fore- 
fathers, i. 163, 166, 191, ii. 496, iii. 113, 279; 
Olivers Jesuit Collections, p. 151 ; Cal. of State 
Papers, Dom. 1603-10, p. 736; Tanner's So- 
cietas Jesu usque ad Sanguinis et Vit® profu- 
sionem militans, p. 60 ; Winwood's Memorials, 
ii. 206.] T. C. 

OLDE, JOHN (J. 1545-1555), translator. 
[See Old.] 

OLDENBURG, HENRY (1615 P-1677), 
natural philosopher and man of letters, who 
sometimes signed himself anafframmatically 
as ' Grubendol,' born about 1615, was the 
son of Heinrich Oldenburg (d. 1634), a tutor 
in the academical gymnasium at Bremen, and 
afterwards professor in thejfcoyal University 
of Dorpat. The date 1626, usually given as 
that of Oldenburg's birth, is incorrect (Dr. 
Althaus in Beilage zur Allgemeinen Zeitung, 
Munich, 1889, No. 212) ; and the statement, 
so often repeated, that he was descended 
from the counts of Oldenburg appears to 
have been merely a hasty inference from the 
fact that he is described in his Oxford ma- 
triculation certificate as l nobilis Saxo.' 

Oldenburg was educated at the evangelical 
school at Bremen, which he left for the Gym- 
nasium Illustre in the same city on 2 May 
1633. There he took the degree of master in 
theology on 2 Nov. 1639, the subject of his 
thesis being ' De ministerio ecclesiastico ot 
magistratu politico/ About 1640 he came 
to England, and lived here for some eight 
years, * gaining favour and respect from 
many distinguished gentlemen in parliament,' 
After 1648 ne seems to have travelled on the 
continent, returning to Bremen about 1652. 
In August of that year a property which 



had been held by his father and grandfather, 
but which was probably of small pecuniary 
value, the Vicana S. Liborii, was confirmed 
to him l free of all taxation.' 

In the summer of 1653 the council of 
Bremen sent Oldenburg as their agent to 
negotiate with Cromwell some arrangement 
by which the neutrality of Bremen should be 
respected in the naval war between England 
and Holland. His appointment was ineffec- 
tually opposed, on tne grounds that during 
his former residence in England he had taken 
the king's side against the parliament, and 
that he had ' a peculiar temper, which pre- 
vented him from agreeing well with others.' 
His instructions were dated 30 June 1653. 
In a letter dated London, 7 April 1654, pre- 
served in the 'Acts of the Senate' at Bremen, 
he announced the conclusion of peace between 
England and Holland on 5 April, and offered 
his further services. This offer the council ac- 
cepted when Sweden attacked Bremen in the 
summer of that year. Oldenburg's new letters 
to Cromwell were dated 22 Sept. 

While diplomacy occupied a part of Olden- 
burg's time in England, he chiefly devoted 
himself to scientific study or to literature. 
In 1654 he made the acquaintance of John 
Milton, then Cromwell's Latin secretary. 
Several of Milton's letters to Oldenburg are 

Published in Milton's ' Epistolae Familiares/ 
n the earliest of them (6 July 1654), Milton 
complimented Oldenburg on speaking Eng- 
lish more correctly and idiomatically than 
any other foreigner that he knew. In May 
1655 Oldenburg was in Kent. Later in the 
year he was acting as tutor to Henry O'Brien, 
son of Barnabas, sixth earl of Thomond [q. v.], 
and to Richard Jones, son of Catherine,lady 
Ranelagh, the sister of the Hon. Robert Boyle ; 
and early in 1656 he arrived with his pupils 
in Oxford. In June he himself was entered a 
student of the university, ' by the name and 
title of Henricus Oldenburg, Bremensis, no- 
bilis Saxo ' (Wood, Fast i Oxon. pt. ii.) With 
Boyle, the uncle of his pupil Jones, Oldenburg 
enjoyed constant intercourse at Oxford. Wil- 
kins, Wallis, and Petty were also among his 
friends there. Encouraged by their example, 
he devoted himself to * the new experimental 
learning.' Writing to Milton early in 1656, 
he declared : ' There are two things I wish to 
study — Nature and her Creator.' And later 
in the year he wrote to another friend, Edward 
Lawrence, that he believed there were still 
some few who sought for truth, instead of 
hunting after the vain shadows of scholastic 
theology and nominalist philosophy — men 
who dared to forsake the old Aristotelian 
methods, and cherished the belief that the 
world is not yet too old nor the living race 



Oldenburg 



95 



Oldenburg 



too exhausted to bring forth something 
better. 

Oldenburg remained at the university until 
May 1667, when he accompanied his pupil 
Jones on a long journey to the continent. 
From Saumur, where they spent the first 
year, Oldenburg sent letters to Milton and 
Boyle. In the second year he and his pupil 
visited other parts of France and Germany, 
and in May 1659 he wrote from Paris, where 
they remained until their return to England 
in 1660. 

In November 1660 the society which after- 
wards became the Royal Society, and which 
had existed in a more or less nebulous con- 
dition since 1645, took definite shape. Among 
the first members proposed and electea 
(26 Dec.) were Oldenburg and his pupil 
Kanelaffh. Oldenburg was elected a mem- 
ber of the first council, and he and Dr. John 
Wilkins were appointed the first secretaries 
(22 April 1663) ; but he received no salary 
until 1669. In the Birch MSS. at the British 
Museum (4441, f. 27) is preserved, in Olden- 
burg's handwriting, an account of the duties 
of the ' Secretary of ye R. Soc' ' He attends 
constantly,' the paper recites, ' the meetings 
both of ye Society and Councill ; noteth the 
observables, said and done there ; digesteth 
y m in private ; takes care to have y m entred 
in the Journal- and Register-books ; reads 
over and corrects all entrys; sollicites the 
performances of taskes recommended and 
undertaken; writes all Letters abroad and 
answers the returns made to y m , entertaining 
a corresp. w th at least 80 psons [not fifty, as 
in Weld's ' History'] ; employes a great deal 
of time and takes much pains in satisfying 
forran demands about philosophicall matters, 
disperseth farr and near store of directions 
ana inquiries for the society's purpose, and 
sees them well recommended, etc. Q. Whet her 
such a person ought to be left vn-assisted ? ' 
It was with the intention that the sale should 
procure him a remuneration for his gratuitous 
services that he was authorised in 1664 to 
publish the ' Transactions of the Society ; ' 
but the net profit seldom amounted to 40/. 
a year. From June 1665 to the following 
March the sittings of the Royal Society were 
suspended, owing to the plague. Oldenburg 
and his family remained in London, but es- 
caped the infection. In September 1666 the 
great fire of London ruined most of the 
booksellers, and greatly obstructed the pub- 
lication of Oldenburg's ' Transactions.' Boyle 
made vain endeavours to secure for Olden- 
burg, who was suffering much pecuniary 
distress, the post of Latin secretary formerly 
held by Milton. 

While he held the secretaryship of the 



Royal Society, Oldenburg's foreign corre- 
spondence grew very large. He could not have 
coped with it, he said, had it not been his habit 
to answer every letter the moment he re- 
ceived it. His aim is tersely expressed in 
his letter to Governor Winthrop (1667): 
' Sir, you will please to remember that we 
have taken to taske the whole Vniverse, and 
that we were obliged to doe so by the nature 
of our Dessein. It will therefore be requisite 
that we purchase and entertain a commerce 
in all parts of y e world w th the most philo- 
sophicall and curious persons, to be found 
everywhere.' Among his correspondents was 
Spinoza. Oldenburg had visited Spinoza at 
Rijnsburg (Rhynsburg) in 1661, and nume- 
rous letters passed between them from that 
year to 1676. At first Oldenburg enthusias- 
tically urged Spinoza to publish his writings : 
' Surely, my excellent friend, I believe that 
nothing can be published more pleasant or 
acceptable to men of learning and discern- 
ment than such a treatise as yours. This is 
what a man of your wit and temper should 
regard more than what pleases tneologians 
of the present age and fashion, for by them 
truth is less regarded than their own ad- 
vantage.' But afterwards he became cautious, 
complaining that Spinoza confused God with 
nature, and that his teaching was fatalistic. 
In these letters Oldenburg defines his rela- 
tions to both speculative philosophy and 
exact science. 

The vastness of Oldenburg's foreign corre- 
spondence, which, though mainly scientific, 
was in part political, excited suspicion at the 
English court, and, under warrants dated 
20 June 1667, he was imprisoned in the 
Tower (cf. Pbpts, 28 June 1667). He was 
in the Tower for more than two months, and 
Evelyn visited him there on 8 Aug. On 
3 Sept. Oldenburg wrote to Boyle that he 
had been stifled by the prison air, and had 
recruited his health on his release at Crayford 
in Kent, and was now falling again to his old 
trade. 

The publisher threatened at the time to 
discontinue printing the ' Transactions,' and 
Oldenburg, in a letter to Boyle, expressed a 
wish that he had ' other means of gaining a 
living.' From the beginning of 1670 ne 
accordingly undertook many translations. 
His 'Prodromus to a Dissertation by Ni- 
cholas Steno concerning Solids naturally 
contained within Solids,' 8vo, appeared in 
the following year. ' A genuine Explication 
of the Book of the Revelation,' by A. B. 
Piganius, 8vo, 1671 ; « The History of the 
late Revolution of the Empire of the Great 
Mogol,' by F. Bernier, 8vo, 1671 ; and 4 The 
Life of the Duchess of Mazarine,' followed 



Oldenburg 



9 6 



Oldfield 



rapidly. He also translated into Latin some 
of Robert Boyle's works. 

Oldenburg's latter days were embittered 
by a disagreement with his colleague, Ro- 
bert Hooke fa. v.], the curator to the Royal 
Society. Hooke complained that Olden- 
burg had not done justice in the ' Philoso- 
phical Transactions to his invention of the 
hair-spring for pocket watches. The quarrel 
lasted for two years, and was determined by 
a declaration of the council of the Royal 
Society, 20 Nov. 1676, that, ' Whereas the 
publisher of the " Philosophical Transactions " 
hath made complaint to the council of the 
Royal Society of some passages in a late 
book of Mr. Hooke, entitled " Lampas," &c, 
and printed by the printer of the said society, 
reflecting on the integrity and faithfulness 
of the said publisher, in his management of 
the intelligence of the said society ; this 
council hath thought fit to declare, in the 
behalf of the publisher aforesaid, that they 
knew nothing of the publication of the said 
book ; and, farther, that the said publisher 
hath carried himself faithfully and honestly 
in the management of the intelligence of the 
Royal Society, and given no just cause for 
such reflections' (Wabd, Lives of the Pro- 
fessors of Gresham College, pp. 178-82, fol., 
London, 1711). Oldenburg edited the * Philo- 
sophical Transactions ' Nos. 1-136 (1664-77). 
In Mat/s ' Index to the Philosophical 
Transactions ' his name is attached to thirty- 
four papers as author or translator. He also 
edited and wrote the Latin preface to M. 
Malpighi's 'Dissertatio epistolica de Bom- 
byce/ 4to f London, 1669. In the archives 
of the Royal Society is a draft petition 

Sndated) by Oldenburg for a patent for 
uyghens's ' New Invention of Watches 
serving as well for y* pocket as otherwise, 
usefull to find y* Longitudes both at Sea and 
Land/ the right in which had been assigned 
to Oldenburg by the inventor. 

Oldenburg died suddenly in September 
1677, at Charlton in Kent, leaving a son 
Rupert, a godson of Prince Rupert, and a 
daughter Sophia. He married twice. His 
first wife, who brought him 400/., died in 
London in 1666. On 11 Aug. 1668 he ob- 
tained a license to marry in London a second 
wife, Dora Katherina, only daughter of John 
Dune (1696-1680) [a. v.] She brought him 
4 an estate in the marshes of Kent,' worth 60/. 
a year. In the marriage license Oldenburg's 
age is described as * about forty,' clearly an 
understatement, and he is said to reside in the 
parish of St. Martin's-in-t he-Fields (Chestek, 
Marriage Licences, p. 993). The Royal Society 
possesses a half-length life-size portrait of 
oSenburg, painted by John Van Cleef. He 



is represented in black coat, broad white 
bands, and plain sleeves sewed to the narrow 
armholes. The head is massive, and wears a 
long flowing peruke ; the face clean-shaved 
except a short moustache, the mouth firm, but 
the expression somewhat anxious. The right 
hand holds an open chronometer case. 

[The only connected account of Oldenburg's life 
of any length is that by Dr. Althaus, published 
in the Beilage rur Allgemeinen Zeitnng (Munich), 
1888 No. 229-33, 1880 Nos. 212-14. See also 
Weld's History of the Royal Society, 2 vols. 8vo, 
London, 1848 ; Masson's Life of John Milton, 
vols. v. vi. 8vo, London, 1877-80; Pollock's 
Spinoza : his Life and Philosophy, 8vo, London, 
1880. In the archives of the Royal Society are 405 
original letters and drafts by Henry Oldenburg, 
besides a guard- book containing ninety-four ad- 
ditional letters to Boyle, and a commonplace-book 
of 207 ff. written between 1654 and 1661. The 
Ellis, Birch, Sloane, Harleian, Ward, and Egerton 
MSS. in the British Museum, all contain letters 
by Oldenburg and other documents bearing upon 
his life. His correspondence with Spinoza is 
given in Van Vloten and Land's Benedicti de 
Spinoza Opera, vol. ii. 1883, and in Ginsberg's 
Opera Philosophies of Spinoza, vol. ii. 8vo, 1876. 
Milton's letters to Oldenburg are to be found in 
the various editions of the Epistola? Familiaxes. 
Other letters in Ri gaud's Correspondence of 
Scientific Men, printed from the Macclesfield 
papers ; Edleston's Correspondence of Sir Isaac 
Newton ; Commercium Epistolicum D. Johannis 
Collins et aliorum de Analysi Promota ; Corre- 
spondence of Hartlib, Haak, Oldenburg, and 
others of the founders of the Royal Society with 
Governor Winthrop of Connecticut, 1661-72, 
8vo, Boston, 1878 (reprint from Proc Massa- 
chusetts Hist. Soc.)] H. R. 

OLDFIELD, ANNE (1683-1730), 
actress, the granddaughter of a vintner, and 
daughter of a soldier in the guards, said to 
have been a captain who had run through a 
fortune, was born in PaU Mall in 1683. Her 
father was, perhaps, the James Oldfield of 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields who married Eliza- 
beth Blanchard of the same parish on 4 Dec. 
1682 (Chester, Marriage jLicences). She 
was put with a sempstress in King Street, 
Westminster, where she spent her time in 
reading plays. Afterwards she resided with 
her mother at the Mitre Tavern, St. James's 
Market, then kept by her aunt, Mrs. Voss, 
afterwards Wood. Farquhar the dramatist 
overheard her reciting passages from the 
' Scornful Lady ' of Beaumont and Fletcher, 
and expressed a favourable opinion of her 
capacities. This was conveyed by her mother 
to Vanbrugh, a frequenter of the house, 
who was struck by ner abilities. He in- 
troduced her, accordingly, to John Rich 
[q. v.], the manager of Drury Lane, by whom 



Oldfield 



97 



Oldfield 



she was engaged in 1692 at a weekly salary of 
fifteen shillings, soon increased to twenty. 
Concerning her hesitation to come on the 
stage, she said to Chetwood : * I long'd to be at 
it, and only wanted a little decent entreaties' 
(sic). To the same writer she said, concerning 
her early performances in tragedy : ' I hate to 
have a page dragging my tail about. Why 
do they not give [Mrs.] Porter these parts ? 
She can put on a better tragedy face than I 
can.' Mrs. Cross had in 1699 temporarily 
deserted the stage, and Anne Oldfield made 
in that year, according to her biographer 
Egerton, her first appearance in that actress's 
part of Candiope in Dryden's * Secret Love, 
or the Maiden Queen/ No record of Mrs. 
Cross in that character is preserved, although 
she played five years later Florimel in the 
same piece. 

The first character in which Mrs. Oldfield 
is traced is Alinda, an original part in a prose 
adaptation by Vanbrugh of the ' Pilgrim ' of 
Beaumont and Fletcher, produced in 1700 at I 
Drury Lane. In 1700 she was also the original 
Aurelia in the * Perjured Husband, or the | 
Adventures of Venice/ of Mrs. Carroll ! 
(i.e. Susannah Centlivre [q. v.]), and Sylvia 
in Oldmixon's opera ' The Grove, or Love's | 
Paradise.' In 1701 she was the original j 
Miranda in the * Humours of the Age,' attri- 
buted to Baker ; Anne of Brittanie in Mrs. 
Trotter's ' Unhappy Penitent,' the prologue 
to which she spolre; and Queen Helen in 
Settle's ' Virgin Prophetess, or the Fate 
of Troy; in 1702, Cimene in Higgons's 
' Generous Conqueror, or Timely Discovery;' 
Camilla in Burnaby's * Modish Husband;' 
Lady Sharlot in Steele's ' Funeral, or Grief 
a la mode; ' and Jacinta in VanbrughV False 
Friend,' the prologue to which she recited ; 
and in 1703 Lucia in D'Urfey's * Old Mode 
and the New, or Country Miss with her Fur- 
beloe ; ' Lucia in Estcourt's ' Fair Example, 
or the Modish Citizens ; ' and Belliza in Mrs. 
Carroll's * Love's Contrivance, or Le MSdecin 
malgre lui.' She also played Hellena in ' The 
Rover.' 

During this time her personal graces won 
recognition rather than her abilities. Wholly 
inexpert at the outset, she was long in 
acquiring a method. Colley Cibber, who 
watched her opening career, had grave doubts 
as to her future ; and Critick, in Gildon's 
' Comparison between the Two Stages,' 1702, 
speaks of her and Mrs. Rogers as * rubbish 
that ought to be swept off the stage with the 
dust and the filth' (p. 200). Cibber first 
recognised her merits when, at Bath in 1703, 
she replaced Mrs. Verbruggen [q. v.] as 
Leonora in 'Sir Courtly Nice' (see Gent. 
Mag. 1761, p. 264). From this time she 

VOL. XLII. 



began to improve, and two years later she 
stood high in public favour. In Steele's 
'Lying Lover, or the Ladies' Friendship,' 
she was, on 2 Dec. 1703, the original Vic- 
toria; and on 6 March 1704 the original 
Queen Mary in Banks's 'Albion Queens.' 
Owing to the illness of Mrs. Verbruggen and 
the secession of Mrs. Bracegirdle, the part 
of Lady Betty Modish in Cibber's ' Careless 
Husband,' on 7 Dec. 1704, was, with some 
reluctance, confided to her. In a spirit more 
magnanimous than he often exhibited, Cib- 
ber subsequently owned that a larre share 
in the favourable reception of this piece was 
due to her, praising the excellence of her 
acting and her manner of conversing, and 
saying that many sentiments in the character 
might almost be regarded as originally her 
own. In Steele's ' Tender Husband, or the 
Accomplished Fools,' on 23 April 1705, she 
was the original Biddy Tipkin. After the 
union of Drury Lane and Dorset Garden 
theatres, she was, on 30 Oct. 1705, the first 
Arabella in Baker's ' Hampstead Heath.' 
During the season she played the following 
parts, all original : Lady Reveller in the 
4 Basset Table ' of Mrs. Carroll, Izadora in 
Cibber's 'Perolla and Izadora,' Viletta in 
the 'Fashionable Lover, or Wit in Neces- 
sity,' and Sylvia in Farquhar's ' Recruiting 
Officer.' Joining the seceders from Drury 
Lane to the Haymarket, she made her first 
appearance at the latter house as Elvira in 
the ' Spanish Friar,' playing also Lady Lure- 
well ; Celia in ' Volpone, Monimia in the 
' Orphan,' and many other characters ; and 
being the original Isabella in Mrs. Centlivre's 
' Platonick Lady,' Florimel in Cibber's ' Mar- 
riage a la mode, or the Comical Lovers,' Mrs. 
Sullen in Farquhar's 'Beaux' Stratagem,' 
and Ismena in Smith's ' Phaedra and Hip- 
poly tus.' At the same house in 1707-8 sne 
created Lady Dainty in Cibber's ' Double 
Gallant, or Sick Lady's Cure ; ' Ethelinda in 
Rowe's ' Royal Convert ; ' and Mrs. Conquest 
in Cibber's ' Lady's Last Stake,' and she also 
played Narcisaa in Cibber's ' Love's Last Shift.' 
Returning in 1708 to Drury Lane, her 
principal parts — none of them original — 
were: Angelica in ' Love for Love,' Elvira in 
' Love malces a Man,' Semandra in ' Mithri- 
dates,' Second Constantia in the ' Chances/ 
Euphronia in '^Esop,' Lady Harriet in the 
' Funeral,' and Teresia in Shad well's ' Squire 
of Alsatia.' On 14 Dec. she was the original 
Lady Rodomont in Baker's 'Fine Lady's 
Airs, or an Equipage of Lovers;' and on 
11 Jan. 1709 Lucinda in 'Rival Fools,' 
Cibber's alteration of Fletcher's ' Wit at 
several Weapons.' Once more at the Hay- 
market, in partnership with Swiney, Wilks, 



Oldfield 



9 8 



Oldfield 



Dogget, and Cibber, Mrs. Oldfield played 
many light comedy parts — Mrs. Brittle, 
Berinthia in the * Relapse,' and Lsetitia in 
the 'Old Bachelor' — and was the original 
Belinda in Mrs. Centlivre's ' The Man's Be- 
witched, or the Devil to Pay.' 

Returning to Drury Lane, which thence- 
forward she never quitted for any other house, 
shewa8,on7 April 1711, the first Fidelia in 
' Injured Love.' Between this period and her 
retirement and death she took many original 
parts, the principal of which are : Arabella, 
in the ' Wile's Relief, or the Husband's Cure,' 
on 12 Nov. 1711, Johnson's alteration of 
Shirley's ' Gamester ; ' Camilla in Mrs. Cent- 
ime's 'Perplexed Lovers,' 19 Jan. 1712; 
Andromache in the 'Distressed Mother,' 
17 March 1712, adapted by Ambrose Philips 
[q.v.] from Racine ; Victoria in Charles 
Shad well's ' Humours of the Army,' 29 Jan. 
1713 ; Emilia in ' Cinna's Conspiracy,' 19 Feb. 
1713 ; Marcia in Addison's ' Cato,' 14 April 
1713 ; Eriphile in Charles Johnson's ' Vic- 
tim,' 6 Jan. 1714; Jane Shore in Rowe's 
1 Jane Shore,' 2 Feb. 1714 ; Violante in Mrs. 
Centlivre's ' Wonder a Woman keeps a 
Secret,' 27 April 1714 ; the heroine of Rowe's 
'Lady Jane Grey,' 20 April 1715; Leonora 
in Mrs. Centlivre's 'Cruel Gift,' 17 Dec. 
1716 ; Mrs. Townley in ' Three Hours after 
Marriage' of Gay, and, presumably, Pope 
and Arbuthnot, 16 Jan. 1717; Maria in 
Cibber's ' Nonjuror,' 6 Dec. 1717 ; Mandane 
in Young's ' Busiris,' 7 March 1719 ; Celona 
in Southern's ' Spartan Dame,' 11 Dec. 1719; 
Sophronia in Cibber's ' Refusal, or the Lady's 
Philosophy,' 14 Jan. 1721 ; Mrs. Watchit in 
Mrs. Centlivre's 'Artifice,' 2 Oct. 1722; 
Queen Margaret in Philips's ' Humphrey, 
Duke of Gloucester,' 15 Feb. 1723 ; Princess 
Catharine in Hill's ' Henry V,' altered from 
Shakespeare, 5 Dec. 1723; the Captive in 
Gay's * Captives,' 15 Jan. 1724; Cleopatra in 
Cibber's • Caesar in Egypt,' 9 Dec. 1724 ; 
Lady Townly in the ' Provoked Husband,' 
10 Jan. 1727 ; Lady Matchless in Fielding's 
'Love in Several Masques,' 16 Feb. 1727; 
Clarinda in the ' Humours of Oxford,' attri- 
buted to Miller, 9 Jan. 1730 ; and Sopho- 
nisba in Thomson's ' Sophonisba.' She kept 
her powers to the end, acting this last part 
superbly ; in her delivery of the line addressed 
to Wilks as Massinissa — 

Not one base word of Carthage —on thy soul ! 

she startled him, and carried away the 
audience. For her benefit, on 19 March 1730, 
she chose the ' Fair Penitent,' presumably 
playing Calista, ' a gentleman ' appearing as 
Lothario. On 28 April 1730 she made, as 
Lady Brute in the ' Provoked Wife,' her last 



appearance on the stage. In her last years 
she suffered much pain, and tears are said to 
have often trickled from her eyes while she 
was acting She died on 23 Oct. 1730, in her 
own house, at 59 (afterwards 60) Grosvenor 
.Street. She had previously resided in New 
Southampton Street, Strand, and in the Hay- 
market. After lying in state in the Jeru- 
salem Chamber, her body was buried beneath 
the monument of Congreve in Westminster 
Abbey, at the west end of the nave. Accord- 
ing to the testimony of her maid, Margaret 
Saunders, she was interred ' in a very fine 
Brussels lace head, a holland shift and double 
ruffles of the same lace, a pair of new kid 
gloves, and her body wrapped in a winding- 
sheet.' This elicited from Pope the well- 
known lines : — 

Odious ! in woollen ! 'twould a saint provoke, 
Were the last words that poor Narcissa spoke ; 
No, let a charming chintz and Brussels lace 
Wrap my cold limbs and shade my lifeless face : 
One would not, sure, be frightful when one's 

dead, 
And — Betty — give this cheek a little red. 

Moral Essays, i. 246. 

Her natural son, Arthur Mainwaring, was 
the chief mourner at her funeral, the pall- 
bearers being the Lord De la Warr, John 
lord Hervey of Ickworth [q. v.l, George Bubb 
Dodington, Charles Hedges, Walter Carey, 
and Captain Elliot. An application by Briga- 
dier-general Churchill for permission to erect 
a monument to her in Westminster Abbey 
was refused by the dean. 

She left two illegitimate sons, one by 
Arthur Mainwaring fq. v.}, and the other 
by General Charles Churchill [q. v.] Main- 
waring left almost his entire estate to her and 
Arthur, his son by her. A report was current 
that she was married to General Churchill. 
Princess (afterwards Queen) Caroline told 
her that she had heard of the marriage, and 
was answered, ' So it is said, your royal high- 
ness ; but we have not owned it yet/ 

Her son by Churchill married Lady Mary 
Walpole, and Mrs. Oldfield was thus con- 
nected with some of the principal families in 
England, including that of the Duke of Wel- 
lington. By her will, proved on 2 Nov. 1730, 
she left her fortune, which for those days was 
considerable, between these two youths, after 
the payment of legacies to her mother, her 
aunt Jane Gourlaw, and her maid Margaret 
Saunders. Her house in Grosvenor Street she 
left to her son Charles Churchill, who died 
there on 13 April 1812. 

Ample testimony is borne to Mrs. Old- 
field's beauty, vivacity, and charm, and to 
the excellence of her acting. As an expo- 
nent of both tragedy and comedy she can 



Oldfield 



99 



Oldfield 



have had few equals. Chetwood, not too 
intelligibly rhapsodising, says : ' She was of 
a superior height, but with a lovely propor- 
tion ; and the dignity of her soul, equal to 
her force and stature, made up of benevolent 
charity, affable and good natur'd to all that 
deserv'd it' (General Hist, of the Stage, p. 202). 
Campbell imagines her to have been, apart 
from the majesty of Mrs. Siddons, ' the most 
beautiful woman that ever trod the British 
stage.' Cibber, whose prejudices against her 
yielded to her fascination and talent, praises 
her ' silvery voice/ and says that her improve- 
ment ' proceeded from her own understand- 
ing/ with no assistance from any ' more ex- 
perienced actor.' More than one of his plays he 
wrote with a special view to her. The extent 
of her powers could only, he holds, be gauged 
by the variety of characters she played. Her 
figure improved up to her thirty-sixth year, 
and ' her excellence in acting was never at a 
stand.' To the last year of her life ' she never 
undertook any part she liked without being 
importunately desirous of having all the 
helps in it that another could possibly give 
her .... Yet it was a hard matter to give her 
any hint that she was not able to take or im- 
prove ' (Apology, ed. Lowe, i. 310). Steele in 
the * Tatler ' and the * Spectator ' bears warm 
tribute to her distinction and her power. 
Her countenance, according to Davies, was 
pleasing and expressive, enlivened with large 
speaking eyes, which in some particular 
comic situations she kept half shut, espe- 
cially when she intended to give effect to 
some brilliant or gay thought. In spright- 
liness of air and elegance of manner, says 
the same authority, she excelled all actresses. 
Swift (Journal to Stella, 1712-13) mentions 
her opprobriously as 'the drab that acts 
Cato's daughter.' Walpole, on the other 
hand, says, concerning her performance of 
Lady Betty Modish, that had her birth placed 
her in a higher rank of life she would have 
appeared what she acted — an agreeable gay 
woman of quality, a little too conscious of 
her natural attraction. She was much caressed 
by people of fashion, and generally went to 
the theatre in a chair, attended by two foot- 
men, and in the dress she had worn at some 
aristocratic dinner. Thomson spoke with 
extreme warmth concerning her performance 
of Sophonisba as all that in the fondness of 
an author he could either wish or imagine ; 
and Fielding, in the preface to 'Love in 
Several Masques/ referred to her ' ravishing 

Serfections.' A French author, unnamed, 
eclared her, according to Chetwood, 'an 
incomparable sweet girl/ who reconciled him 
to the English stage. Richard Savage, whom 
she is said to have saved from a death penalty 



he had incurred, and to whom she allowed 
a pension of 50/. annually (a statement made 
by Dr. Johnson and disputed, without any au- 
thority advanced, by Gait), addressed to her 
a eulogistic epistle, and, according to Chet- 
wood, an epitaph in Latin and English, which 
Johnson, ior no adequate reason, refused to 
accept as his. Her best parts in tragedy were 
Cleopatra and Calista. In comedy her Lady 
Townly has not been equalled. For her 
performance of this the managers presented 
her with 50/. She was free from the arro- 
gance and petulance frequently attending 
her profession, was always reasonable, ana 
benefited thereby, as successive managements 
denied her nothing. The only difficulty in 
her career occurred when she supplanted in 
several parts Mrs. Rogers, who consequently 
left the theatre in pique. The public, espous- 
ing the cause of Mrs. Rogers, hissed Mrs. 
Oldfield in certain parts. A competition be- 
tween the two actresses was arranged by the 
management, and Mrs. Oldfield chose the 

5 art of Lady Lurewell in the ' Trip to the 
ubilee.' Her rival, however, well advised, 
withdrew from the contest. 

In spite of the frequent sneers of Pope, 
who, apart from other allusions, wrote in 
his unpublished ' Sober Advice from Horace/ 

Engaging Oldfield ! who with grace and ease 
Could join the arts to ruin and to please, 

Anne Oldfield inspired warm friendships 
and affection, and was greatly respected. 
In regard to both character and talents, she 
was above most women in her profession. 

A portrait of Mrs. Oldfield by Richardson, 
now in the National Portrait Gallery, Lon- 
don, was engraved by Meyer, E. Fisher, and 
G. Simon. A second, a folding plate, is pre- 
fixed to her life by Egerton, 1731 ; and 
another, engraved by G. King, is given in 
the title-page of her 'Memoirs/ 1741. An 
autograph receipt for 2,415/. is preserved in 
a copy of Egerton's ' Life/ in the possession 
of the writer of this notice. 

[Four editions at least of the Authentick Me- 
moirs of the Life of that Celebrated Actress 
Mrs. Oldfield were published in the year of her 
death, 1730. In 1731 appeared Faithful Me- 
moirs of the Life, Amours, and Performances of 
.... Mrs. Anne Oldfield, by William Egerton. 
An abridgment of this was added in 1741 to 
Curll's History of the English Stage, attributed 
by him to Betterton, but said to be by Oldys. 
The Lovers' Miscellany, a Collection of Amurous 
Tales and Poems, with Memoirs of the Life and 
Amours of Mrs. Ann Oldfield, 1731, 8vo, can- 
not be traced; Theatrical Correspondence in 
draft; an Epistle from Mrs. Oldfield in the 
Shades to Mrs. Br— ceg — die upon Earth ap- 
peared in 1743; a life appears in Chetwood'a 

h2 



Oldfield 



IOO 



Oldfield 



History of the Stage ; lives are also given in 
Hose, the two Biographies Generates, the Geor- 
gian Era, Gait's Lives of the Players, and many 
other compilations. See also Genest's Account 
of the English Stage ; Horace Walpole's Letters, 
ed. Cunningham, passim ; Wheatley and Cun- 
ningham's London Past and Present ; Clark Rus- 
sell's Representative Actors ; Stanley's Historic 
Memorials of Westminster Abbey; Cibber s Apo- 
logy, ed. Lowe ; Davies's Dramatic Miscellanies 
and Life of Garrick ; Doran's Annals of the 
Stage, ed. Lowe, &c. ; Notes and Queries, 2nd 
ser. ix. 420, xi. 123, 144, 3rd ser. vi. 148, 216, 
318.] J. K. 

OLDFIELD, HENRY GEORGE {d. 
1791 ?), antiquary, collaborated with Richard 
Randall Dyson in the compilation of * His- 
tory and Antiquities of the Parish of Totten- 
ham High Cros?/ London, 1790 (2nd ed. 
1792, 12mo); and was the author of 'Anec- 
dotes of Archery, Ancient and Modern,* 
London, 1791, 8vo. To him also is ascribed 
a brief description of the church of St. Giles, 
Camberwell, printed without other title than 
' Camberwell Church/ and without place or 
date of publication. In 1790 he was resi- 
dent at Great Scotland Yard, Whitehall. As 
his name is omitted from the title-page of the 
second edition of the ' History and Antiquities 
of Tottenham High Cross/ it is probable that 
he was dead in 1792. 

[Biogr. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816; Brit. 
Museum Cat.] J. M. R. 

OLDFIELD or OTEFIELD, JOHN 
(1627 P-1682), ejected minister, was born 
near Chesterfield, Derbyshire, about 1627. 
He was educated at the grammar school 
of Bromfield, Cumberland. Though of no 
university, he was a good scholar and mathe- 
matician. He held the rectory of Carsing- 
ton, Derbyshire, having been appointed in 
or before i649. His parishioners, according 
to Calamy, were ' very ticklish and capri- 
cious, very hard to be pleased in ministers/ 
but he suited them ; and, though the living 
was worth but 70/., he refused a better 
offer of the perpetual curacy of Tamworth, 
Warwickshire. He was present, as a mem- 
ber, at the first known meeting (16 Dec. 
1651) of the Wirksworth classis, of which 
he was a most regular attendant (fifteen 
times moderator) till its last recorded meet- 
ing (17 Nov. 1658). His sermon before the 
classis on 17 July 1656 was * well approved ' 
as ' orthodox and seasonable/ On 15 Jan. 
1656, by appointment of the classis, he deli- 
vered the fifth of a series of doctrinal argu- 
ments directed against the errors of Socinians, 
his thesis being * that the name Jehovah is 
incommunicable/ In the minutes, as in the 
Carsington parish register, his name is al- 



ways written Otefield or Oatefield (twice). 
By the Uniformity Act (1662) he was 
ejected from Carsington. After this he 
moved from place to place, sometimes at- 
tending the established church, and often 
preaching in conventicles. Latterly he 
settled at Alfreton, Derbyshire. Once a 
fortnight he preached at Road Nook, Derby- 
shire, in a house belonging to John Spate- 
man, and was informed against for so doing. 
It was proved that he was ten miles off on 
the specified day ; the informers were prose- 
cuted, and one of them pilloried at Derby. 
For some time before his death he was dis- 
abled. He died on 5 June 1682, « ®tat. 55/ 
and was buried in Alfreton Church, where 
there is a brass plate to his memory. He 
married Ann, sister of Robert Porter (d. 
1690) [a. v.], vicar of Pentrich, Derbyshire. 
Four of his sons entered the ministry: 
(1) John (b. 1 Nov. 1654), who received pres- 
byterian ordination in September 1681, and 
afterwards conformed ; (2) Joshua (sepa- 
rated noticed) ; (3) Nathaniel, presbyterian 
minister (1689-96) at Globe Alley, Maid 
Lane, Southwark (d. 31 Dec. 1696, aged 32); 
(4) Samuel, who received presbyterian ordi- 
tion on 14 April 1698, and was minister at 
Woolwich, Kent, and from 1719 at Rams- 
bury, Wiltshire (living in 1729). 

lie published * The First Last and the 
Last First . . . substance of . . . Lectures 
in the Country/ &c, 1666, 12mo (addressed 
by * J. O. ' to the ' parishioners of C. and W. in 
the county of D.') Calamy mentions that he 
published * a larger piece about prayer/ His 
last sermon at Carsington is in ' Farewell 
Sermons/ 1663, 8vo (country collection). 
His * soliloquy ' after the passing of the Uni- 
formity Act "is abridged in Calamy ; some 
striking sentences from it are quoted in 
* North and South/ 1855, vol. i. ch. iv., by 
Mrs. Gaskell. 

[Calamy's Account, 1713, pp. 172 sq., and 
Continuation, 1727, i. 233 ; Wilson's Dissenting 
Churches of London, 1814, iv. 157 ; Cox's Notes 
on the Churches of Derbyshire, 1875 i. 8, 1877 
ii. 662 ; Minutes of Wirksworth Classis in 
Derbyshire Archaeol. and Nat. Hist. Soc. 1880. pp. 
150 sq. ; Evans's List (manuscript) in Dr. Wil- 
liams's Library ; Manuscript Minutes of Not- 
tingham Classis ; extracts from Carsington Re- 
gister per the Rev. F. H. Brett.] A. G. 

OLDFIELD, JOHN (1789-1863), gene- 
ral, colonel-commandant royal engineers, 
only son of John Nicholls Oldfield, lieu- 
tenant in the royal marines, who served 
with distinction on the staff of the army 
and with the 63rd regiment in the American 
war, and of Elizabeth, only daughter of 
Lieutenant Hammond of the royal navy, 



Oldfield 



IOI 



Oldfield 



was born at Portsmouth on 29 May 1789. 
He was descended from Sir Anthony Old- 
field, created a baronet in 1660, and he 
claimed to be fifth baronet, but the proof 
was incomplete. A re-creation was deemed 
to be necessary, the cost of which Oldfield 
declined to incur, and the matter dropped. 
His father retired from the service about 
the date of Oldfield's birth, and purchased a 
small estate at West bourne, Sussex, which 
still remains in possession of the family. 
He died in 1793. 

In 1799 Oldfield's uncle, Major Thomas 
Oldfield [q.v.l of the royal marines, was killed 
at St. Jean aAcre. The distinguished con- 
duct of this officer led to offers from Lord 
St. Vincent, Lord Nelson, and Sir Sidney 
Smith to provide for John Oldfield in the 
navy, while Earl Spencer offered a commis- 
sion in the royal marines, and the Marquis 
Cornwallis a nomination for the Royal Mili- 
tary Academy at Woolwich. The latter 
was accepted. When Oldfield was old 
enough to go to Woolwich, he was only four 
feet six inches high, and a dispensing order 
had to be obtained from the master-general 
of the ordnance to allow of his admission 
to the Royal Military Academy, the mini- 
mum standard being then four feet nine 
inches. The junior cadets at that time went 
first to Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire, 
where he joined, on 23 Aug. 1803, and was 
afterwards transferred to Woolwich. When 
George III inspected the cadets on 29 May 
1805, Oldfield was one of the seniors. The 
king was struck with his diminutive stature, 
asked his name and age, and spoke to the lad 
of his uncle's services at St. Jean d'Acre. 

Oldfield joined the Trigonometrical Survey 
at Bodmin in Cornwall in September 1805. 
He was commissioned as second lieutenant 
in the royal engineers on 2 April 1806, and 
quartered at Portsmouth. He was promoted 
to be lieutenant on 1 July. The following 
summer he was sent to Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
and after two years' service in North Ame- 
rica he returned to England, and in Septem- 
ber 1809 was stationed at Dorchester. He 
was promoted second captain on 1 May 1811. 

From Dorchester he went to Fort George 
in Scotland, and remained there until he 
embarked for Holland in 1814. He landed 
at Hellevoetsluis on 28 March, and entered 
Antwerp with Sir Thomas Graham on 5 May. 
He was promoted captain on 26 Jan. 1815. 
He was at Brussels on 7 April 1815, when 
he heard of Napoleon's escape from Elba, 
and at once packed his family off to Eng- 
land, to Westbourne. Oldfield was sent to 
Ypres to construct new works of defence, 
and was entrusted with the inundation of 



the country round, a troublesome and thank- 
less operation. He shortly after joined the 
army of the Duke of Wellington as brigade- 
major of royal engineers. He made a sketch- 
plan of the plains of Waterloo for the use 
of the duke, and took part in the battle 
of Waterloo and the occupation of Paris. 
In April 1819, in consequence of a reduction 
in the corps of royal engineers, he was 
placed on naif-pay, and passed his time 
chiefly at Westbourne. 

In October 1823 he was sent on a special 
commission to the West Indies. He returned 
in 1824, and was quartered for some years 
in Ireland. On 28 July 1830 he was pro- 
moted brevet-major and made a K.H. for his 
services in 1815. In September he was ap- 
pointed commanding royal engineer in New- 
foundland. On 19 Nov. 1831 he was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel. In October 1835 he re- 
turned to England, and was appointed to the 
command of the royal engineers at Jersey. 
In March 1839 he was sent to Canada as 
commanding royal engineer and colonel on 
the staff*. He was there during the rebellion 
and rendered good service. On 9 Nov. 1841 
he was promoted colonel in the army, and 
appointed aide-de-camp to the queen. He 
returned from Canada in the spring of 1843, 
and was appointed commanding royal en- 
gineer in the western district. He was pro- 
moted regimental colonel on 9 Nov. 1846, 
and was appointed to command the royal en- 
gineers in Ireland in 1848. On 20 June 1854 
he was promoted major-general, and went to 
live at Westbourne. He became lieutenant- 
general on 10 May 1859. He was made a 
colonel-commandant of the corps of royal 
engineers on 25 Oct. 1859, and was pro- 
moted general on 3 April 1862. He died at 
Emsworth on 2 Aug. 1863, and was buried 
at Westbourne. 

Oldfield was thrice married: first, on 
12 March 1810, at Dorchester, to Mary, 
daughter of Christopher Ardens, esq., of 
Dorchester, Dorset, by whom he had seven 
children (she died at Le Mans, France, on 
6 July 1820); secondly, on 8 July 1822, at 
Cheltenham, to Alicia, daughter of the Rev. 
T. Hume, rector of Arden, by whom he had 
eight children (she died at Plymouth on 
5 Feb. 1840) ; and, thirdly, on 12 March 1849, 
at Plymouth, to Cordelia Anne, daughter of 
the Rev. D. Yonge (she survived him). 

Oldfield's eldest son, John Rawdon, was 
a colonel in the Bengal engineers ; Anthony, 
a captain in the royal artillery, was killed 
at Sebastopol ; Rudolphus, a captain in the 
royal navy, C.B., and aide-de-camp to the 
queen, died on 6 Feb. 1877 ; Richard was in 
the royal artillery, and is now a general 



Oldfield 



102 



Oldfield 



officer. Oldfield contributed 'Memoranda 
on the Use of Asphalte' to the 'Profes- 
sional Papers of the Corps of the Royal Engi- 
neers/ new ser. vols. iii. and v. 

[War Office Records ; Royal Engineers' Re- 
cords ; Despatches ; private papers.] 

R. H. V. 

OLDFIELD, JOSHUA, D.D. (1656- ! 

1729), presbyterian divine, second son of i 
John Oldfield or Otefield [q. v.], was born at | 
Carsington, Derbyshire, on 2 Dec. 1656. His 
father gave him his early training ; he studied ! 
philosophy at Lincoln College, Oxford, and 
also at Christ's College, Cambridge, under 
Ralph Cud worth [q. v.] and Henry More 
(1614-1687) [q. v. J Refusing subscription, 
he did not graduate. He began life as chap- 
lain to Sir John Gell (d. 1689) of nopton 
Hall, Derbyshire. Next he was tutor to a son 
of Paul Foley [q. v.], afterwards speaker of 
the House of Commons. Foley offered him 
a living, but, after deliberation, he resolved 
to remain a nonconformist. (Calamy assigns 
the offer to Sir Philip Gell, d. 14 July 1719.) 
He then became chaplain, in Pembrokeshire, 
to Susan, daughter of John Holies, second 
earl of Clare, and widow of Sir John Lort. 
He crossed to Dublin, but declined an engage- 
ment there. Returning to England, he was 
for a short time assistant to John Turner (d. 
1692), an ejected presbyterian, then minis- 
tering in Fetter Lane. He received presby- 
terian ordination, with three others, at Mans- 
field on 18 March 1687, his father and his 
uncle Richard Porter taking part in the cere- 
mony. Shortly afterwards he became the 
first pastor of a presbyterian congregation at 
Tooting, Surrey, said to have been partly 
founded by Defoe. 

Before February 1691 he had become 
minister of the presbyterian congregation at 
Oxford, where he renewed an intimacy with 
Edmund Calamy [q. v.], begun at Toot- 
ing. He had ' a small auditory and very 
slender encouragement, but took a great deal 
of pains.' He was shy at making friends 
with undergraduates; Calamy used to get 
him to meet them at the coffee-house, when 
' they found he had a great deal more in him 
than they imagined.' With Henry Dod- 
well the elder [q. v.l and John Wallis, D.D. 
[q. v.], he formed friendships. At Oxford 
he took part in a public discussion on infant 
baptism, which considerably raised his repu- 
tation. 

In 1694 he removed to Coventry as co- 
pastor with William Tong [q. vj of the pres- 
byterian congregation at the Leather Hall. 
Here he started (before May 1695) an aca- 
demy for training students for the ministry, 



in which Tong gave him some help. On 
6 Oct. 1697 he was cited to the ecclesiastical 
court for public teaching without license 
from the bishop. The case went from 
Coventry to Lichfield, and in November 
Oldfield went up to London and obtained a 
stay of ecclesiastical proceedings, transferring 
the suit to the king's bench. Here it was 
argued for several terms ; but Oldfield got 
the matter laid before William III, and the 
suit was dropped on an intimation from the 
king that ' he was not pleas'd with such 
prosecutions.' 

Oldfield left Coventry in 1699 to succeed 
Thomas Kentish as minister at Globe Alley, 
Maid Lane, Southwark, a charge previously 
held by his brother Nathaniel. He brought 
his academy with him, and maintained it, 
first in Southwark, afterwards at Hoxton 
Square, where he was assisted by William 
Lorimer (1641-1722) and John Spademan 
fq. v.], and (after 1708) by Jean Cappel, who 
had held the Hebrew chair at Saumur. Na- 
thaniel Lardner [q. v.] was for a short 
time at this academy in 1699 (perhaps also 
between 1703 and 1709). It gained the 
highest repute among dissenters. Early in 
his London career Oldfield became intimate 
with Locke, who was then engaged on his 
(posthumous) work on the Pauline epistles. 
He made the acquaintance also of Sir Isaac 
Newton, who thought highly of his mathe- 
matical powers. On 2 May 1709, during 
Calamy's visit to Scotland, the degree of D.D. 
by diploma was conferred by Edinburgh Uni- 
versity on Calamy, Daniel Williams [q. v.], 
and Oldfield. By Williams's will (1711), 
Oldfield was appointed an original trustee of 
his numerous foundations. 

It is worth noting that Oldfield preached 
the funeral sermon (1716) for Robert Fle- 
ming the younger [q. v.], the pioneer of the 
non-subscription principle. At the Salters' 
Hall conference [see Bbadbuey, Thomas] 
Oldfield was chosen moderator (19 Feb. 
1719), retained the chair after the secession 
of the subscribers, and signed the official 
letter in which the non-subscribers ' utterly 
disown the Arian doctrine,' and maintain 
the doctrine of the Trinity and the proper 
divinity of our Lord. Lorimer, his colleague 
in the academy, was chosen moderator of 
the seceding subscribers, of whom Tong, his 
former colleague, now minister at Salters' 
Hall, was a strong supporter. It has been 
suggested that Old field's sympathies were on 
the same side, though as moderator he was 
bound to register the decision of the majority. 
This is not borne out by his general attitude, 
nor by his somewhat arbitrary ruling on 
3 March, which was the immediate occasion 



Oldfield 



103 



Oldfield 



ft 



of the split. His personal orthodoxy is placed 
beyond question by his pamphlet of 1721, 
but he underrated the consequences of the 
division. 

Oldfield had Benjamin Grosvenor, D.D. 
v.], as his assistant at Globe Alley from 

00 till 1704. He then took the whole duty ; 
but his congregation dwindled, till in 1721 
it was revived by the appointment of Oba- 
diah Hughes, D.I), [q. v7), as co-pastor. In 
April 1723 Oldfield was made one of the 
original agents for the distribution of the 
English regium donum. Late in life he had 
an apoplectic seizure, fell, and lost an eye. 
Otherwise he had good health, and under 
all reverses was patient and cheerful. He 
died on 8 Nov. 1729 ; funeral sermons were 

? reached by William Harris [q. v.], and by 
lughes. At Dr. Williams's Library, Gordon 
Sauare, London, are a crayon portrait of 
him, and an oil-painting, which is engraved 
in Wilson's * Dissenting Churches.' 

He published five separate sermons (1699- 
1721), including a thanksgiving sermon for 
the union with Scotland (1707) and a 
funeral sermon for Fleming (1716) ; also : 
1. 'An Essay towards the Improvement of 
Human Reason in the Pursuit of Learning 
and Conduct of Life/ &c, 1707, 8vo. 2. ' A 
Brief, Practical and Pacific Discourse of 
God ; and of the Father, Son, and Spirit/ 
&c., 1721, 8vo ; 2nd edit, with appendix, same 
year. 

[Funeral sermons by Harris and Hughes, 1730; 
Calamy's Abridgement, J 7 13, pp. 651 sq. (docu- 
ments connected with Oldfield's prosecution), 
and Own Life, 1830, i. 223, 264, 402, ii. 187, 
363, 410 sq., 439, 465, 525; Protestant Dis- 
senters' Mag., 1799, p. 13 ; Wilson's Dis- 
senting Churches of London, 1808, i. 78, 1814, 
iv. 160 sq.. 392 ; Dunton's Life, 1818, ii,678 sq. 
(the * narrative of the Scotch commencement' is 
untrustworthy) ; Bogue and Bennett's Hist, of 
Dissenters, 1833, ii. 213 sq. ; Sibree and Caston's 
Independency in Warwickshire, 1855, pp. 34 sq. ; 
Cat. of Edinburgh Graduates, 1868, p. 239; 
Waddington's Surrey Congregational Hist. 1866, 
p. 312 ; Jeremy's Presbyterian Fund, 1885, pp. 
102 sq.; Manuscript Minutes of Nottingham 
Classis; extract from Carsington Register, per 
the Rev. F. H. Brett.] A. G. 

OLDFIELD, THOMAS (1756-1799), 
major royal marines, third son of Humphrey 
Oldfield, an officer in her majesty's marine 
forces, was born at Stone, Staffordshire, on 
21 June 1756. His mother was a daughter of 
Major-general Nicholls, of the Honourable 
East India Company's service. His father 
died in America shortly after the affair of 
Bunker's Hill. Oldfield accompanied his 
father to America in the autumn of 1774, or 



in the following spring. He served as a volun- 
teer with the marine battalion at Bunker's 
Hill on 17 June 1775. In this action he was 
twice wounded, and his wrist was perma- 
nently injured. After the action Oldfield 
accepted a commission in a provincial corps 
— it is believed Tarleton's legion. In 1776 
he took up a commission in the royal marines 
which was intended for his brother, although 
it was by an error made out in his name. 

Oldfield, who did not join the marines until 
the close of the American war, served with 
the 63rd regiment at the siege of Charleston, 
South Carolina, in 1780. He was promoted 
to a first lieutenancy in the royal marines 
on 16 April 1778, and, being distinguished 
by his intelligence and gallantry, was placed 
on the staff* of the quartermaster-general's 
department. As deputy assistant-quarter- 
master-general he was attached to the head- 
quarters of the Marquis (then Lord) Corn- 
wallis and to Lord Rawdon (afterwards 
Marquis of Hastings). He was constantly 
engaged under their immediate eye, and they 
repeatedly bore testimony to his zeal, gal- 
lantry, and ability. Oldfield was taken 
prisoner with Lord Cornwallis at the capitu- 
lation of Yorktown. 

At the termination of the war Oldfield 
went to England, and was quartered at 
Portsmouth, when he purchased a small place 
in the parish of West bourne. He named it 
Oldfield Lawn, and it is still in possession 
of the family. In 1788 Oldfield went to the 
West Indies, returning in very bad health. 
In 1793 he was promoted captain, and again 
went to the West Indies in the Sceptre, 
64 guns, Captain Dacres. In 1794 Oldfield 
commanded the royal marines landed from 
the squadron to co-operate with the army in 
the island of St. Domingo. Oldfield dis- 
tinguished himself on every occasion that 
offered. In storming one of the enemy's 
works at Cape Nicholas mole, he was the 
first to enter it, and with his own hand 
struck the enemy's colours, which are now 
in possession of the family. He returned to 
England in the autumn 01 1795 in precarious 
health. 

In 1796 Oldfield was employed on the re- 
cruiting service at Manchester and Warring- 
ton. The following year he embarked on 
board the Theseus, 74 guns, and sailed to join 
the squadron under the orders of the Earl 
of St. Vincent off Cadiz. Upon the Theseus 
reaching her destination she oecame the flag- 
ship of Nelson, then a rear-admiral. Oldfield 
was engaged in two bombardments of Cadiz 
in June 1797, in one of which he was wounded 
while in the boat with the admiral. 

Immediately after the second bombard- 



Oldfield 



104 



Oldfield 



ment he sailed in the Theseus, accompanied 
by a small squadron, for Teneriffe. In the 
gallant but unsuccessful attempt upon this 
island Oldfield commanded the force of royal 
marines which effected a landing from the 
squadron. His boat was swamped, but he 
swam to shore, and on landing received a 
contusion in the right knee, lie materially 
contributed to the saving of the British 
detachment, whose temerity in attacking with 
so inferior a force was only equalled by the 
gallantry with which they carried the attack 
into execution. Its failure may be attributed 
to the loss of the cutter Fox, 10 guns, which 
was sunk by the enemy's fire, with a con- 
siderable part of the force destined for the 
enterprise. It was in this affair that Nelson 
lost his arm. In a private letter, written 
after the battle of the Nile, Oldfield said 
that ' it was by no means so severe as the 
affair at Teneriffe, or the second night of the 
bombardment of Cadiz.' 

Until the Theseus was detached to join 
Nelson (who had shifted his flag to the \ an- 
guard, and gone in pursuit of the French 
squadron up the Mediterranean), Oldfield re- 
mained with the fleet under the orders of 
the Earl of St. Vincent. At the battle of 
the Nile Oldfield was the senior officer of 
royal marines in the fleet, and obtained the 
rank of major for his services, his commission 
dating 7 Oct. 1798. Oldfield relates in a 
private letter how, after the disappointment 
of not finding the French fleet at Alexandria, 
the Zealous made the signal at midday on 
1 Aug. that it was in the bay of Aboukir. 
At half-past three the French fleet was 
plainly seen, and an hour afterwards Nelson 
bade the Theseus go ahead of him. Oldfield 
in the Theseus was alongside the Guerrier 
at a quarter to seven o'clock, and having 

Eourea in a broadside which carried away 
er main and mizen masts, he passed on to 
the Spartiole and anchored abreast of her, 
the admiral anchoring on the other side ten 
minutes later. After the action Oldfield was 
sent with his marines on board the Tonnant, 
and from 1 to 14 Aug. he only occasionally 
lay down on deck. Upwards of six hundred 
prisoners were on board, of whom 150 were 
wounded. Nelson sent word to ( Hdfield that 
nothing would give him greater pleasure than 
to serve him ; but Oldfield replied that he 
wanted nothing. 

The Theseus remained for some time at 
Gibraltar and Lisbon to repair damages. 
Early in the spring of 1709 she sailed to 
join Sir Sidney Smith off the coast of Syria, 
and Oldfield took part in the defence of St. 
Jean d'Acre. On 7 April, at daybreak, a 
sortie in three columns was made, Oldfield 



commanding the centre column, which was 
to penetrate to the entrance of the French 
mine. The French narrative of General 
Berthier, chef d'6tat-major of the French 
army in Egypt, relates how Oldfield's column 
advanced to the entrance of the mine and 
attacked like heroes ; how Oldfield's body was 
carried off by their grenadiers and brought to 
the French headquarters. He was dying when 
taken, and breathed his last before he reached 
headquarters. * His sword,' says Berthier, ' to 
which he had done so much honour, was also 
honoured after his death. ... He was 
buried among us, and he has carried with him 
to the grave the esteem of the French army.* 
His gallant conduct was eulogised in the 
official despatch of Sir Sidney Smith, and 
Napoleon, when on passage to St. Helena, 
spoke of Oldfield's gallantry to the marine 
officers on board the Northumberland. 

Oldfield was of middle stature and dark 
complexion. He was of a social and gene- 
rous disposition, and had a strong sense of 
religion. A tablet in his memory has been 
erected in the garrison chapel at Portsmouth. 

[Despatches; Memoirs printed for private 
circulation.] R. H. V. 

OLDFIELD, THOMAS HINTON 
BURLEY (175o-l 822),^ political historian 
and antiquary, born in 1755, was according 
to the 'Gentleman's Magazine, 1 1822, pt. ii. 
p. 566, * an attorney of great celebrity/ His 
name, however, is unknown to the 'Law 
List.' He died at Exeter on 25 July 1822. 
Oldfield was a zealous pioneer of parlia- 
mentary reform, and the author of (1) 'An 
Entire and Complete History, Political and 
Personal, of the Boroughs of Great Britain, 
together with the Cinque Ports ; to which is 
prefixed an original Sketch of constitutional 
rights from the earliest Period until the pre- 
sent Time/ &c, London, 1792, 3 vols. 8vo ; 
2nd ed. 1794, 2 vols. 8vo. (2} 'History of 
the Original Constitution of Parliaments from 
the Time of the Britons to the present Day ; 
to which is added the present State of tne 
Representation/ London, 1797, 8vo. 

Both works were subsequently reprinted 
under the title ' A Complete History, Politi- 
cal and Personal, of the Boroughs of Great 
Britain, together with the Cinque Ports ; 
To wh ich is no w first added the 1 1 istory of the 
Original Constitution of Parliaments/ &c, 
London (no date), 3 vols. 8vo. A final edi- 
tion, revised and amplified, entitled 'The 
Representative History of Great Britain and 
Ireland; being a History of the House of 
Commons, and of the Counties, Cities, and 
Boroughs of the United Kingdom from the 
earliest Period/ appeared in 1816, London, 



Oldhall 



ioS 



Oldham 



6 vols. 8vo. Oldfield also compiled ' A Key 
to the House of Commons, being a History 
of the last General Election in 1818 ; and a 
correct State of the virtual Representation 
of England and Wales/ London, 1820, 8vo, 

[Gent. Mag. 1822, pt. ii. p. 566 ; Biogr. Diet, of 
Living Authors, 1816; Brit. Mue. Cat.; Edin- 
burgh Review, June 1816.] J. M. R. 

OLDHALL, Sir WILLIAM (1390?- 
1466 ?), soldier, son and heir of Sir Edmund 
Oldhall of Xarford, Bodney, and East Dere- 
ham, Norfolk, by Alice, daughter of Geoffrey 
de Fransham of the same county, was born 
about 1890. As an esquire in the retinue of 
Thomas Beaufort, earl of Dorset, afterwards 
duke of Exeter [q. v.], he was present at the 
siege of Rouen in 1418-19. tie also served 
under Thomas de Montacute, earl of Salisbury 
[q. v.], in the expedition for the relief of Cre- 
vant, July 1423, and won his spurs at the 
hard- fought field of Verneuii on 17 Aug. 1424. 
About this date he was made seneschal of 
Normandy. By his prowess in the subse- 
quent invasion of Maine and Anjou he further 
distinguished himself, and was appointed 
constable of Montsoreau and governor of St. 
Laurent des Mortiers. In the summer of 1426 
he was employed in Flanders on a mission 
to the Duke of Burgundy concerning Jacque- 
line, duchess of Gloucester, then a prisoner 
in the duke's hands. In October 1428 he was 
detached by the council of Normandy to 
strengthen the garrison of Argentan,then in 
danger of fulling by treachery into the hands 
of the Duke of Alencon. He was present 
at the great council held at Westminster, 
24 April-8 May 1434, on the conduct of the 
war in France, and also at the council of 
24 Feb. 1438-9. In 1440 he was chamber- 
lain to Richard, duke of York, and a member 
of his council, and the following year was 
made feoffee to his use and that of his duchess 
Cecilia of certain royal manors. In the dis- 
astrous struggle for the retention of Nor- 
mandy he commanded the castle of La Fert6 
Bernard, which fell into the hands of the 
French on 16 Aug. 1449. 

Oldhall was with the Duke of York in 
Wales in September 1450; was returned to 
parliament for Hertfordshire on 15 Oct. of 
the same year, and on 9 Nov. following was 
chosen speaker of the House of Commons. 
Indicted in 1452 for complicity in the in- 
surrection of Jack Cade and the subsequent 
rebellion of the Duke of York, he was found 

Siilty, outlawed, and attainted on 22 June, 
e took sanctuary in the chapel royal of 
St. Martins-le-Grand, where he remained in 
custody of the king's valet until after the 
battle of St. Albans on 22 May 1455, but 



obtained his release and the reversal of his 
outlawry and attainder on 9 July. He was 
again attainted in November 1459 as a fautor 
and abettor of the recent Yorkist insurrec- 
tion ; but on the accession of Edward IV the 
attainder was treated as null and void. He 
died between 1460 and 1466. Oldhall mar- 
ried Margaret, daughter of William, lord 
Willoughby of Eresby — buried in the church 
of the Grey Friars, London — by whom he 
had issue an only daughter Mary, whose 
husband, Walter Gorges of Wraxall, So- 
merset (ancestor of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, 
q. v.), succeeded to Oldhall's Norfolk estates, 
and died in September 1466. An alleged son, 
Sir John Oldhall, appears to be mythical. 
Besides his Norfolk estates Oldhall held (by 
purchase) the manors of Eastwich and Huns- 
don, Hertfordshire. On the latter estate he 
built, at the cost of seven thousand marks, a 
castellated brick mansion, which remained in 
the crown, notwithstanding the avoidance of 
his second attainder, and was converted by 
Henry VIII into a royal residence. In 1558 
it was granted by Elizabeth to Sir Henry 
Gary [q. v.] It has since been transformed 
into the existing Hunsdon House. 

[Archaeologia, vol. xxxvii. pt. ii. p. 334 et seq. ; 
Blomefield's Norfolk, ed.Farkin; Hall's Chron.ed. 
1801, pp. 117, 121, 127, 140-1, 225; Will. Wore, 
p. 80; Itin. pp. 160, 370; Letters and Papers 
during the Reign of Henry VI (Rolls Ser.), 
vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. 85, 385, 394, 411-12 [585], 
[622] ; Proc. Privy Council, ed. Nicolas, iii. 201, 
244, iv. 108, 210 ct seq.; Brantingham's Issue 
Roll, ed. Devon, p. 477; Rot. Pari. v. 210, 349, 
vi. 435 ; Ramsay's Lancaster and York, ii. 163, 
298; Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner; Stubbs's 
Const. Hist. iii. 158, 163, 170; Coll. Top. et 
Gen. v. 282, vii. 155 ; Cal. Inq. post mortem, iv. 
335, No. 33; Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, iii. 179; 
Cussans's Hertfordshire, ' Hundred of Braugh- 
ing/ p. 45 ; Manning's Lives of the Speakers.] 

J. M. R. 

OLDHAM, nUGH (d. 1519), bishop of 
Exeter, founder of the Manchester grammar 
school, and a great benefactor of Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, was a native of Lan- 
cashire. This fact is expressly stated in the 
original statutes of Corpus Christi College, 
where one fellowship and one scholarship 
were appropriated to that county in his 
honour, but the exact place, as well as the 
date, of his birth is uncertain. Mr. Cooper 
{Athena Cantabr.) thinks it was Crumpsell 
in the parish of Manchester, whereas Roger 
Dodsworth maintains that it was Oldham. 
William Oldham, abbot of St. Werburgh, 
Chester, and bishop of Man, is said to have 
been his brother. He was educated in the 
household of Thomas Stanley, earl of Derby, 



Oldham 



1 06 



Oldham 



of whom Margaret of Richmond was the 
third wife, together with James Stanley, 
afterwards bishop of Ely, and William Smith, 
afterwards bishop of Lincoln, founder of 
Brasenose, and a great benefactor of Lincoln 
College, Oxford. With the latter prelate he 
is said to have maintained a lifelong friend- 
ship. Oldham went first to Oxford, but sub- 
sequently removed to Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge. He was chaplain to the 'Lady 
Margaret/ countess of Richmond and Derby 
(with whom, perhaps, he first became ac- 
quainted while in the household of Thomas 
Stanley), and was the recipient of a vast 
amount of preferment, among which may 
be enumerated, though the list is by no 
means exhaustive, the rectory of St. Mildred, 
Bread Street, the deanery of Wimborne 
Minster, the archdeaconry of Exeter, the 
rectories of Swineshead, Lincolnshire, Ches- 
hunt, Hertfordshire, and Overton, Hamp- 
shire ; the masterships of the hospitals of St. 
John, Lichfield, and St. Leonard, Bedford ; 
the prebends of Newington in the church of 
St. Faul, of Leighton Buzzard in the church 
of Lincoln, of South Cave in the church of 
York, &c. That, even before his elevation 
to the episcopate, he was an ecclesiastic of 
much consideration, appears from the fact 
that on 24 Jan. 1503 (see Holinshed, Chro- 
nicles) he was selected, together with the 
abbot John Islip [q. v.], Sir Reginald Bray 
[q. v.] the architect (of whom he was after- 
wards executor), and others, to lay the first 
stone of Henry VII's chapel in Westminster 
Abbey. Ultimately, by a Dull of provision on 
27 Nov. 1504, he was promoted to the bishop- 
ric of Exeter. During the period from 1510 to 
1513 he was engaged, together with Bishops 
Foxe, Fitz-James, and Smith, in the long 
altercation with W'arham, archbishop of Can- 
terbury, as to the prerogatives of the arch- 
bishop with regard to the probate of wills and 
the administration of the estates of intestates, 
a cause which, having been unduly spun out 
in the papal court, was finally referred to the 
king, wlio decided the points mainly in favour 
of the bishops. It must have been some 
time between 1513 and 1516 that Old- 
ham, according to the common story as told 
by John Hooker, alias Vowell, in Holinshed's 
1 Chronicles,' advised his friend Bishop Foxe 
[see Foxe, Richard] to desist from his 
design of building a college in Oxford for the 
reception of young monks belonging to St. 
Swithin's monastery at Winchester while 
pursuing their academical studies, and to 
lound instead a larger establishment for the 
education of the secular clergy. ' What, my 
lord/ he is represented as saying, with re- 
markable prescience, if the story be accurately 



reported, ' shall we build houses and provide 
livelihoods for a company of bussing monks, 
whose end and fall we ourselves may live to 
see ? No, no ! it is more meet a great deal 
that we should have care to provide for the 
increase of learning, and for such as who by 
their learning shall do good in the churcn 
and commonwealth.' The result of this 
advice was the foundation of Corpus Christi 
College, as ultimately settled in 1616 and 
1517, towards which object Oldham, be- 
sides other gifts, contributed what was then 
the large sum of six thousand marks. In 
return for these temporal gifts a daily 
mass was appointed by the founder, to be 
said in the chapel of the new college for 
Oldham, at the altar of the Holy Trinity — 
during his lifetime, * pro bono et felici statu ; ' 
after his death, for his soul and those of his 
parents and benefactors. The bishop died on 
25 June 1519 (more than nine years before 
his friend Bishop Foxe), being at that time, 
it is said, under excommunication on account 
of a dispute concerning jurisdiction in which 
he was involved with the abbot of Tavistock. 
He is buried in a chapel erected by himself 
in Exeter Cathedral, where there is a monu- 
ment bearing a striking, though somewhat 
coarsely executed, recumbent figure, recently 
restored by Corpus Christi College. Bishop 
Foxe was one of the executors of his will, 
and he desired that, in case he died out of 
his diocese, he should be buried in the chapel 
of Corpus. 

Francis Godwin, in his ' Catalogue of the 
Bishops of England,' says of Oldham : ' A 
man of more devotion than learning, some- 
what rough in speech, but in deed and action 
friendly. He was careful in the saving and 
defending of his liberties, for which con- 
tinual suits^were between him and the abbot 
of Tavistock. . . . Albeit he was not very 
well learned, yet a great favourer and a 
furtherer of learning he was.' Godwin says 
that he could not be buried till an absolution 
was procured from Rome. Possibly Oldham's 
ill opinion of the monks may have been con- 
nected with the * continual suits between 
him and the abbot of Tavistock.' 

Oldham is now chiefly known as the 
founder of the Manchester grammar school. 
The various conveyances of the property 
which constitutes the endowment of the 
school are dated respectively 20 Aug. 1515, 
11 Oct. 1515, and 1 April 1525 ; but the 
statutes, which are a schedule to the inden- 
ture of feoffment, bear the last date. 

In the hall of Corpus there is a very fine 
portrait of Oldham, of unknown workman- 
ship, but evidently contemporary. There is 
a good engraving of this portrait by W. Holl. 



Oldham 



107 



Oldham 



There is also another engraving — but whether 
it was taken from the same original or not is 
difficult to say — sketched and published by 
S. Harding. No original is named on the 
print. 

[The present writers Hist, of C.C.C. pub- 
lished by the Oxf. Hist. Soc. ; Cooper's Athenae 
Cantabr. ; Whatton's Hist, of Manchester School ; 
Wood's Athenae Oxon. ; Godwin's Cat. of the 
Bishops of England ; Holinshed's Chronicles ; 
Archbishop Parker, De Antiquitate Britannicae 
Ecclesiae ; Espinasse's Worthies of Lancashire.] 

T.F. 

OLDHAM, JOHN (1600?-! 636), one of 
the ' pilgrim ' settlers in New England, was 
born in England about 1600. He arrived 
at Plymouth, New England, by the ship 
Anne in July 1623. He and nine others were 
' particulars/ or private adventurers, and did 
not belong to the regular body of the colonists. 
He brought a wife, and probably children 
and servants, and was a man of some im- 
portance, as in the allotments at Plymouth 
m 1624 ten acres were assigned to him and 
his dependents, being more than to any other 
person. Soon after his arrival he was invited 
by the governor to take a seat at the council. 
He ' was a man of parts/ says Nathaniel 
Morton, ' but high spirited, and extremely 
passionate, which marred all ' {New Englanas 
Memorial, 1855, p. 79). One cause of his 
unpopularity may De explained by his episco- 
palian views. With another restless person, 
John Lyford, a minister, he attempted * re- 
formations in church and commonwealth. , 
The governor called a court ; the two were 
charged with plotting against church and 
state, and expelled the colony, although 
Oldham's wife and family were allowed to 
remain (ib. pp. 75-6). Oldham went to Nan- 
tasket, afterwards known as Hull, whither 
he was followed by Roger Conant and Lyford. 
In April 1625 he returned to Plymouth with- 
out permission, and was expelled a second 
time in an ignominious manner. 

The Dorchester adventurers, who had com- 
menced a settlement at Cape Ann, chose 
Conant as governor, and asked Oldham, who 
had great skill in dealing with the natives, 
to manage their Indian trade. He preferred 
to remain independent at Nantasket. In 1626 
he -took a voyage to Virginia, and was 
wrecked on Cape Cod. In the midst of 
danger he made * a free and large confession 
of the wrongs he had done to the church 
and people of Plimouth ' (ib. p. 78), regained 
the confidence of the colonists, and was en- 
trusted by them to convey a rioter to Eng- 
land. While in England he and John Dorreil 
purchased a large tract of land near the 
mouth of the Charles river, title to which 



was contested by the company (first general 
letter to Endicott, 17 April 1629, in Young, 
Chronicles, 1846, pp. 147-50). He is believed 
to have returned to America in 1 629. A 
grant was registered to him and another, 
12 Feb. 1630, of a tract of country, four 
miles by eight, on the Saco river (Doyle, 
The English in America, 1887, i. 431). On 
18 May 1631 he was admitted a freeman. 

He was one of the first settlers in Water- 
town, where a larger measure of civil and 
religious liberty prevailed than in any of the 
other early plantations about the bay (Bond, 
Family Memorials of Watertown, Boston, 
1855, p. 863). Oldham doubtless took an 
active part .in the resistance of the Water- 
town people to taxation without representa- 
tion, and in May 1632 he was appointed the 
representative of that town at the first meet- 
ing of the deputies of the several plantations 
which met to confer with the court about 
levying taxes for public purposes ( Winthrop, 
History of New England, 1853, i. 91-2). 
His house at Watertown, near the weir, was 
burnt on 14 Aug. 1632 (ib. i. 104). He was 
the projector 01 the first plantation on the 
river or in the state of Connecticut. He tra- 
velled from Boston in 1633, with three com- 
panions, following the Indian trails, and 
lodging in their cabins (ib. i. 132). He was 
chairman of the first committee appointed by 
the court to consider the question of the en- 
largement of Boston. In September 1634 he 
was made ' overseer of powder and shot and 
all other ammunition for Watertown and 
Medford ' (Bond, p. 863). 

In November 1634 the Indian chief 
Canonicus gave Oldham an island of one 
thousand acres in Narragansett Bay (Win- 
throp, i. 175). Oldham and some of his 
fellow-townsmen took possession of Pyquag, 
on the Connecticut, and named it Water- 
town, changed to Wethersfield by the court 
on 21 Feb. 1636-7. In May 1635, though 
not re-elected deputy, he was one of the 
committee appointed to report on the charge 
against Endecott of having defaced the king's 
colours. 

Oldham was murdered by Indians in July 
1636, near Block Island, Rhode Island, while 
trading in his pinnace with the natives along 
the shore of Narragansett Bay (ib. i. 225-34 ; 
Hubbard, General History of New England, 
1848, pp. 248-9). The murder was one of 
the causes of the Pequot war. His affairs 
seem to have been left in an involved state 
(Savage, Genealogical Dictionary of First 
Settlers, 1861, iii. 308). 

[Besides the authorities quoted in the text, see 
Farmer's Genealogical Register of First Settlers, 
Lane. 1829; Francis's Historical Sketch of Water- 



Oldham 



1 08 



Oldham 



town, Cambr. 1830 ; Thacher's History of New | 
Plymouth, Bostou, 1835; Cheever's Journal of ' 
the Pilgrims at Plymouth, N. Y., 1848; Young's 
Chronicles of the First Settlers in Massachusetts, 
Boston, 1846; Ban rard's Plymouth and the Pil- 
grims, Boston, 1851 ; Prince's Chronological His- 
tory of New England, Boston, 1862; Oliver's 
Puritan Commonwealth, Boston, 1856; Martyn's 
Pilgrim Fathers of New England, N. Y., 1867 ; 
Winsor's Memorial History of Boston, 1 882, i. j 
79, 253 ; Goodwin's Puritan Conspiracy, Boston, 
1883, and Pilgrim Republic, 1888; Palfrey'sCom- | 
pendious History of New England, Boston, 1884, 
vol. i. ; 1 Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American 
Biography, New York, 1888, iv. 570.] | 

H. R. T. 

OLDHAM, JOHN (16*53-1683), poet, 
was born at Shipton-Moyne, near Tetbury 
in Gloucestershire, 9 Aug. 1633. John Old- 1 
ham, his grandfather, was rector of Nuneaton. ' 
John Oldham, his father, after residing as a | 
nonconformist minister at Shipton, and at | 
Newton in Wiltshire, where he was ' silenced ' 
in 1662, served a small congregation at | 
Wotton-under-Edge in Gloucestershire, and 1 
survived in honourable repute till about 1725 
(Calamy and Palmer, Noncorrfonnisfs Me- ; 
morial, 1803, iii. 368). These data both help I 
to account for the straitened circumstances I 
under which Oldham entered life, and refute j 
the incredible tradition that his scurrilous | 
* Character of a certain Ugly Old Priest ' 1 
was ' written upon ' his father (see Works, \ 
ed. Thompson, iii. 162 n.) I 

After receiving his earlier education from 
his father, and at Tetbury grammar school, 
where he is stated to have begun his career 
as a private tutor by assisting in his studies ! 
the son of a Brist ol alderman, Oldham en- j 
tered at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, in 1670. | 
Although his ability and attainments are 
said to have found recognition here, he I 
quitted the university after graduating B. A. ' 
in May 1674, and afterwards resided for some 1 
months in his father's house. In the follow- | 
ing year he suffered the loss of his school 
and college friend, Charles M or went, the son 
of a lawyer at Tetbury, to whose memory 
he dedicated the most elaborate of his poems. 
Soon after this he began life in the humble 
position of usher in Archbishop Whitgift's 
free school (since the parish school) at Croy- 
don, where ne remained about three years. 
In one of his satires, * To a Friend about to 
leave the University/ he gave vent to his 
hatred of the position occupied by him at 
this 'Grammar-Bridewell ' ( Works, iii. 22) : 

A Dancing- Master shall be better paid, 

Tho' he instructs the Heels, and you the Head. 

During Oldham's residence at Croydon he 
issaidto have received a visit from Rochester, 



Dorset, Sir Charles Sedley, and some other 
fine gentlemen and wits, who, in the first 
instance, mistook for him the aged head- 
master of the school. But though Oldham 
had enough wit and enough inclination to 
the obscene to please his polite visitors, there 
is nothing to show that his meeting with 
them had any direct effect upon his career. 
He left. Croydon in 1678, and seems in the 
same year, on the recommendation of a bar- 
rister, Harman Atwood, whose death shortly 
afterwards he celebrated in a panegyrical 
ode, to have accented the post of tutor to 
the grandsons of Sir Edward Thurland (not 
Theveland), a retired judge, residing near 
Reigate (Pepys, Diary, ed. Bright, ii. 85-6). 
Here he remained till 1681. 

In 1679 had been printed, according to 
Wood without the author's consent, the 
first of Oldham's * Satires upon the Jesuits 9 
(an expression of the popular panic at the 
time of the * Popish plot *) and the so-called 
* Satire against Virtue,' a production likewise 
in its way open to the charge of sensation- 
alism, ana reprinted accordingly in 1680 in an 
edition of Rochester's * Poems/ The whole 
of the * Satires upon the Jesuits/ together 
with the * Satire against Virtue* and other 

Eieces, were published, no doubt with Old- 
am's authority, in 1681 ; and in the same 
year appeared a volume containing a number 
of paraphrases and original pieces which 
seemed to him likely to catch the ear of the 
town. But Oldham was convinced of the 
folly of depending upon poetry (i.e. literary 
work) as the staft of life. Before this year 
(1681) was out, Oldham became tutor to 
the son of Sir William Hickes, at his resi- 
dence near London. Through him he became 
acquainted with the celebrated physician 
Dr. Richard Lower [q. v.], by whose advice 
he is said to have betaken himself to the 
study of medicine. This he is asserted to have 
carried on for a year ; but he makes no spe- 
cific mention of medicine among the 'thriving 
arts ' for which he subsequently declined to 
abandon his muse. He is further said to 
have refused an offer of Sir William Hickes 
to accompany his son on an Italian tour. He 
was much befriended by the Earl of Kingston 
(William Pierrepont, who succeeded to the 
title in 1682), and is even said to have been 
invited by him to become his domestic chap- 
lain. But he was unwilling either to take 
orders or to essay an experience which he 
has graphically satirised in some of his best 
known lines ('Some think themselves ex- 
alted to the Sky/ &c, in ' A Satire to a 
Friend about to leave the University' in 
Works, iii. 23-4). In his last days he became 
personally known to Dryden and other wits 



Oldham 



I09 



Oldham 



of the town. It was at Lord Kingston's seat, 
Holme-Pierrepoint, near Nottingham, that 
Oldham died of the small-pox, 9 Dec. 1683. 
One of the monuments in the fine church 
of the village commemorates the admiration 
cherished for him by ' his patron ' (see the 
epitaph in Wood). The graceful tribute paid 
to his memory by Waller (which mentions 
Burnet among his admirers), and still more 
the noble lines of Dryden, show that his loss 
was felt in the contemporary world of letters. 
The imputation of malignity to Dryden, on 
the ground of a perfectly just criticism 
frankly offered in his lines, is properly re- 
jected by Sir Walter Scott (Dryden 8 Works, 
1808, xi. 99 seq.) Tom Brown addressed a 
eulogistic poem ' to the memory of John Old- 
ham ' ( Works, iv. 244, ed. 1744). 

According to Oldham's biographer, Thomp- 
son, 'his person was tall and thin, which 
was much owing to a consumptive com- 
plaint, but was greatly increased by study ; 
his face was long, his nose prominent, his 
aspect unpromising, but satire was in his eye.' 
Bliss mentions a portrait of him, in flowing 
locks and a long loose handkerchief round his 
head, engraved by Vandergucht, which was 
prefixed to the 1704 edition of his ' Works ' 
(Bromley). Another portrait, painted by 
W. Dobson and engraved by Scheneker, is 
in Harding's 'Biographical Mirrour/ 1792. 

Oldham s productions deserve more notice 
than they have received. Their own original 
power is notable. Pope, and perhaps other 
of our chief eighteenth-century poets, were 
under important literary obligations to their 
author. The chief of them are here grouped 
according to form and species. 

Whether or no the Pindaric dedicated by 
Oldham ' to the memory of my dear friend, 
Mr. Charles Morwent,' in date of composi- 
tion preceded his most celebrated ' Satires/ 
it must be described as the most finished pro- 
duct of his genius, and as entitled to no mean 
place in English 'In Memoriam' poetry. 
Cowley is evidently the master followed in 
this ode. Oldham's other Pindaric, in re- 
membrance of ' Mr. Harman Atwood/ is a 
less ambitious and less successful effort of 
the same kind. Among his other lyrical 
pieces may be mentioned nis ode ' The Praise 
of Homer/ uninteresting except that one pas- 
sage in it conveys a suggestion of Gray ; that 
4 Upon the Works of Ben Jonson/ an early 
piece, but neither inadequate nor hackneyed 
in its appreciation of Jonson's cardinal quali- 
ties ; and, by way of a comparison not favour- 
able to Oldham, the ode for an ' Anniversary 
of Music on St. Cecilia's Day/ set to music by 
Dr. John Blow [q. v.] Some of his paraphrases 
of classical and biblical poetry were likewise 



composed, without particular effectiveness, 
in the same metre, for which the ode ' Upon 
the Marriage of the Prince of Orange with 
the Lady Mary ' likewise shows him to have 
been lacking in natural impulse. The noto- 
riety of the lyric first known as ' A Satire 
against Virtue ' was chiefly due to the density 
of a public not accustomed to think for itself. 
Its irony, of which the vein is not peculiarly 
fine, was so imperfectly understood that he 
found himself obliged first to explain his 
' diff rent taste of wit 'in an ' Apology ' (in 
heroic couplets), and then to indite a ' Coun- 
terpart ' ode to the ' Satire against Virtue/ 
commonplace in itself but for the daring 
&tra£ \ty6pevov in its contemptuous refer- 
ence to ' all the Under-sheriff-anties of Life.' 
Less mistakable is the lyric irony of the 
' Dithyrambic ' (written in August 1677) in 
praise of drink, purporting to be ' A Drunkard's 
Speech in a Masque/ 

From Oldham's avowal in the ' Apology ' 
for the so-called ' Satire against Virtue ' that, 

Had he a Genius, and Poetic Rage 
Great as the Vices of this guilty Age, 

he would turn to ' noble Satire/ it may be 
concluded that up to this time (1679 or 
1680) his only attempt in this direction had 
been ' Garnet's Ghost/ surreptitiously pub- 
lished as a broadsheet in 1679. The ' Satires 
upon the Jesuits/ of which this was in 1681 
reprinted as the first, together with the pro- 
logue, stated to have been written in 1679, 
' upon Occasion of the Plot/ are the best 
known among his works. The unrestrained 
violence of these diatribes may find some 
sort of palliation in the frenzy which they 
flattered. But Pope was well within the 
mark when he spoke of Oldham as ' a very 
indelicate writer ; he has strong rage, but 
it is too much like Billingsgate ' (Spence, 
Anecdotes, Singer's edit. 1820, p. 19 ; cf. ib. 
p. 136). ' Satire IV,' which Pope singled 
out from the rest as one of its author's most 
notable productions, is a clever adaptation 
of Horace's ' Satires/ 1. viii. (' Olim truncus 
eram/ &c.) 

In his biting ' Satire upon a Woman, who 
by her Falsehood and Scorn was the Death 
of my Friend/ where full play is given both 
to his feverish energy and to his prurient 
fancy, the abruptness of the opening — a 
favourite device of the author's — should be 
noticed. But his gift of simulating wrath is 
perhaps best exemplified in his ' Satire upon 
a Printer.' Horace, rather than Juvenal, 
was his model in the 'Letter from the 
Country to a Friend in Town, giving an 
Account of the Author's Inclination to 
Poetry/ one of the pleasantest as well as 



Oldham 



Oldham 



wittiest of his pieces, ending with a spirited 
rush. Pope's * Epistle to Arbuthnot ' may 
have owed something to this ' Letter.' There 
is more bitterness, but equal vivacity, in his 
' Satire addressed to a Friend about to leave 
the University and come abroad in the World/ 
which closes with a fable, excellently told. 
More ambitious, but really inadequate and 
low in tone, is the ' Satire ' in which Spenser 
is introduced, * dissuading the Author from 
the Study of Poetry.' The passage referring 
to the calamities of authors has been often 
quoted. 

While in ' original ' satire Oldham cannot 
be said to have reached the height to which 
he was desirous of climbing, he is memorable 
in our poetic literature as one of the pre- 
decessors of Pope in the ' imitative ' or adapt- 
ing species of satirical and didactic verse. 
Boileau (certain of whose imitations were in 
their turn imitated by Oldham) had revived 
the popularity of the device of paraphrasing 
Latin satirical poetry while applying to 
modern instances its references and allusions. 
Oldham's first attempt in this direction 
seems to have been his 'Horace's Art of 
Poetry, imitated in English, addressed by 
way of Letter to a Friend/ 1681 (see the 
' Preface '). But the same ' libertine ' way, 
as he calls it, was more lightly and yet more 
completely pursued by him in his imitation 
of Horace's ' Satires/ i. ix. (' Ibam forte via 
sacra ' — ' As I was walking in the Mall of 
late '), and in the other Horatian paraphrases 
and similar nieces published by him in the 
same year. Most of these, which include re- 
productions of Horace, Juvenal, Virgil, Ovid, 
Catullus, Martial, as well as of Bion and 
Moschus, the Psalms, and Boileau, are in 
the heroic couplet ; but some of the lyrics 
are translated in Pindaric, i.e. irregular, 
metre. 

Oldham's verse lacks finish, a defect spe- 
cially noticeable in a looseness of rhyme and 
in what Dryden censured as 

The harsh Cadence of a rugged Line. 

Of prose Oldham left behind him nothing 
beyond the ' Character of a certain Ugly Old 
Priest/ an unpleasing effort in the grotesque, 
and a sketch entitled ' A Sunday Thought 
in Sickness/ which contains certain resem- 
blances, probably unintentional, to the closing 
scene of Marlowe's ' Doctor Faustus.' 

An edition of ' Poems and Translations ' 
by Oldham was published in 1683, and one 
of his ' Remains m Verse and Prose/ with a 
series of commendatory verses (including 
Dryden's), in the following year. Subsequent 
editions of his works are dated 1685, 1686, 
1698, 1703, and 1722; but some of these 



may be merely made up by booksellers. 
Those of 1685 and 1686 are identical, except 
as to the date. The most complete edition 
is that cited in the text, by the eccentric 
' half-pay poet ' Edward Thompson, in 3 vols. 
12mo, 1770. It is prefaced by a brief me- 
moir, and a statement of the editor's * point 
of view.' The notes are meagre and inaccu- 
rate. 

[The Compositions in Prose and Verse of Mr. 
John Oldham, to which are added Memoirs of 
his Life ... by Edward Thompson, 3 vols. 
1770 ; Granger's Biog. Hist. 1779, ir. 48 ; 
Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 119; Biog. 
Brit. ; Seward's Anecdotes, ii. 167 ; Pope's 
Works, ed. Elwin and Courthope, passim; 
Wood's Life and Times (Oxf. Hist. Soc), iii. 82- 
83 ; Dunton's Life and Errors ; Chalmers's Biog. 
Diet.] A. W. W. 

OLDHAM, JOHN (1779-1840), engineer, 
born in 1779 in Dublin, was apprenticed 
to an engraver there, but subsequently be- 
came a miniature-painter. Having a strong 
inclination for mechanics, he invented a num- 
bering machine, which in 1809 he unsuccess- 
fully offered to the bank of Newry for num- 
bering their bank-notes. In 1812 the ma- 
chine was adopted by the Bank of Ireland, 
and he received the appointment of engineer 
and chief engraver. In 1837 he entered the 
service of the Bank of England, where he 
introduced many improvements in the 
machinery for printing and numbering bank- 
notes. This machinery continued in use 
until 1852-3, when the system of surface- 
printing was adopted. He paid much atten- 
tion to marine propulsion, and in 1817 he 
obtained a patent (No. 4169) for propelling 
ships by means of paddles worked by a steam- 
engine, an endeavour being made to imitate 
the motion of a paddle when used in the 
ordinary way. In 1820 he patented a fur- 
ther improvement (No. 4249), the paddles 
being placed on a shaft across the ship, and 
causedf to revolve, being feathered by an 
adaptation of the gearing used in the former 
patent. Though a very imperfect contriv- 
ance, it has an interest from the fact that it 
was used in the Aaron Manby, the first sea- 
going iron ship ever constructed [see Manby, 
Aaron]. A further development of the idea 
resulted in the construction of a feathering 
paddle-wheel, which was patented in 1827 
(No. 545o). His system of warming build- 
ings, introduced into the Bank of Ireland, and 
subsequently into the Bank of England, is 
described in the ' Civil Engineer and Archi- 
tect's Journal/ 1839, p. 96. He died at his 
house in Montagu Street, Russell Square, on 
14 Feb. 1840, leaving, it is said, a family of 
seventeen children. 



Oldham 



Oldham 



His eldest son, Thomas Oldham (1801- 
1851), succeeded to his father's place at the 
bank. He was elected an associate of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers on 2 March 
1841, and in 1842 he read a paper 'On the 
Introduction of Letterpress Printing for 
numbering and dating the Notes of the 
Bank of England ' (Proceedings, 1842, p. 
166), and in the following year he con- 
tributed 'A Description of the Automatic 
Balance at the Bank of England invented 
by W. Cotton ' (ib. 1843, p. 121). For the 
latter he received a Telford medal. He died 
at Brussels on 7 Nov. 1861. 

[Mechanics' Magazine, xxxii. 400 ; Proceed- 
ings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 1841, 
p. 14 ; Francis's History of the Bank of Eng- 
land, ii. 232.] R. B. P. 

OLDHAM, NATHANIEL (/. 1740), 
virtuoso, was the son of a dissenting minister. 
Early in life he went to India ' in a military 
capacity ' (Cattlfield), but returned to Eng- 
land on inheriting from a near relation a for- 
tune said to be of 100,000/. In 1728 he was 
living at Ealing, Middlesex, where he occu- 
pied Ealing House, formerly the residence of 
Sir James Montagu (1666-1723) [q. v.], baron 
of the exchequer (Lysons, Environs of Lon- 
don, ii. 228 ; Walford, Greater London, i. 
21). He had another house at Witton, near 
Hounslow, and a London house in South- 
ampton Row, Bloomsbury. He was intimate 
with Sir Hans Sloane, Dr. Mead, and other 
collectors, and began to collect natural and 
artificial curiosities, though with little taste 
or judgment. A ' choice collection of but- 
terflies ' was one of his principal acquisitions, 
lie was a constant visitor at ' Don Saltero's ' 
coffee-house at Chelsea, where he used to 
meet Sloane and others, and compare shells, 
plants, and insects. He patronised the arts, 
collected paintings, and had also a taste for 
the turf. He was at length compelled by 
his extravagant expenditure (chiefly on his 
collections) to take refuge from his creditors 
within the sanctuary of the court of St. 
James's. Here he used to frequent the re- 
freshment-room, kept by one Drury, on Duck 
Island, in St. James's Park. He had at last 
decided to sell his collections, with a label 
over the door, ' Oldham's last shift,' when he 
was arrested by a creditor and sent to the 
king's bench, where he is supposed to have 
died. His career in several respects resembles 
that of Henry Constantine Jennings [q. v.] 

Oldham's portrait was painted more than 
once by his friend Ilighmore. A full-length 
of Oldham (date 1740), engraved by J. Faber 
after Ilighmore, represents him in a green 
velvet hunting coat with a gun (Caulfield, 



op. cit. ; Bromley, Cat. of Engraved Por- 
traits, p. 286). Oldham was godfather to 
Nathaniel Smith the printseller, whose son, 
J. T. Smith of the British Museum, con- 
tributed an account of Oldham to J. Caul- 
field's ' Portraits, Memoirs, &c, of Remark- 
able Persons.' 

[Caulfteld's Portraits, Memoirs, &c. 1813, ii. 
133-7; Granger's Biog. Hist. (Noble), iii. 349.] 

W. W. 

OLDHAM, THOMAS (1816-1878), 
geologist, born at Dublin on 4 May 1816, was 
eldest son of Thomas Oldham and his wife, 
Margaret Bagot. He was educated at a pri- 
vate school, and began residence at Trinity 
College, Dublin, before completing his six- 
teenth year. In the spring of 1836 he pro- 
ceeded B.A., and then went to Edinburgh, 
where he studied engineering, and attended 
the geological lectures of Professor Jamieson, 
the two becoming intimate friends. After 
a stay of about two years in Scotland, he 
returned to Dublin. 

The work of Oldham's life may be divided 
into two periods — the one spent in Ireland, 
the other in India. Appointed in 1839 on 
the geological department of the ordnance 
survev of tne former country, he was engaged 
especially in surveying the counties of Kerry 
and Tyrone, the report of this work being 
published in 1843. At Trinity College he 
was appointed assistant professor of engineer- 
ing in 1844, and professor of geology in 

1845. He held official positions at the Dublin 
Geological Society, becoming its president in 

1846. In that year, too, he took the degree of 
M.A., and was also appointed local director 
for Ireland of the Geological Survey of the 
United Kingdom. 

In addition to official work, Oldham com- 
municated twelve papers on the geology of 
Ireland to the Dublin Geological Society, or 
to the British Association, and in 1849 had 
the good fortune to discover, in the Cam- 
brian, or slightly older, rocks of Bray Head, 
co. Wicklow, the singular fossils or organic 
marks which have been named after him, 
Oldhamia. 

In November 1850 Oldham was appointed 
by the directors of the East India Company 
superintendent of the Geological Survey of 
India, and reached that country early in the 
following year. Though his staff of assistants 
was small— about twelve in number — yet, 
largely owing to his industry and powers of 
organisation, rapid progress was made with 
the work, and in about ten years an area in 
Bengal and Central India twice as large as 
Great Britain had been surveyed and recorded. 
During this work coalfields had received 



Oldis 



112 



Oldisworth 



especial attention, and, as the result, an elabo- 
rate report ' On the Coal Resources of India ' 
was presented to the secretary of state for that 
country. Sixteen memoirs on separate sub- 
jects were also published. 

Oldham's official labours left him little 
time for independent authorship, but he com.- 
municated one paper (on upper cretaceous 
rocks in Eastern Bengal) to the * Quarterly 
Journal of the Geological Society of London/ 
and was joint author of another; he also 
wrote, in conjunction with Professor John 
Morris [q. v.], a memoir on the fossil flora of 
the Rajmahai series. Altogether his separate 
papers number about thirty-four. But the 
best memorial of his administration and 
scientific ability will be found in the pub- 
lications of the Indian Geological Survey. 
These form four sets : (1)* Annual Reports/ 
commenced in 1858 ; (2) ' Records/ com- 
menced in 1868 ; (3) ' Memoirs' (on separate 
districts), commenced in 1859 ; (4) ' Palaeon- 
tologica Indica/ that is, descriptions and 
figures of the organic remains obtained during 
the survey. Oldham's last work in India 
was to complete the transfer of the library 
and collection of the Geological Survey 
from its former quarters to the Imperial 
Museum of Calcutta. A quarter of a century 
of arduous labour had so much weakened his 
health that in 1876 he retired from the sur- 
vey, and, on his return to England, resided 
at Rugby, where he died 17 July 1878. He 
married in 1850 the daughter of William 
Dixon, esq., of Liverpool, by whom he left a 
family of five sons and one daughter. 

Oldham was elected a member of the Royal 
Irish Academy in 1842, F.G.S. in 1843, and 
F.R.S. in 1848 ; he became a member of the 
Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1857, and 
was four times its president. In 1874 he 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Dublin, and in 1875 the royal medal from the 
Royal Society, and a gold medal from the 
Emperor of Austria, after the Vienna ex- 
hibition. He was also a member of many 
societies, British and foreign. 

[Obituary notices in Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
London, 1879, Proc. p. 4G, and Geol. Mag. 1878, 
p. 382, supplemented by information from R. D. 
Oldham, esq.] T. G. B. 

OLDIS. [See Oldys.] 

OLDISWORTH, GILES (1619-1678), 
royalist divine, was younger son of Robert 
Oldisworth of Coin Rogers, Gloucestershire, 
and of Muriel, daughter of Sir Nicholas and 
sister of Sir Thomas Overbury [q. v.] He 
was born at Coin Rogers in 1619, and was 
educated at Westminster School. He was 
admitted a pensioner at Trinity College, 



Cambridge, on 17 May 1639 ; was elected to 
a scholarship there on 17 April 1610 (^Admis- 
sion Books), and, becoming a ' conscientious 
churchman/graduated B.A. probably in 1642 
or 1643. Soon after he was deprived of his 
scholarship on account of his royalist sym- 
pathies, and proceeded to Oxford, where, by 
virtue of a letter written on 29 Jan. 1645-6 
in his behalf by the chancellor, the Marquis 
of Hertford, he was created M.A. on 20 July 
1646. 

Oldisworth was presented in 1645 by his 
maternal grandfather, Sir Nicholas Over- 
bury, to the living of Bourton-on-the-Hill, 
Gloucestershire, where he succeeded his 
elder brother, Nicholas. He kept on good 
terms with the parliament, and retained his 
living during the civil war. But the lauda- 
tory tone of the dedication and an address 
with * the lively portraiture of Charles the 
Second, king of Great Britain/ &c, in his 
'Stone Rolled Away/ show him to have 
been an ardent supporter of a constitutional 
monarchy. He died at Bourton-on-the-Hill 
on 24 Nov. 1678, and was buried in the 
chancel of the church on the 27th. His will, 
dated the day before his death (P. C. C. 73, 
King), appoints his brother William guardian 
to his daughter Hester, a minor. 

Oldisworth married Margaret Warren, and 
besides three daughters (two of them named 
Muriel) who died infants, he had two sons, 
Giles (b. 1650), a citizen of London in 1678, 
and Thomas (b. 1659), and two daughters, 
Mary (b. 1655) and Hester (b. 1661). 

He was the author of several separately 
published sermons and of ' The Stone Rolled 
Away, and Life more Abundant : an Apo- 
logie urging Self-denyal, New Obedience, 
Faith, and Thankfulness/ Lowndes men- 
tions a quarto edition, 1660, but the earliest 
now known is London, 1663. Another edi- 
tion, with the title * The Holy Royalist, or 
the Secret Discontents of Church and King- 
dom ; reduced unto Self-Denial, Moderation, 
and Thankfulness/ and without the king's 
portrait, was published in London, 1664. A 
poem, entitled i Sir Thomas Overbury's Wife 
Unvailed/ is ascribed to Oldisworth, with 
some Latin verses (see Welch, Alumni West- 
mon. p. 114). He also wrote, under the pseu- 
donym of * Sketlius/ a manuscript poem 
(Codices Rawlinsoniani, C. 422), entitled 
i A Westminster Scholar, or the Patterne of 
Pietie.' It is a narrative, written in five 
books, in high-flown language, describing 
members of the families oi Oldisworth ana 
Overbury under fictitious names, with some 
explanatory notes in the margin. • 

His elder brother, Nicholas, also a West- 
minster scholar, was author of a volume of 



Oldisworth 



"3 



Oldisworth 



verses dedicated to his wife, Marie Oldis- 
worth (7 Feb. 1644), and of ' A Book touch- 
ing Sir Thomas Overbury,' &c. (Addit. MS. 
16476) which, he says, ' I wrote from dicta- 
tion, and read over to my old grandfather, 
Sir Nicholas Overbury, on Thursday, 1 Oct. 
1637/ 

[Welch's Alumni Westmon. pp. 113, 114 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. early ser. iii. 1088; Ken- 
net's Register, pp. 385, 636, 646, 855-6 ; Walker's 
Sufferings of the Clergy, pt. ii. 161-2 ; Wood's 
Fasti, ed. Bliss, ii. 95 ; Registers of Bourton, 
per the Rev. F. Farrer ; Hunter's Chorus Vatura, 
Addit. MS. 24489, p. 155. For Nicholas Oldis- 
worth : Welch's Alumni Westmon. pp. 100, 101 ; 
Cole MSS. xiii. f. 191 ; manuscript notes in 
The Father of the Faithful (Brit. Mus. copy).] 

C. F. S. 

OLDISWORTH, MICHAEL (1591- 
1654 ?), politician, was second son of Arnold 
Oldisworth (b. 1561) of Bradley, Gloucester- 
shire, by Lucy, daughter of Francis Barty, a 
native of Antwerp. The father, who resided 
in St. Martin's Lane, London, sat in parlia- 
ment in 1593 as M.P. for Tregony, and was 
afterwards keeper of the hanaper in chancery 
and receiver of fines in the king's bench (cf. 
Cal. State Papers, 1611-8, p. 381 ; Foster, 
Alumni Oxon.) On 31 May 1604 the rever- 
sion to the keepership of the hanaper was 
conferred on his eldest son, Edward (ib. 
1603-10,p.ll6; ib. 1611-8, p. 358). Arnold 
Oldisworth had antiquarian tastes, and as 
a member of the Society of Antiquaries, 
founded by Archbishop Parker in 1572, read, 
on 29 June 1604, a paper on ' The Diversity 
of the Names of this Island ' (Hearne, Anti- 
quarian Discourses, 1771, i. 98). The dates 
render Hearne's bestowal of this distinction 
on the son Michael an obvious error (ib. ii. 
438). 

The son Michael matriculated from Queen's 
College, Oxford, on 21 Nov. 1606, aged fif- 
teen, and graduated B.A. from Magdalen 
College on 10 June 1611. He was admitted 
to a fellowship by the latter society in 1612, 
and proceeded M.A. on 5 July 1614. He 
soon afterwards became secretary to William 
Herbert, third earl of Pembroke, in his 
capacity as lord chamberlain. To his con- 
nection with the earl Oldisworth owed his 
election as M.P. for Old Sarum in January 
1624. He was re-elected for the same con- 
stituency in 1625, 1626, and 1628; but the 
university of Oxford, of which the earl was 
chancellor, rejected his recommendation that 
Oldisworth should become the university's 
parliamentary representative together with 
Sir Henry Martin, in 1627. On Lord Pem- 
broke's death in 1630, Oldisworth was for a 
time without employment, but in October 

VOL. XLII. 



1637 he succeeded one Taverner as secretary 
to Philip Herbert, earl of Pembroke or Mont- 
gomery, brother to Oldisworth's earlier 
patron and his successor in the office of lord 
chamberlain (Strafford Papers, ii. 116). 
Thenceforth he completely identified himself 
with his new master's fortunes. He had 
always inclined to the popular party. He 
was in the early part of his parliamentary 
career a friend and correspondent of Sir John 
Eliot (Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep.), and 
when the civil war broke out he was popu- 
larly credited with a large responsibility for 
his master's adherence to the parliamentary 
cause. In both the Short and Long parlia- 
ments of 1640 he sat for Salisbury. * Tho' in 
the grand rebellion he was no colonel, yet 
he was governor of old Pembroke and Mont- 
gomery, led him by the nose (as he pleased) 
to serve both their turns' (Wood, Fasti, 
i. 356). On 5 July 1644 he appeared as a wit- 
ness against Laud at the archbishop's trial, 
and testified to Laud's efforts to deprive his 
master of the right he claimed as lord cham- 
berlain to appoint the royal chaplains (Laud, 
Works, iv. 294-5). His services to the par- 
liamentary cause did not go unrewarded, and 
he was made one of the two masters of the 
prerogative office. 

When in the course of the struggle Lord 
Pembroke's association with the parliamen- 
tarians was confirmed by his election to the 
House of Commons, Oldisworth, who was 
popularly regarded, as prompting every step 
in his master's political progress, received 
much uncomplimentary notice at the hands 
of royalist pamphleteers (cf. Cal. State 
Papers, 1645-7, pp. 565-6). Many pas- 
quinades on Pembroke and himself were pub- 
lished, with the object of emphasising the 
earl's illiterate and vulvar tastes, under the 
satiric pretence that Oldisworth was their 
author ; and librarians who have not made 
allowance for the unrestricted boldness of 
political satire have often accepted literally 
the anonymous writers' assurances respecting 
the authorship of the tracts (cf. Brit. Mus. 
Cat.) ' Newes from Pembroke and Mont- 
gomery, or Oxford Manchestered by Michael 
Oldsworth and his Lord ' (1648), which was 
mockingly signed by Oldisworth, was evoked 
by Oldisworth's presence at Oxford with his 
master, when the latter went thither to pre- 
side over the parliamentary visitation of the 
university. In the same year two other 
tracts professed to report on Oldisworth's 
authority Pembroke's 'speech to the king con- 
cerning the treaty upon the commissioners' 
arrival at Newport at the Isle of Wight, 
and the earl's 'farewell to the king on 
leaving the Isle of Wight. Both, it was 

I 



Oldisworth 



114 



Oldisworth 



pretended, were ' taken verbatim by Michae* 
Olds worth.' Under like conditions appeared 
next year Pembroke's ' Speech at his Admit- 
tance to the House of Commons,' his * Speech 
to Noll Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland/ 
20 July 1649, 'A Thaknsgiving [sic] for 
the Recovery of . . . Pembroke,' "and his 
* Speech ... in the House of Commons upon 
passing an Act for a Day of Thanksgiving 
for Col. Jone's Victory over the Irish ' (1649). 
In the last Pembroke is made to say, * I love 
my man, Michael Oldsworth, because he is 
my mouth, and prays for me.' In one of the 
many satires, entitled ' The Last Will and 
Testament of the Earl of Pembroke, also his 
Elegy ... by Michael Oldsworth ' (Nodnol, 
1660), the earl is represented as ordering 
Oldisworth, his ' chaplain, to preach his 
funeral sermon,' and to receive twenty nobles 
for telling 'the people all my good deeds and 
crying up my nobility.' In another lampoon, 
bearing the same title, and attributed to 
Samuel Butler, author of ' Hudibras,' Pem- 
broke charges his eldest son to ' follow the 
advice of Michael Oldworth' (cf. Lodge, 
Portraits, iv. 344). At a later date Oldis- 
worth was described as * Pembrochian Olds- 
worth that made the Earl, his master's, wise 
speeches ' (England's Confusion, 1659). 

Pembroke died in 1650, and Oldisworth 
was one of his executors (cf. Cal. Committee 
for Compounding , pp. 1532-4, 1931). He suc- 
ceeded his master as keeper of Windsor Great 
Park. On 25 June 1651 he was appointed 
a commissioner to inquire into a rebellion in 
South Wales (Cal. State Papers, 1651, 
p. 266), and he was continued in his post at 
the prerogative office by the council of state 
after the dissolution of the Long parliament 
in October 1653 (ib. 1653, p. 217). He seems 
to have died a year later. 

Oldisworth was regarded as possessing 
some literary accomplishment. He was one 
of the eighty-four persons nominated to form 
the order of Essentials in Edmund Bolton's 
project of a national academy in 1617. 
Herrick, addressing a poem to him in ' Hes- 
perides,' described him as ' the most accom- 
plished gentleman, M. Michael Oulsworth,' 
and foretold with barely pardonable exaggera- 
tion immortality for his fame (Hekriok, 
Works, ed. Pollard, ii. 159). 

Oldisworth married, in 1617, Susan (b. 
1599), daughter of Thomas Poyntz, who was 
then dead, by his wife Jane, whose second 
husband was one Dickerie, or Docwra, of 
Luton, Bedfordshire (Chester, Marriage 
Licences, p. 994). 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, i. 313, 334, 356 ; Hoare's Wiltshire, vi. 
390, 479.] S. L. 



OLDISWORTH, WILLIAM (1680- 
1734), miscellaneous writer, son of the Rev. 
William Oldisworth, vicar of Itchen-Stoke, 
Hampshire, and prebendary of Middleton, 
alias Longparish, in Winchester, matricu- 
lated at Hart Hall, Oxford, on 4 April 1698, 
when aged 18. He left the university with- 
out taking a degree, and probably, like his 
friend Edmond Smith, with a greater repu- 
j tation for wit than for steadiness of character. 
I According to Rawlinson, he ' served an 
uncle, a Justice of the Peace in Hampshire, 
as his clerk/ and about 1706 he drifted to 
London, where he became a hack-writer for 
the booksellers. His chief success arose 
through his connection with the tory paper 
the ' Examiner/ of which ho edited vols. ii. 
iii., iv., and v., and nineteen numbers of 
vol. vi., when the queen's death put an end 
to it. Swift asserted that he nad never 
[ exchanged a syllable with Oldisworth, nor 
even seen him above twice, and that in 
mixed company (Scott, Life of Swift, p. 
134); and in the 'Journal to Stella/ 12 March 
I 1712-13, wrote that 'the chancellor of the 
, exchequer sent the author of the " Exami- 
ner M [i.e. Oldisworth] twenty guineas. He 
is an ingenious fellow, but the most con- 
1 founded vain coxcomb in the world ; so that 
I I dare not let him see me, nor am acquainted 
j with him/ Through attachment to the 
Stuarts, Oldisworth was present at the battle 
of Preston, and, according to the ' Weekly 
Pacquet* of 17 Jan. 1715-16, was killed 
with his sword in hand, being determined 
not to live any longer. This rumour was 
incorrect ; for he survived the defeat, and 
resumed his life in London, but with less 
good fortune. Hearne wrote to Rawlinson, 
on 28 Aug. 1734, to inquire whether Oldis- 
worth was dead, and on 11 Nov. states that 
he ' dyed above four months since/ But 
this appears to have been an error, as the 
exact date is given as 15 Sent. 1734. Raw- 
linson mentions Carshalton in Surrey as the 
place of death, though a letter to him from 
Alderman John Barber says that ' for many 
years before he dy'd, Oldisworth liv'd 
upon the Charity of his friends. He had 
several sums of me ... and, poor man, 
ran into debt with every Body that would 
trust him ; and at last would get into an 
Alehouse or Tavern Kitchin, and entertain 
all Comers and Goers with his Learning and 
Criticisms. He at last was sent to the 
King's Bench Prison for Debt, where he 
dy'd. And Mr. . . . , the non-juring Par- 
son, that was corrector to Mr. Bowyer's 
Press, came and told me he was dead, and I 
gave him a Guinea to buy a coffin. This is 
all I know of that unhappy Man, who had 



Oldisworth 



"5 



Oldmixon 



great abilities, and might have been an 
Ornament to his Country/ Spence remarked 
of Oldisworth that he had extraordinary 
fluency in extempore Latin verse, and would 

4 repeat twenty or thirty verses at a heat ' 
(Anecdotes, p. 267) ; while Pope said of him 
that he coula translate an ode of Horace ' the 
quickest of any man in England* ( Works, ed. 
Elwin and Courthope, x. 207). 

To Oldisworth are attributed: 1. 'The 
Cupid/ a poem, 1698. 2. « The Muses Mer- 
cury ; or tne Monthly Miscellany/ consisting 
of poems, prologues, songs, &c, never before 
printed. January 1707 to January 1708, 
both inclusive, but the epistles dedicatory 
are signed J. O. 3. ' A Dialogue between 
Timothy and Philatheus, in which the Prin- 
ciples and Projects of a late whimsical Book, 
u The Rights of the Christian Church " [by 
Matthew Tindal, 1706], are fairly stated and 
answered. Written by a Layman/ vol. i. 

1709, ii. 1710, and iii. 1711. The last volume 
has numerous supplements, each with title- 
page. From Lintot's 'Pocket-book' (Ni- 
chols, Lit. Anecd. viii. 298) it appears 
that Oldisworth received 75/. for the three 
volumes. The title was probably suggested 
by John Eachard's ' Dialogue between Phi- 
lautus and Timothy/ attacking Hobbes. 
4. ' Vindication of the Bishop of Exeter, 
occasioned by Mr. Benjamin Hoadly's Re- 
flections on his Lordship's two Sermons of 
Government/ 1709. This was answered by 
Hoadly in ' The Divine Rights of the Bri- 
tish Nation and Constitution Vindicated/ 

1710, pp. 81-8. 5. ' Annotations on the 
"Tatler, written in French by Monsieur 
Bournelle, and translated into English by 
Walter Wagstaff/ 1710, 2 pts. They were 
marked by great eccentricity. 6. ' Essay on 
Private Judgment in Religious Matters' 
(anon.), 1711. Lintot paid 15/. 1*. for it. 
7. 'Reasons for restoring the Whigs' (anon.), 

1711, Probably satirical. The sum paid for 
it by Lintot was 2/. 12*. 8. ' The Iliad of 
Homer/ a prose translation, with notes, 1712, 

5 vols. ; 1714 and 1734, 5 vols. Oldisworth 
translated boosts 16 to end; his coadjutors 
were John Ozell [q. v.] and William Broome 
[q. v.] 9. ' The Odes, Epodes, and Carmen 
Saeculare of Horace, in Latin and English. 
With a translation of Dr. Bentley's Notes. To 
which are added Notes upon Notes, done in 
the Bentleian stile and manner ' (24 pts., Qd. 
each), 1712-13, 3 vols. Reissued with title- 
page dated 1713, 2 vols., as ' by several 
nands,' though some of the parts are dated 
1725. The translations were published se- 
parately as ' The Odes, Epodes, and Carmen 
Stoeculare of Horace in English verse. By 
Mr. William Oldisworth/ 2nd edit. 1719. 



These versions are described in ' Notes and 
Queries/ 3rd ser. viii. 229, as ' uniformly good, 
and frequently very elegant.' Monk, however, 
in his ' Life of Bentley, condemns the ' Notes 
upon Notes ' as ' miserably vapid ; and their 
unvaried sneer is tiresome and nauseous.' 
10. 'State Tracts/ 1714. 11. 'Works of 
late Edmund Smith. With his Character 
by Mr. Oldisworth/ 1714; embodied by 
Johnson in the ' Lives of the Poets ' as 
written 'with all the partiality of friend- 
ship/ though, he adds, ' I cannot much com- 
mend the performance. The praise is often 
indistinct, and the sentences are loaded with 
words of more pomp than use.' 12. ' State 
and Miscellany Poems, by Author of " Ex- 
aminer," ' 1715. 13. ' Callipaedia ; or the Art 
of getting pretty children. Translated from 
Latin of Claudius Quilletus/ 1729. 14. ' De- 
lightful Adventures of Honest John Cole, 
that Merry Old Soul '(anon.), 1732. 15. 'The 
Accomplished Senator; from the Latin of 
Bishop Laurence Grimald Gozliski/ 1738. 
In an elaborate preface Oldisworth defends 
his character and asserts his independence. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Nichols's 
Lib. Anecd. i. 151-2; Hearne's Collections, ed. 
Bliss, ii. 837, 849, ed. Doble, ii. 190, 395, 463 ; 
Rawlinson MSS. (Bodl. Libr.), v. 108, per Mr. F. 
Madan.] W. P. C. 

OLDMIXON, JOHN (1673-1742}, his- 
torian and pamphleteer, was a member of 
an ancient family which had been settled 
at Axbridge, Somerset, as early as the 
fourteenth century, and afterwards held the 
manor of Oldmixon, near Bridgwater. The 
historian's father, John Oldmixon of Old- 
mixon, gentleman, by his will of 1675, proved 
in April 1679 by his daughters Hannah and 
Sarah Oldmixon, left to his son John his 
best cabinet ; and when Elinor Oldmixon of 
Bridgwater, widow, died in 1689, letters of 
administration were granted to her children, 
John Oldmixon and Hannah Legg. Old- 
mixon's mother seems to have been sister to 
Sir John Bawden, knight and merchant, 
whose will was proved in the same year 
(Crisp, Abstracts of Somerset Wills, copied 
from Collections of the Rev. F. Brown, 3rd 
ser. p. 24, 4th ser. p. 106, 6th ser. p. 5; 
Weaver, Visitations of Somerset, p. 56, and 
Somerset Incumbents, pp. 76, 109, 223, 281. 

In his ' History of the Stuarts ' (pp. 421), 
Oldmixon, speaking of the disinterment of 
the remains of Admiral Blake, a native of 
Bridgwater, says that he lived while a boy 
with Blake's brother Humphrey, who after- 
wards emigrated to Carolina. Mr. John Kent 
of Funchal has pointed out that Oldmixon 
was in all probability author of the * History 
and Life oi Robert filake . . . written by a 

i2 



Oldmixon 



116 



Oldmixon 



Gentleman bred in his Family/ which ap- 
peared without date about 1740, and con- 
tains a quotation from * a modern historian/ 
who is Oldmixon himself. The political views 
are certainly in accordance with Oldmixon's. 

In 1696, when Oldmixon was twenty- 
three, he published ' Poems on several Occa- ; 
sions, written in Imitation of the Manner of ( 
Anacreon, with other Poems, Letters, and 
Translations/ and a dedication to Lord Ash- 
ley, in which he said that most of the poems 
were written by a person in love. In 1697 he 
wrote ' Thyrsis, a Pastoral/ which formed 
the fir3t act of Motteux's ' Novelty, or Every 
Act a Play ; ' and in 1698 * Amintas, a Pas- 
toral/ based on Tasso's ' Amynta.' This play 
had a prologue by John Dennis, but was not 
successful on the stage. In the same year 
Oldmixon published ' A Poem humbly ad- 
drest to the Right Hon. the Earl of Port- 
land on his Lordship's Return from his Em- 
bassy in France/ in which he refers to Prior ; 
and in 1700 he produced at Drury Lane an 
opera, ' The Grove, or Love's Paradise/ The 
music was by Purcell, and the epilogue by 
Farquhar. His last and best play, 'The 
Governor of Cyprus/ a tragedy, was acted at 
Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1703. It was fol- 
lowed by ' Amores Britannici : Epistles His- 
torical and Gallant, in English heroic Verse, 
from several of the most illustrious Person- 
ages of their Time/ 1703, and 'A Pastoral 
Poem on the Victories at Schellenburgh and 
Blenheim/ 1704, dedicated to the Duchess 
of Marlborough. From January 1707 to 
January 1708 Oldmixon published a quarto 
periodical, ' The Muses Mercury, or the 
Monthly Miscellany/ which contained verses 
by Steele, Garth, Motteux, and others (Ait- 
ken, Life of Richard Steele, i. 147, 151-2, 
192). 

Oldmixon's work as an historian began in 
1708, when he published in two volumes 
' The British Empire in America/ a history 
of the several colonies written to show the 
advantage to England of the American plan- 
tations. In 1709-10 he published * The His- 
tory of Addresses/ a criticism of the profes- 
sions of loyalty then, as at former political 
crises, so freely presented to the sovereign. 
In 1711 he wrote to Lord Halifax, protest- 
ing that a book of his— * The Works of 
Monsieur Boileau, made English by several 
Hands' (1711-13) — had been dedicated to his 
lordship in another man's name, and without 
his consent or knowledge. Having quarrelled 
with the publisher, he had refused to complete 
the work ; but the missing poems had been 
supplied by Samuel Cobb [q. v.] and John 
Ozell [q. v.] He had had no opportunity to 
correct mistakes, and Nicholas Rowe, the 



translator of the ' Lutrin/ had assumed the 
merit of the whole work (Add. MS. 7121, 
f. 39). 

On 5 Oct. 1710 appeared the first number 
of 'The Medley/ a weekly paper, which fol- 
lowed 4-ddison's 'Whig Examiner' in re- 
plying to the tory ' Examiner ' {Catalogue of 
the Hope Collection of Early Newspapers in 
the Bodleian Library, pp. 22, 23). ' The Med- 
ley/ which lasted until August 1711, was 
started at the suggestion of Arthur Main- 
waring or Maynwaring [q. v.], and was writ- 
ten by him, with the aid of Oldmixon (who 
had been recommended to Maynwaring by 
Garth) and occasional assistance from Hen- 
ley, Kennet, and Steele. In 1712 the papers 
were reprinted in a volume, but, as there 
was little sale, the impression was thrown on 
Oldmixon's hands, to nis loss (Life of Arthur 
Maynwaring ,E$q.,V7\b, pp. xiv, 167-9, 171). 
Gay, in 'The Present State of Wit/ 1711, 
spoke of the author of ' The Medley ' as a 
man of good sense, but ' for the most part 
perfectly a stranger to fine writing;' and he 
attributed to Maynwaring the few papers 
which were decidedly superior to the others. 
Oldmixon says that he was to have had 100/. 
down and 100/. a year for his work upon 
'The Medley/ but that he was never paid 
(Memoirs of the Press, 1742, p. 13). His 
anonymous ' Reflections on Dr. Swift's Let- 
ter to the Earl of Oxford about the English 
Tongue' (1712) was a political attack; and 
it was followed in the same year by ' The 
Dutch Barrier Ours, or the Interest of Eng- 
land and Holland inseparable/ an answer to 
the ' Conduct of the Allies.' 

In 1712 Oldmixon published two parts of 
' The Secret History of Europe/ in order to 
expose the faction which had brought Europe 
to the brink of slavery by advancing the 
power of France. A third part appeared in 
1713, and a fourth in 1715, with a dedication 
to the Prince of Wales, explaining that the 
accession of George I had made it possible 
to bring the design to an end. Similar works 
were ' Arcana Gallica, or the Secret History 
of France for the last Century/ 1714 ; ' Me- 
moirs of North Britain/ 1715 ; and 'Memoirs 
of Ireland from the Restoration to the Present 
Times/ 1716, in all of which the designs of 
papists and Stuarts against the protest ant 
religion and the British constitution were 
exposed. The anonymous ' Life and History 
of Belisarius . . . and a Parallel between 
Him and a Modern Heroe' (Marlborough) 
appeared in 1713, and in 1715 ' The Life and 
Posthumous Works of Arthur Maynwaring, 
Esq./ with a dedication to Walpole, in 
which, as well as in the preface, Oldmixon 
spoke of his own services to the party, and 



Oldmixon 



117 



Oldmixon 



of the neglect he had experienced. In the 
'Memoirs of the Press' he says that he 
saw much time-serving at the accession of 
George I, and men of different principles 
included in the ministry, whereupon, know- 
ing the evil that followed from a similar 
course under William III, he wrote a pam- 
phlet, 'False Steps of the Ministry after 
the Revolution/ As an illustration of the 
way he was treated, he describes how he was 
disappointed in his efforts to obtain a com- 
mission as consul in Madeira for the princi- 
pal merchant in that island, who was his 
own kinsman, though Stanhope had pro- 
mised Garth that it snould be done. Nearly 
two years after the king's accession Oldmixon 
was offered the post of collector of the port 
of Bridgwater. It was represented that the 
profits were double the real amount, and he 
says that in a month after accepting the 
omce he wished himself back in London, but 
relatives and friends persuaded him to stay 
(ib. p. 33). 'Mist's Weekly Journal' for 
26 July 1718 noticed that Oldmixon had re- 
tired from his garret to Bridgwater, and 
was intelligencer-general for that place to 
the ' Flying Post/ A satirical list of a dozen 
treatises which might be expected from him 
was added. 

At Bridgwater Oldmixon acted as a sort of 
political agent (State Papers, Public Record 
Office, Dom., 1719, bundle 19,Nos. 131, 138, 
161), and was twice in trouble with the local 
authorities in 1718. The mayor summoned 
him to appear before him to disclose the 
names of certain persons who had paraded 
the streets crying ' Ormond for ever : he is 
come;' and the sexton and parish clerk laid 
an information that Oldmixon and others 
frequented the presbyterian and anabaptist 
conventicles, though of late they had come 
to the church (Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep., 

5. 319). In December 1718 Oldmixon asked 
acob Tonson to speak to the Duke of New- 
castle that he might succeed Rowe as poet- 
laureate, a post he would have had before, as 
Garth knew, but for Rowe. He was now 
banished in a corner of the kingdom, sur- 
rounded by Jacobites, vilified and insulted. 
He was, he said, the oldest claimant, and his 
present life was not worth living (Add. MS. 
28275, f. 46). He did not get the laureate- 
ship, however, and in 1720 other letters to 
Tonson contained further complaints of si igh t, 
and requests for money due to him (ib. u. 84, 
95, 133). 

At this time Clarendon's ' History of the 
Rebellion' was much discussed, and Old- 
mixon felt it necessary to set the facts of 
history in a truer lignt. In his ' Critical 
History of England,' in two volumes, which 



appeared in 1724-6, he attacked Clarendon 
and Laurence Echard [q. v.], and defended 
Bishop Burnet. Dr. Zachary Grey [q. v.l 
replied with a ' Defence of our antient ana 
modern Historians against the frivolous Ca- 
vils of a late Pretender to Critical History,' 
and this was followed by OldmixonV Review 
of Dr. Zachary Grey's Defence,' 1725, and 
' Clarendon and Whitlock comparM,' 1727, 
in which he hinted that Clarendon's editors 
had taken undue liberties with the text. It 
is interesting to find that Dr. Cotton 
Mather, having made Oldmixon's acquaint- 
ance, highly praised the ' Critical History ' 
for truthfulness in his ' Manuductio ad Mi- 
nisterium,' published at Boston, Massachu- 
setts, in 1726, though he had previously re- 
sented reflections made by Oldmixon on his 
' History of New England ' (Nichols, Lit. 
Anecd. li. 545). 

In 1728 Oldmixon printed ' An Essay on 
Criticism as it regards Design, Thought, and 
Expression, in Prose and Verse,' and ' The 
Arts of Logick and Rhetorick,' based upon a 
work by Father Bouhours. In these pieces 
he attacked Laurence Eusden the laureate, 
Echard, Addison, Swift, and Pope. He had 
already incurred Pope's anger in connection 
with the publication of ' Court Poems,' 1717 
(Pope, ed. Elwin and Courthope, vi. 436; 
Curliad, 1729, pp. 20, 21), and various articles 
in the ' Flying Post ' for April 1728, and he is 
said to have written a ballad, ' The Catholic 
Priest,' 1716, which was an attack on Pope's 
' Homer ' (ib. pp. 27-31). Pope revenged 
himself by giving Oldmixon a place in the 
* Dunciad ' (bk. ii. 11. 283-90), and in the < Art 
of Sinking in Poetry' (ch. vi.) Oldmixon 
figures also in the ' Revenge by Poison on the 
Body of Mr. Edmund Curll,' and « A further 
Account of the most deplorable Condition 
of Mr. Edmund Curll.' Steele is said to 
have satirised him in the ' Tatler,' No. 62, 
as Omicron, the unborn poet ; but this is im- 
probable, especially in view of the remarks in 
No. 71. 

After three years of work, and at con- 
siderable expense, Oldmixon brought out in 
1730, or rather the end of 1729, * The His- 
tory of England during the Reigns of the 
Royal House of Stuart, a folio volume that 
was afterwards to be followed by others 
which, taken together, make up a con- 
tinuous history of England. In this book 
he charged the editors of Clarendon's * His- 
tory' — Atterbury, Smalridge, and Aldrich 
— with altering the text to suit party pur- 
poses, basing his statements on wnat he had 
been told by George Duckett [q. v.], who 
in his turn had received information from 
Edmund Smith [q. v.] Bishop Atterbury 



Oldmixon 



118 



Oldmixon 




which was reprinted in London. Other pam- 



phlets, including a ' Renly ' by Oldmixon 
and ' Mr. Oldm ixon's Reply . . . examined,' 
followed in 1732, containing vindications of 
the Earl of Clarendon and of the Stuarts, 
and charges Oldmixon with himself altering 
Daniel's * History/ which he had edited for 
Kennet's ' Complete History of England ' in 
1706. In June 1733 Oldmixon printed and 

give away at his house in Southampton 
uildings * A Reply to the groundless and 
unjust Reflections upon him in three Weekly 
Miscellanies ' {Gent, Mag. 1731, p. 514; 
1733, pp. 117,129, 140, 335). It is true that 
the earlier editions of Clarendon did not give 
the manuscript in its complete form, but Old- 
mixon had no sufficient ground for the ex- 
plicit charges which he made, and passages 
which he said were interpolations were after- 
wards found in Lord Clarendon's handwriting 
{Edinburgh Review, June 1826, pp. 42-6). 
Dr. Johnson unfairly said {Idler, No. 65) 
that the authenticity of Clarendon's * His- 
tory ' was brought in question * by the two 
lowest of all human beings — a scribbler for 
a party and a commissioner of excise,' i.e. 
Oldmixon and Duckett. The second volume 
of Oldmixon's history, ' The History of Eng- 
land during the Reigns of King William and 
Queen Mary, Queen Anne, King George I: 
With a large Vindication of the Author 
against the groundless Charge of Partiality,' 
appeared in 1735; and the third, 'The His- 
tory of England during the Reigns of 
Henry VIII, Edward VI, Queen Mary, 
Queen Elizabeth,' in 1739. One main object 
was to show that our constitution was origi- 
nally free, and that we do not owe our liberty 
to the generosity of kings. 

In 1730, owing, it is said, to Queen Caro- 
line's interest, Walpole ordered Oldmixon's 
salary of 1 00/. at Bridgwater to be doubled, 
but the money was irregularly paid (Memoirs 
of the Frets, pp. 46, 47), while the promised 
increase gave rise to a report that Oldmixon 
was a court writer. Moreover, during the 
three vears which Oldmixon spent in town 

Ereparing the second volume of the 'History ' 
is deputy involved him in a debt to the 
crown which after inquiry was reduced to 
360/., but Oldmixon was ordered to pay it at 
once. This he managed to do from the ar- 
rears of his allowance of 100/. which the 
queen directed to be paid him. To ease him- 
self of his troubles, Oldmixon, who was lamed 
by an attack of gout, soon resigned. In 
July 1741 he wrote to the Duke of New- 
castle in great trouble and distraction. ' I 



am now dragged/ he wrote, ' to a place I 
cannot mention, in the midst of all the in- 
firmities of old age, sickness, lameness, and 
almost blindness, and without the means 
even of subsisting ' {Add. MS. 32697, f. 
308). His last work ' Memoirs of the Press, 
Historical and Political, for Thirty Years Past, 
from 1710 to 1740,' with a dedication to the 
Duchess of Marlborough, was not published 
until immediately after his death {London 
Magazine, 1742, p. 364). In the postscript 
Oldmixon asked those who wished to show 
their concern for his misfortunes to subscribe 
towards a ' History of Christianity ' which 
he had written some years earlier, on the 
basis of Basnage's ' Histoire de la Religion 
des Eglises reformGes.' 

Oldmixon died on 9 July 1742, aged 69, 
at his house in Great Pulteney Street, having 
married in 1703 Elizabeth Parry (the license 
was granted on 3 March at the faculty 
office of the Archbishop of Canterbury). He 
was buried at Ealing on the 12th, near his 
son and daughter (Lysons, Environs of Lon- 
don, 1795, ii. 236). Another son, George, died 
on 15 May 1779, a^ed 68 (Faulkner, His- 
tory and Antiquities of Brentford, Ealing, 
and Chiswick, 1845, p. 194). One daughter, 
presumably Mrs. Eleanora Marella (Crisp, 
Somerset Wills, 4th ser. p. 106), sang at 
Hickford's Rooms in 1746 ; and another, 
Hannah Oldmixon of Newland, Gloucester- 
shire, died in 1789, aged 84 {Gent Mag. 
1789, p. 89). A Sir John Oldmixon died in 
America in 1818; but nothing seems to be 
known of the title, or whether he was related 
to the historian (Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. 
xi. 399, xii. 76). 

Besides the books already mentioned, Old- 
mixon published ' Court Tales,' 1717, and a 
' Life' prefixed to ' Nixon's Cheshire Prophecy,' 
1719, besides, of course, anonvmous pam- 
phlets, translations, &c, which have been 
forgotten. Of these the i History and Life 
of Robert Blake' has been already mentioned. 
His historical work has little value now, 
as his main object in writing it was to pro- 
mote the cause of his party. He never 
hesitated in attacking those on the otherside, 
whether dead or living. 

[Oldmixon's Memoirs of the Press is the chief 
source of information for his life. There are 
short sketches in the Biog. Dram, and Cibber's 
Lives of the Poets; and other particulars will 
be found in Nichols's Lit. A need. i. 562, ii. 538- 
530, iv. 85, viii. 170, 298; Nichols's Lit. Illus- 
trations, iv. 186, 282 ; Swift's Works, ed. Scott, 
i. 128, 157, vi. 168, xiii. 227, 234-5 ; Pope's 
Works, eo\ Elwin and Courthorpe, ii. 59, iii. 
24, 252, 261, 435, iv. 56, 334, 338, vi. 436, ix. 
63, x. 206, 362, 467, 474 ; Genest's History of 



Oldsworth 



119 



Oldys 



the Stage, ii. 116, 103, 280-1 ; Lowndes's Bibl. 
Manual (articles ' Oldmixon ' and ' Clarendon ') ; 
Disraeli's Calamities of Authors ; Monthly Chro- 
nicle, 1729, pp. 225-6, 1731, p. 181 ; Hist.MSS. 
Comm. 3rd Rep. pp. 304, 306-7, 350, 362; 
Collinson's Hist, of Somerset, iii. 591.] 

G. A. A. 

OLDSWORTH. [See Oldiswoeth.] 

OLDYS or OLDIS, VALENTINE (1620- 
1685), poet, son of Valentine Oldis, was born 
in 1620, and educated at Cambridge. He was 
made M.D. of Cambridge per literas regias 
on 6 Oct. 1671, and honorary member of the 
College of Physicians on 30 Sept. 1680. He 
died in 1685, and was buried near his father 
in Great St. Helen's, by St. Mary Axe. Oldis 

Sublished ' A Poem on the Restoration of 
Limj Charles/ 1660, fol., and was a patron 
of literature and men of letters. He is 
among the contributors of commendatory 
verses to Henry Bo Id's 'Poems Lyrique, 
Macaronique, Heroique, &c./ London, 1664, 
and has one of the poems in the volume ad- 
dressed to him. He also contributed to 
Alexander Brome's ' Songs, and other Poems,' 
London, 1664. John Phillips dedicated to 
Oldis his ' Macaronides : or Virgil Travesty/ 
London, 1673. 

[Memoirs of the Family of Oldys, Birch MS. 
4240 (Brit. Mus.) ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 415 ; 
Corser's Collectanea Anglo-Poetica, iv. 1, 34, 36; 
Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary, xxiii. 339.] 

R. B. 

OLDYS, WILLIAM (1696-1761 ), Norroy 
king-of-arms and antiquary, born, according 
to his own statement, on 14 July 1696, pro- 
bably in London, was the natural son of Dr. 
William Oldys (1636-1708), an eminent 
civil lawyer. 

The antiquary's grandfather, William 
Oldys (1591P-1645), born about 1591 at 
Whitwell, Dorset, was a scholar of Win- 
chester College from 1605, and subsequently 
graduated from New College, Oxford (B.A. 
1614, M.A. 1618, B.D. 1626, D.D. 1643). He 
was proctor in the university in 1623, and 
vicar of Adderbury, Oxfordshire, from 1627 
till his death. As a devoted royalist he ren- 
dered himself during the civil war obnoxious 
to the supporters of the parliament in his 
neighbourhood, and, fearful of their threats, 
he concealed himself for a time in Banbury. 
In 1645 he met by arrangement his wife and a 
son, when on a journey either to Winchester 
or Oxford, and resolved to ride a part of the 
way with them. Some parliamentary soldiers 
had, however, learnt of his intention, and 
intercepted him on the road. He fled before 
them in the direction of Adderbury, but when 
he arrived in front of his own house, his horse 



refused to go further. One of his pursuers 
consequently overtook him, and shot him 
dead (Walkek, Sufferings of the Clergy, ii. 
323). A tablet in the chancel of Adderbury 
Church bears a long Latin inscription to his 
memory. He married Margaret (d. 1705), 
daughter of the Rev. Ambrose Sacheverell, 
and left eleven children (W t ood, Fasti Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, ii. 54 ; Bbesley, Hist, of Banbury, 
pp. 397, 604). 

Of these, William the civilian, born at Ad- 
derbury in 1636, gained a scholarship at Win- 
chester in 1648, was fellow of New College 
from 1655 to 1671 (B.C.L. 1661,D.C.L. 1667), 
and was admitted an advocate of Doctors' 
Commons in 1670. He became advocate of the 
admiralty and chancellor of the diocese of Lin- 
coln. He was removed from the former office 
in 1693 for refusing to pronounce the sailors 
acting against England under the orders of 
James II guilty of treason and piracy {Notes 
and Queries, 3rd ser. i. 417). He unsuccess- 
fully contested the parliamentary representa- 
tion of Oxford University in 1705, and con- 
tributed the life of Pompey to the co-operative 
translation of Plutarch (1683-6), in which 
Dryden took part. He died at Kensington 
in 1708. His * great library ' was purchased 
by the College of Advocates at Doctors' Com- 
mons, whose books were finally dispersed by 
sale in 1861. He was unmarried, but he 
' maintained a mistress in a very penurious 
and private manner' (Coote, English Civilians, 
1804, p. 95). In his will he devised * to his 
loving cozen, Mrs. Ann Oldys, his two house* 
at Kensington, with the residue of his pro- 
perty/ and appointed ' the said Ann Oldys 
whole and sole ' executrix of his will. Ann 
Oldys was the mother of the future king- 
of-arms. By her will, proved in 1711, she 
gave, after two or three trifling bequests, 
'all her estate, real and personal, to her 
loving friend Benjamin Jackman, of the said 
Kensington, upon trust, for the benefit of 
her son William Oldys/ and she left to 
Jackman the tuition and guardianship of her 
son during his minority. 

After the death of his parents, William 
the antiquary made his way in life by his 
own abilities. In 1720 he was one of the 
sufferers in the South Sea bubble, and was 
thus involved in a long and expensive lawsuit. 
In 1724 he removed to Yorkshire, leaving 
his books and manuscripts in the care of 
Burridge, his landlord. The next six years 
he chiefly spent at the seat of the first Earl 
of Mai ton, a friend of his youth. Oldys 
was at Leeds soon after the aeath of Ralph 
Thoresby the antiquary in 1725, and paid a 
visit to his celebrated museum (Oldys, Life 
of Raleigh, 1736, p. xxxi). He remained in 



Oldys 



1 20 



Oldys 



Yorkshire for about six years, and apparently 
assisted Dr. Knowler in editing the ' Earl 
of Strafforde'8 Letters and Despatches/ 
2 vols. 1739. In 1729 he wrote an * Essay 
on Epistolary Writings, with respect to the 
Grand Collection of Thomas, earl of Straf- 
ford/ dedicated to the Earl of Malton. While 
on a visit to Wentworth House he witnessed 
the wilful destruction of the collections of 
the antiquary Richard Gascoigne [q. v.], con- 
sisting of seven great chests of manuscripts 
[see Gascoigne, Richakd, 1579-1661 ?]. 

On returning to London in 1730, Oldys 
discovered that Burridge had dispersed his 
books and papers. The former included Lang- 
baine's ' Dramatick Poets/ with manuscript 
notes and references by Oldys. This anno- 
tated volume had passed into the possession 
of Thomas Coxeter, who, says Oldys in his 
second annotated copy of Langbaine, ' kept it 
so carefully from my sight that I never could 
have the opportunity of transcribing into 
this [volume which] I am now writing in the 
notes I had collected in that/ The Dook in 
question afterwards belonged to Theophilus 
Gibber [q. v.], and from the notes of Oldys 
and Coxeter was derived the principal part 
of the additional matter furnished by Cibber 

ior rather by Shiels) for the ' Lives of the 
>oets/ 5 vols. 1753, 12mo. To the ' Uni- 
versal Spectator ' of Henry Stonecastle [see 
Bakbe, Henby, 1698-1774] Oldys contri- 
buted about twenty papers between 1728 and 
1731 . While in 1/30 Samuel Burroughs and 
others were engaged in a project for printing 
the 'Negotiations of Sir Thomas Roe/ Oldys 
drew up ' Some Considerations upon the Pub- 
lication of Sir Thomas Roe's Epistolary Col- 
lections ' (now in the British Museum, Addit. 
MS. 4168). 

Oldys had by 1731 brought together a 
valuable library. It contained ' collections 
of manuscripts, historical and political, which 
had been the Earl of Clarendon's; collec- 
tions of Royal Letters, and other papers of 
State ; together with a very large collection 
of English heads in sculpture, which alone 
had taken [him] some years to collect at the 
expense of at least three score pounds.' In 
the course of the same year he became 
acquainted with Edward Harley, second 
earl of Oxford [q. v.], who purchased for 40/., 
with the prospect of * a more substantial 
recompense hereafter/ Oldys's collections, 
'with the catalogues ' he had drawn 'up of 
them at his lordship's request.' 

Oldys had free access to Harley's cele- 
brated library, and one result of his studies 
there was the publication of 'A Dissertation 
upon Pamphlets. In a Letter to a Noble- 
man ' [probably the Earl of Oxford], London, 



1 731 , 4to. It reappeared in Morgan's * Phoenix 
Britannicus/ London, 1732, 4to, and in 
Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes ' (iv. 98-111). 
Oldys also contributed to the * Phoenix Bri- 
tannicus ' (p. 65) a bibliographical history 
of ' A Short View of the Long Life and 
Raiffne of Henry the Third, King of Eng- 
land : presented to King James by Sir Robert 
Cotton, but not printed till 1627.' Accord- 
ing to Dr. Ducarel, Oldys wrote in the* Scar- 
borough Miscellany/ 1732-4. John Taylor, 
the author of ' Monsieur Tonson/ informed 
Isaac DTsraeli that ' Oldys always asserted 
that he was the author of the well-known 



song 



Busy, curious, thirsty fly ! 



which first appeared in the 'Scarborough 
Miscellany ' for 1732. 

The London booksellers employed Oldys 
in 1736 to see through the press a new edi- 
tion of Sir Walter Raleigh's ' History of the 
World.' To this edition (2 vols. 1736, fol.) 
is prefixed ' The Life of the Author, newly 
compil'd, from Materials more ample and 
authentick than have yet been publish'd, by 
Mr. Oldys/ The ' Life ' occupies 282 pages, 
and embodies much labour and research. It 
was reprinted in 1740, 8vo, and was prefixed 
to the collected edition of Raleigh's * Works/ 
8 vols. Oxford, 1829. Gibbon meditated a 
' Life of Raleigh/ but he relinquished the 
design from a conviction that ' his ambition, 
exclusive of the uncertain merit of style and 
sentiment, must be confined to the hope of 
giving a good abridgment of Oldys ' (Gibbon, 
Miscellaneous Works, 1837, p. 68). 

The ' Life of Raleigh ' greatly increased 
Oldys's fame. He was frequently consulted 
at his chambers in Gray's Inn on obscure 
and obsolete writers by eminent men of let- 
ters. He aided Thomas Hayward in com- 
piling his ' British Muse/ and Mrs. Cooper 
in her ' Muses' Library/ and his jottings for 
a life of Nell Gwynne he gave to Edmund 
Curll. In 1737 Oldys published anony- 
mously his ' British Librarian : exhibiting 
a Compendious Review or Abstract of our 
most scarce, useful, and valuable Books in 
all Sciences, as well in Manuscript as in 
Print : with many Characters, historical 
and critical, of the Authors, their Anta- 
gonists, &c, in a manner never before at- 
tempted, and useful to all readers/ London, 
1738, 8vo. It was originally brought out as 
a monthly serial, in six numbers, from 
January to June 1737, though the post- 
script is signed < Gray's Inn, Feb. 18, 1737/ 
i.e. 1737-8. The work contains curious de- 
tails of works now excessively rare (cf. 
Dibdin, Bibliomania, ed. 1842, p. 62). 



Oldys 



121 



Oldys 



In 1738 he was appointed literary secre- 
tary to the Earl of Oxford, with a salary of 
200/., and during his brief tenure of this 
office he frequently met George Vertue, 
Alexander Pope, and others. At the death 
of the earl in 1741 he received about three- 
quarters of a year's salary, on which he lived 
as long as it lasted, and for the next fourteen 
years earned his bread by literary drudgery 
for the booksellers. In 1742 Thomas Osborne 
[q. v.] the bookseller purchased for 13,000/. 
the collection of printed books, consisting 
of 20,748 volumes, that had belonged to the 
Earl of Oxford, and, intending to dispose of 
them by sale, projected an elaborate classi- 
fied and descriptive catalogue. The editors 
selected by Osborne were Dr. Johnson and 
Oldys, who worked together at the task for 
several years. While the catalogue was pro- 
gressing Osborne issued proposals for print- 
ing by subscription ' The Harleian Mis- 
cellany ; or a Collection of scarce, curious, 
and entertaining Tracts and Pamphlets found 
in the late Earl of Oxford's Library, inter- 
spersed with historical, political, and critical 
Notes.' Johnson supplied the ' Proposals ' 
or 'An Account of this Undertaking/ as 
well as the preface to this work (8 vols. 
1744-6, 4to), while Oldys selected and edited 
the pamphlets. Oldys also drew up and 
annotated ' A Copious and Exact Catalogue 
of Pamphlets in the Harleian Library/ 4to, 
which is a choice specimen of ' recreative 
bibliography.' This was issued in fragments 
with the ' Harleian Miscellany/ and also in 
a separate form. It was reprinted by Park in 
the last edition of the ' Harleian Miscellany ' 
(x. 357-471). A new edition of 'Health's 
Improvement/ by Thomas Moffett [q. v.], ap- 

E eared in 1746, with a memoir of the author 
y Oldys, whose connection with Osborne 
then terminated. The editorship of Michael 
Drayton's ' "Works/ 1748, has been attributed 
to him, but he only furnished the ' His- 
torical Essay ' to that edition and to the one 
of 1753. 

Between 1747 and 1760 Oldvs contri- 
buted to the first edition of the ' fiiographia 
Br i tannics ' twenty-two exhaustive articles. 
A tabular description of his labours on this 
important work is given by Bolton Corney, 
who says : ' It may be safely asserted that 
no one of the contributors to the " Bio- 
graphia Britannica " has produced a richer 
proportion of inedited facts than William 
Oldys ; and he seems to have consulted 
every species of the more accessible autho- 
rities, from the " Fcedera " of Rymer to the 
inscription on a print. His united articles, 
set up as the text of Chalmers, would occupy 
about a thousand octavo pages' (Curiosities 



of Literature Illustrated, ed. 1838, p. 177). 
In 1778, when Dr. Kippis undertook the 
editorship of the second edition of the ' Bio- 
graphia Britannica/ he secured a portion of 
Oldys's manuscript biographical collections, 
which were quoted in tne articles ' Arabella 
Stuart/ ' John Barclay/ ' Mary Beale/ ' W. 
Browne/ and * Samuel Butler. 

From 1751 to 1753 Oldys was involved in 
pecuniary difficulties, and, being unable to 
discharge the rent due for his chambers in 
Gray's Inn, he was compelled to remove to 
the "Fleet prison. In 1753 he, in conjunction 
with John Taylor the oculist, published 
' Observations on the Cure of William Tay- 
lor, the Blind Boy of Ightham in Kent.' 
Oldys remained in confinement till Mr. 
Southwell of Cockermouth (brother of the 
second Lord Southwell) and other friends 
procured his release ( Gent. Mag. 1784, pt. i. 
p. 260). John Taylor, however, states that 
it was the Duke of Norfolk who paid his 
debts and thus obtained his liberty. Soon 
afterwards the duke procured for him the 
situation of Norroy king-of-arms. He was 
created Norfolk herald-extraordinary at the 
College of Arms by the Earl of Effingham, 
deputy earl-marshal, on 15 April 1755, to 
qualify him for the office of Norroy, to 
which he was appointed by patent on 5 May 
following (Noble, College of Arms , pp. 386, 
419). Oldys appointed as his deputy Ed- 
ward Orme of Chester, the compiler of 
pedigrees for Cheshire families. ' The heralds/ 
says Noble, 'had reason to be displeased 
with Oldys's promotion to a provincial king- 
ship. The College, however, will always 
be pleased with ranking so good a writer 
among their body.' Francis Grose, Rich- 
mond herald, asserts that Oldys was accus- 
tomed to indulge ' in deep potations in ale/ 
and was so intoxicated at the funeral of the 
Princess Caroline that he reeled about while 
carrying the coronet on a cushion. In refu- 
tation of this story Noble pointed out that 
the crown, when borne at the funeral of a 
king or queen, or the coronet at the burial 
of a prince or princess, is always carried by 
Clarenceux, and not by Norroy. In a con- 
temporary account of the funeral of the 
Princess Caroline, however, it is distinctly 
stated that the body was preceded by * Norroy, 
king-of-arms, carrying tne crown on a black 
velvet cushion ' ( Gent. Mag. 1737, p. 765 ; 
Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. iii. 514). 

Oldys was connected with the College of 
Arms for nearly five years. His library was 
the large room up one flight of stairs in 
Norroy's apartments, in the west wing of 
the college. His notes were written on slips 
of paper, which he afterwards classified and 



Oldys 



122 



Oldys 



deposited in parchment bags suspended on 
the walls of his room. In this way he 
covered several quires of paper with laborious 
collections for a complete Life of * Shake- 
speare/ and from these notes Isaac Reed 
made extracts which are included among the 
' Additional Anecdotes ' appended to Rowe's 
life of the poet. At this period Oldys fre- 
quently passed his evenings at the house of 
John Taylor the oculist of Hatton Garden, 
where he always preferred the fireside in the 
kitchen, so that he might not be obliged to 
mingle with the other visitors. His last 
literary production was ' The Life of Charles 
Cotton/ prefixed to Sir John Hawkins's 
edition of Walton's 4 Compleat Angler/ 1760. 
He died at his apartments in the College of 
Arms on 15 April 1761, and was buried on 
the 19th in the north aisle of the church of 
St. Benet, Paul's Wharf. His friend John 
Taylor on 20 June 1761 administered as 
principal creditor, defrayed the funeral ex- 
penses, and obtained possession of his official 
regalia, books, and valuable manuscripts. 
The original painting of Oldys, formerly 
belonging to Taylor, was believed in 1862 to 
be in the possession of Mr. J. H. Burn of 
Bow Street. An engraving from it by 
Balston appeared in the 'European Maga- 
zine ' for November 1796. 

Some of the printed books belonging to 
Oldys were enriched with manuscript addi- 
tions of great value. His first annotated 
copy of Lanjjbaine's ' Dramatick Poets ' 
passed out of his hands [see Langbaine, Ge- 
rabd, the younger]. In 1727 he purchased a 
second Langbaine, and continued to annotate 
it till the latest period of his life. This copy 
was purchased by Dr. Birch, who bequeathed 
it to the British Museum. It is not inter- 
leaved, but filled with notes written in the 
margins and between the lines in an ex- 
tremely small hand. Birch granted the loan 
of it to Dr. Percy, bishop of Dromore, who 
made a transcript of the notes into an inter- 
leaved copy of Langbaine in 4 vols. 8vo. It 
was from Bishop Percy's copy that Joseph 
Haslewood annotated his Langbaine, which 
is now in the British Museum. George 
Steevens likewise made a transcript of Oldys's 
notes into a copy of Langbaine, which is 
also now in the British Museum, having 
passed through the hands of Sir Samuel 
Brydges and Dr. Bliss. Malone, Isaac Reed, 
and the Rev. Rogers Ruding [q. v.] also made 
transcripts of Oldys's notes. The Malone 
transcript is now at Oxford, but Ruding's 
has not been traced. In Heber's i Catalogue ' 
(pt. iv. No. 1215) is noticed another copy of 
Langbaine, with many important additions 
by Oldys, Steevens, and Reed. In 1845 



Edward Vernon Utterson had an inter- 
leaved Langbaine, but it is not known what 
became of it. It is hardly possible to take 
up any work on the history of the stage or 
the lives of our dramatists without finding 
these curious collections of Oldys quoted to 
illustrate some obscure point. 

Oldys also annotated a copy of Fuller's 
' Worthies of England' (1662), and the 
notes were transcribed by George Steevens 
into his own copy of that work, which Ma- 
lone afterwards purchased for 43/. A copy 
of Bishop Nicolson's ' Historical Library ' 
(1736), with a great number of manuscript 
additions and references by Oldys, is pre- 
served in the British Museum. He also 
annotated ' England's Parnassus ' (1600), 
and discovered the fact that its compiler 
was Robert Allott [q. v.l This volume be- 
longed successively to Thomas Warton and 
Colonel Stanley, at whose sale in 1813 it 
was purchased by Mr. R. Triphook for 
thirteen guineas. 

Among the works he left in manuscript 
are : 1. Extracts for a work to be entitled 
' The Patron ; or a Portraiture of Patronage 
and Dependency, more especially as they 
appear in their Domestick Light and Atti- 
tudes,' Addit. MS. 12523. 2. < Of London 
Libraries : with Anecdotes of Collectors of 
Books, Remarks on Booksellers, and of the 
first Publishers of Catalogues.' Appended 
to Yeowell's ' Memoir of Oldys/ pp. 58-109. 
3. ' Catalogue of Books and Pamphlets re- 
lating to the City of London,' fol. This was 
lent by Steevens to Richard Gough [q. v.l, 
who made use of it in compiling his ' British 
Topography.' The manuscript was subse- 
quently in Sir John Hawkins's library, which 
was destroyed by fire. 4. ' Memoirs relating 
to the Family of Oldys,' Addit. MS. 4240. 
The anecdotes relating to Dr. Oldys the 
civilian are printed in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine,' 1784, pt. i. p. 329. 5. A collec- 
tion of poems by Oldys. 6. Diary, ap- 
pended to Yeowell's * Memoir of Oldys,' 
pp. 1-29. This diary was discovered in a 
commonplace book of the Rev. John Bowie 
(1725-1788) [guv.], usually called DonBowle, 
now in the British Museum (Addit. MS. 
22667). It was first printed in ' Notes and 
Queries' for February 1861. 7. Adversaria, 
from which a selection of * Choice Notes ' was 
printed by Yeowell in * Notes and Queries ' 
for 1861, and subsequently appended to the 
* Memoir,' pp. 30-57. 

[Memoir by James Yeowell contributed to 
Notes and Queries, January and February 1862, 
and afterwards reprinted under the title of A 
Literary Antiquary : Memoir of William Oldys, 
Norroy King-at-Arms, London, 1862, 8vo; 



OXeary 



123 



O'Leary 



Bailey's Life of Fuller, p. 787 ; Beloe's Anec- 
dotes, i. 206; Bentley's Excerpta Histories, 
p. 176 ; Boswell's Johnson (Croker), i. 202 ; 
Brushfield's Bibl. of Sir W. Raleigh, 1886; 
Brydges's CensuraLit. 1st edit. i. 438 ; Brydges's 
Restituta, ii. 30 n, iv. 167 ; Chambers's Cyclo- 
paedia of Engl. Lit. 1st edit. ii. 121 ; Corney's 
Curiosities of Literature Illustrated, 2nd edit, 
p. 162; D'Israeli's Curiosities of Literature, 
vi. 363 ; Fry's Bibliographical Memoranda, 
p. 33 ; Gent. Mag. 1784 pt. i. pp. 161, 260, 272, 
329, pt. ii. pp. 744, 946, 976, 1785 pt. i. pp. 106, 
107, pt. ii. p. 687 ; Gough's Brit. Topography, 
1780, i. 31, 567; Grose's Olio; Nichols's 
Illustr. of Lit. iv. 168, vii. 569 ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. vii. 300, x. 641 ; Notes and Queries, 
7th ser. ii. 540 (and general indexes); Taylor's 
Records of my Life, 1832, i. 25. j T. C. 

O'LEARY, ARTHUR (1729-1802), Irish 
priest and politician, was born in 1729 at 
Acres, a townland in the parish of Fanlobbus, 
near Dunmanway, co. Cork, his parents being 
of the peasant class. Having acquired some 
knowledge of classical literature, he went to 
a monastery of Capuchin friars at St. Malo 
in Brittany. There he entered the Capuchin 
order, and was ordained priest. In the course 
of the war between England and France 
which commenced in 1756 prisoners of war 
made by the French were confined at St. 
Malo ; many of them were Irishmen and 
catholics, and O'Leary was appointed chap- 
lain to the prisons and hospitals. The Due 
de Choiseul, minister of foreign affairs, di- 
rected O'Leary to persuade the catholic sol- 
diers to transfer their allegiance to France, 
but he indignantly spurned the proposal. 
'I thought it,' wrote O'Leary long after- 
wards in his * Reply to Wesley,' * a crime to 
engage the king of England's soldiers into 
the service of a catholic monarch against 
their protestant sovereign. I resisted the 
solicitation, and my conduct was approved 
by the divines of a monastery to wnich I 
then belonged, who unanimously declared 
that in conscience I could not have acted 
otherwise.' He continued to hold the chap- 
laincy until peace was declared in 1762. 
Among distinguished personages whose in- 
timacy he enjoyed in France was Cardinal 
de Luynes, archbishop of Sens. 

In 1771 he returned to Ireland, and for 
several years he officiated in a small edifice 
in the city of Cork, long known as Father 
O'Leary's chapel, where he preached to 
crowded congregations, his sermons being 
' chiefly remarkable for a happy train of 
strong moral reasoning, bold figure, and scrip- 
tural allusion/ In 1775 a Scottish phy- 
sician named Blair, residing in Cork, pub- 
lished a sceptical and blasphemous work 
under the title of ' Thoughts on Nature and 



Religion.' O'Leary obtained permission from 
Dr. Mann, protestant bishop of the diocese, 
to reply to this in ' A Defence of the Divinity 
of Christ and the Immortality of the Soul/ 
Cork, 1776. O'Leary's next publication ap- 
peared about 1777, under the title ' Loyalty 
asserted ; or the new Test-oath vindicated 
and proved by the Principles of the Canon 
and Civil Laws, and the Authority of the most 
Eminent Writers, with an Enquiry into the 
Pope's deposing Power, and the groundless 
Claims of the Stuarts. In a letter to a Pro- 
testant Gentleman.' In 1779 the hostile 
French fleet rode menacing and unopposed 
in St. George's Channel, and much anxiety 
prevailed regarding the attitude o£*he Iiisb 
catholic body. At this critical moment 
O'Leary, in 'An Address to tbe, common 
I People of the Roman Catholic religion con^ 
I cerning the apprehended Frencfe invasion,' 
1 explained to Irishmen their obiigajfcion of 
I undivided allegiance to the BritisLgovern- 
! ment. In 1780 he issued * Remarks on 
the Rev. John Wesley's Letter on the civil 
Principles of Roman Catholics and his de- 
fence of the Protestant Association,' Dub- 
lin, 1760, 8vo. This witty, argumentative, 
and eloquent treatise elicited from Wesley 
a reply which was noticed by O'Leary in a 
few pages usually printed with the 'Re- 
marks,' and entitled ' A rejoinder to Mr. 
Wesley's Reply.' Some years later the two 
controversialists met. Wesley noted in his 
* Journal ' on 12 May 1787 : * A gentleman 
invited me to breakfast with my old anta- 
gonist, Father O'Leary. I was not at all 
displeased at being disappointed. He is not 
the stiff, queer man that I expected, but of 
an easy, genteel carriage, and seems not to 
be wantingeitherin sense or learning.' About 
1780 John Howard visited Cork, and was 
introduced to O'Leary, who was an active 
member of a society which had for some 
years been established in that city ' for the 
relief and discharge of persons confined for 
small debts.' In after times Howard fre- 
quently boasted of sharing the friendship 
and esteem of the friar. 

O'Leary's ablest work was ' An Essay on 
Toleration ; or Mr. O'Leary's Plea for Liberty 
of Conscience ' [1780 ? ]. One consequence 
of its publication was his election as one 
of the ' Monks of St. Patrick' or ' Monks of 
the Screw/ a political association which was 
started by Barry Yelverton, afterwards lord 
Avonmore. He was, however, only an hono- 
rary member of the association, and did not 
join in the orgies with which the soi-disant 
monks celebrated their reunions. In 1781 
he collected his ' Miscellaneous Tracts,' and 
published them at Dublin in a single octavo 



O'Leary 



124 



O'Leary 



volume (Lowndes, Bibl. Manual, ed. Bohn, 
iii. 1723). 

In 1782 O'Leary publicly announced his 
support of the Irish national volunteer move- 
ment, and a body of volunteers known as the 
'Irish Brigade 'conferred on him the honorary 
dignity of chaplain. Many of the measures 
discussed at the national convention held 
in Dublin were previously submitted to him. 
On 11 Nov. 1783 he visited that assembly, 
and met with a most enthusiastic reception. 
He was now the idol of his catholic fellow- 
countrymen, who regarded him as one of the 
stoutest champions of the nationalist cause. 
But he was at the same time actually in the 
pay of the government. His biographer, Eng- 
land, gives the following account of his posi- 
tion : During his visit in Dublin a confiden- 
tial agent of the ministry proposed to him 
that he should write something in defence 
of their measures. On his refusal, it was 
intimated that his silence would be accept- 
able to the government, and that an annual 
pension of 160/. was to be offered for his 
acceptance without any condition attached 
to it which would be repugnant to his feel- 
ings as an Irishman or a catholic. A change 
in the administration occurred shortly after- 
wards, and the promise remained unfulfilled. 
It is doubtful whether this story is quite 
accurate. Before 1784 he was obviously in 
receipt of a secret pension of at least 100/. a 
year, which had been conferred on him in 
acknowledgment of the value set by the au- 
thorities on the loyalist tone of his writings. 
In 1784 it was proposed to him, in considera- 
tion of an extra 100/. per annum, to under- 
take a new task, namely, to give information 
respecting the secret designs of the catholics. 
Lord Sydney, secretary of state in Pitt's 
ministry, wrote thus to the Duke of Port- 
land, viceroy of Ireland, on 4 Sept. 1784 : 
1 O'Leary has been talked to by Mr. Nepean, 
and he is willing to undertake what is wished 
for 100/. a year, which has been granted him ; ' 
and on 8 Sept. Orde, the chief secretary, 
wrote to Nepean thanking him for sending 
over a spy or detective named Parker, ana 
adding : ' I am very glad also that you have 
settled matters with O'Leary, who can get 
to the bottom of all secrete in which the 
catholics are concerned, and they are cer- 
tainly the chief promoters of our present 
disquietude. He must, however, be cautiously 
trusted, for he is a priest, and, if not too rnucn 
addicted to the general vice of his brethren 
here, he is at least well acquainted with the 
art of raising alarms for the purpose of claim- 
ing a merit in doing them away.' Again 
Orde writes on 23 Sept. : ' We are about to 
make trial of O'Leary's sermons and of 



Parker's rhapsodies. They may be both, in 
their different callings, of very great use. 
The former, if we can depend upon him, has 
it in his power to discover to us the real 
designs of the catholics, from which quarter, 
after all, the real mischief is to spring.' Mr. 
Lecky remarks that Father O'Leary, whose 
brilliant pen had already been employed to 
vindicate both the loyalty and faith of the 
catholics and to induce them to remain at- 
tached to the law, appears to have consented 
for money to discharge an ignominious office 
for a government which distrusted and de- 
spised him (History of England, vi. 369) ; 
while Mr. Froude does not hesitate to de- 
scribe him as ' a paid and secret instrument 
of treachery' (The English in Ireland, ii. 
451). Francis Plowden, O'Leary's friend, 
ignoring the early date at which O'Leary 
first placed himself at the government's dis- 
posal, asserted that the pension was granted 
to O'Leary for life in the name of a trustee, 
but upon the secret condition that he should 
for the future withhold his pen and reside no 
more in Ireland (Plowden, Ireland since the 
Union, 1811, i. 6). The Rev. Mr. Buckley 
was informed that the pension was accepted 
on the understanding that Mr. Pitt would 
keep his word as a man of honour in pro- 
mising that he would bring about the eman- 
cipation of the catholics and the repeal of 
the penal laws in case O'Leary consented to 
write nothing against the union of the Irish 
with the British parliament (Life of O'Leary, 
1 868, p. 356). In an endeavour to extenuate 
O'Leary's conduct, Mr. Fitzpatrick says: * He 
had already written in denunciation of French 
designs on Ireland ; and what more natural 
than that he should now be asked to track 
the movements of certain French emissaries 
who, the government heard, had arrived in 
Dublin, and were conspiring with the catho- 
lic leaders to throw off the British yoke? 
This task O'Leary, as a staunch loyalist, may 
have satisfied his conscience in attempting, 
especially as he must have known that in 
1784 the catholics as a body had no treason- 
able designs, though doubtless some excep- 
tions might be found ' (Secret Service under 
Pitt, 2nd edit. p. 224). O'Leary's biographer 
represents that the pension of 200/. was not 
offered him until 1789, after he had finally 
left Ireland, and, although this is clearly in- 
correct, some doubt is justifiable as to whether 
the whole sum was actually paid him until 
he had ceased to concern himself with Irish 
politics. 

About 1784 O'Leary was solicited to write 
a history of the * No Popery ' riots in Lon- 
don under Lord George Gordon. For a short 
time he entertained the idea, and began to 



O'Leary 



"5 



O'Leary 



collect materials, but eventually abandoned 
the design. In 1786 he wrote his * Review 
of the Important Controversy between Dr. 
Carroll and the Rev. Messrs. Wharton 
and Hawkins ; including a Defence of Cle- 
ment XI V.' Appended to it is 'A Letter from 
Candor to the Right Hon. Luke Gardiner on 
his Bill for a Repeal of a part of the Penal 
Laws against the Irish Catholics/ This was 
written in 1779, and had appeared in the 
newspapers of that time. In 1785 and 1786 
the peace of the county of Cork was disturbed 
at night by mobs under the guidance of a 
leader who assumed the name of ' Captain 
Right/ and O'Leary published 'Addresses 
to the Common People of Ireland, particu- 
larly such of them as are called Whiteboys,' 
demonstrating in a familiar, eloquent, and 
bold mode of reasoning the folly, wickedness, 
and illegality of their conduct. His personal 
exert ions were further solicited by the magis- 
trates of the county, and he accompanied 
them to different places of worship, exhorted 
the deluded people to obedience to the laws 
and respect for religion, and was successful 
in persuading numbers of them to quit the 
association. He afterwards published 'A 
Defence of the Conduct and Writings of the 
Rev. Arthur O'Leary during the late Dis- 
turbances in the Province of Munster, with 
a full Justification of the Irish Catholics, and 
an Account of the Risings of the White- 
boys ; Written by Himself, in Answer to 
the False Accusations of Theophilus [i.e. 
Patrick Duigenanl and the Ill-grounded In- 
sinuations of the Right Rev. Dr. Woodward, 
Lord Bishop of Cloyne.' 

The controversies in which his equivo- 
cal position involved him induced him 
to quit Ireland in 1789, when he was ap- 
pointed one of the chaplains to the Spanish 
embassy in London, his colleague there being 
Dr. Hussey, afterwards bishop of Waterford. 
They afterwards had a dispute, and a ' Nar- 
rative of the Misunderstanding between the 
Rev. A. O'Leary and the Rev. Mr. Hussey ' 
appeared in 1791 (Fitzpatrick, p. 255 w.) 
On his arrival in London, O'Leary was 
anxiously sought after by his countrymen. 
Edmund Burke introduced him to the Duke 
of York, and always spoke with character- 
istic enthusiasm of the good effect of his 
writings. He used to attend the meetings 
of the English catholic committee, but he 
opposed its action, and took exception to the 
absurd appellation of 'Protesting Catholic 
Dissenters. Charles Butler, the secretary 
of the committee, says : ' The appearance of 
Father O'Leary was simple. In nis counte- 
nance there was a mixture of goodness, so- 
lemnity, and drollery which fixed every eye 



that beheld it. No one was more generally 
loved or revered; no one less assuming or 
more pleasing in his manner. Seeing his 
external simplicity, persons with whom he 
was arguing were sometimes tempted to 
treat him cavalierly ; but then the solemnity 
with which he would mystify his adversary, 
and ultimately lead him into the most dis- 
tressing absurdity, was one of the most de- 
lightful scenes that conversation ever exhi- 
bited' (Hist. Memoirs of -the English Catholics, 
1822, iv. 438). Successful efforts were mean- 
while made by his friend Plowden to secure 
the full payment of the pension of 200/., with 
all unpaid arrears. 

St. Patrick's chapel, Sutton Street, Soho 
Square, was, during the later years of his 
life, the scene of his labours. His sermons 
were widely admired, and his auditory in- 
cluded all grades of society. His collections 
for a projected history of the Irish rebellion 
of 1798 he presented to Francis Plowden. 
He published in 1800 an ' Address to the 
Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the Par- 
liament of Great Britain ; to which is added 
an Account of Sir H. Mildmay's Bill relative 
to Nuns.' This was followed by ' A Memo- 
rial in behalf of the Fathers of La Trappe 
and the Orphans committed to their Care/ 
which was probably the last of his literary 
labours. Towards the end of 1801 he went 
to France for the benefit of his health. He 
was again in London on 7 Jan. 1802, and 
died on the following morning at No. 46 
Great Portland Street. His ' Funeral Ora- 
tion ,' pronounced by the Rev. Morgan D'Arcy, 
has been printed. The body was interred in 
Old St. Fancras churchyard, and a monu- 
ment was placed over the grave by Earl 
Moira, afterwards marquis of Hastings 
(Addit. MS. 27488, f. 156). This monu- 
ment was repaired by public subscription in 
1851. Another was erected in St. Patrick's 
Chapel. When old St. Pancras churchyard 
was taken by the Midland railway for the 
extension of their station buildings, the re- 
mains of O'Leary were removed, and on 
3 Feb. 1891 they were interred in the catho- 
lic cemetery at Kensal Green, in a grave 
close to that of Cardinal Wiseman ( Tablet, 
28 Feb. 1891, p. 356). 

His earliest biographer, England, in por- 
traying his character, states that 'good sense, 
unaffected piety, and extensive Knowledge 
gained him the respect and admiration of 
the learned and grave, whilst by his un- 
bounded wit, anecdotes, and unrivalled bril- 
liancy of imagination he was the source of 
delight and entertainment to all whom he 
admitted to his intimacy.' A more discri- 
minating critic, Mr. Lecky, admits that 



O'Leary 



126 



O'Leary 



O'Leary was by far the most brilliant and 
popular writer on the catholic side ; ' but, 
though his devotion to his creed was incon- 
testable, it would be hardly possible to find 
a writer of his profession who exhibits its 
distinctive doctrines in a more subdued and 
attenuated form, and no one appears to have 
found anything strange or equivocal in the 
curiously characteristic sentence in which 
Grattan described his merits : " If I did not 
know him to? lie a Christian gentleman, I 
should suppose Ij^Lm, by his writings to be a 
philosopher of the Augustan age {Hist, of 
England, vi. 446);n Mr. Froude,, considers 
that O'Leary was * the most plausible, and, 
perhaps, essentially the falsest, of all Irish 
writers ' ( The English ih Ireland, ii. 37 ».) 
A collected edition of his works, edited by 
' a clergyman of Massachusetts/ appeared at 
Boston in 1868, 8vo. 

There is a portrait prefixed to England's 
biography, ' engraved by W. t Bond from the 
scarce print, after a drawing by Murphy* 
(Bromley, Cat. of Engraved* Portraits, v. 
364). Another portrait, engraved by T. H. 
Ellis from a painting by E. Shiel, is pre- 
fixed to Buckley's ' Life.' * 

[England's Life of O'Leary, including Histori- 
cal Anecdotes, Memoirs, and . many hitherto un- 
published Documents, London 1822, 8vo ; Buck- 
ley's Life and Writings df O'Leary, Ijublin, 1868, 
8vo; Addit. MS. 5875, f., 168£; Barrington's 
Personal Sketches, ii. 130; Cansick's Epitaphs 
at St. Pancras, Middlesex, it 80.], Chalmers's 
Biogr. Diet. ; Croly's Life of Geaige IV, p. 129 ; 
European Mag. 1782, pt. i. pp. 192-5; Fitzpa- 
trick's Secret Service under Pitt, 2nd edit. pp. 21 1- 
252; Fronde's English in Ireland, 18frl, ii. 37 «, 
450,451 ; Gent. Mag. February ld02; Gordon's 
Personal Reminiscences,!. 1 10, 236, 242 ; Kelly's 
Reminiscences, i. 298 ; Laity's Directory, 1803 ; 
Lecky's Hist, of England, iv. 330 », 495, vi. 369, 
446, vii. 211, 271 ; Literary Memoirs of Living 
Authors, 1798, ii. 92; London and Dublin Or- 
thodox Journal, 1842, xv. 117; Lysons's Envi- 
rons, Suppl. pp. 255, 262, 263 ; Macdonough's 
Irish Graves in England ; McDougall's Sketches 
of Irish Political Characters, p. 264 ; Maguire's 
Life of Father Mathew, pp. 23-6; Lady Mor- 
gan's Memoirs, i. 2; Nichols's Iilustr. of Lit. vi. 
74, vii. 486, 489 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 671 ; 
Notes and Queries, 25 March 1893 p. 228, 
28 Oct. 1893 p. 359 ; O'Keeffe's Recollections, 
i.244; Public Characters, 1 799, L 301 ; Southey's 
Life of Wesley, 2nd edit. 1820, £ 546; Tablet, 
22 Nov. 1890." p. 821, &c. \. Cat ; of Eibraiy of 
Trin. Coll. Dublin ; Watt's Bibl. Brit, under 
Leary.] ' JT/O. 

O'LEARY, ELLEN (18S1^689), Irish 
poetess, and an active participator m the 
fenian movement in Ireland, was born in 
1831 in the town of Tipperary. Her father 



was a shopkeeper. Miss O'Leary contri- 
buted verse to various Irish journals from 
an early age; but after her brother had 
accepted the invitation of James Stephens, 
* chief organiser of the Irish republic/ to take 
charge of the ' Irish People/ wnich was esta- 
blished in November 1863, she wrote ex- 
clusively for that journal, and soon became 
k a distinguished member of the band of poets 
whose gifts the fenians, in imitation of the 
Young Irelanders of twenty years earlier, em- 
ployed in spreading their opinions. The * Irish 
People ' was seized by the government on 
15 Sept. 1865 ; its editor, John O'Leary, and 
other leaders of the movement were arrested, 
and Stephens, who escaped, and was in hiding 
at Sandymount, near Dublin, employed Miss 
O'Leary to carry messages between Sandy- 
mount and Dublin, and to aid him generally 
in directing the affairs of the fenian organisa- 
tion. Stephens was arrested at Sandymount 
on 11 Nov. 1865, but on the 24th he escaped 
from Richmond prison. A sum of 200/. was 
raised by Miss O Leary on a mortgage on her 
property to aid the fenian leader in getting 
out of the kingdom. 

After the collapse of the fenian movement 
Miss O'Leary went to her home in Tipperary, 
and lived there in retirement, devoting her- 
self to literature, till 1885. She then re- 
joined her brother John, who, after being im- 
Erisoned for live years and exiled for fifteen, 
ad in that year returned to Ireland. She 
died on 16 Oct. 1889 at Cork. 

A selection of her poems, entitled ' Lays 
of Country, Home, and Friends/ was pub- 
lished in Dublin in 1891. It contains a 
biographical sketch by Mr. T. W. Rolleston, 
and an appreciative criticism of Miss O'Leary's 
poems by Sir Charles GavanDuffjr, which had 
first appeared in the ' Dublin University Re- 
view/ in December 1886, under the title ' A 
Celtic Singer/ Miss O'Leary's songs are 
sweet and simple lays, couched in the natural 
colloquial language of the Irish peasant. 

[The Irish newspapers of 1864, 1865, and 
1866; O'Leary's Lays of Country, Home, and 
Friends, Dublin, 1891.] M. MacD. 

O'LEARY, JOSEPH (<*. 1845?), song- 
writer and journalist, was born in Cork about 
1795. In youth he joined a company of stroll- 
ing players, but his theatrical experience 
was short, as the manager was insolvent. 
About 1818 he commenced to write for the 
Cork papers— notably, the 'Freeholder/ a 
scurrilous sheet which was edited by John 
Boyle, and lasted till 1842. O'Leary's contri- 
butions were considered very powerful, and 
it was in its columns his famous Bacchana- 
lian song, ' Whiskey, drink divine/ appeared. 



Oley 



127 



Oley 



About 1818 he also wrote for the * Baga- 
telle/ a short-lived Cork periodical : and for 
a time he edited the ' Cork Mercantile Re- 
porter.' Between 1825-8 he contributed to 
' Bolster's Cork Quarterly/ and to two Lon- 
don periodicals, the * Dublin and London 
Magazine ' and * Captain Rock in London/ 
Richard Ryan [q. v. J, the Irish biographer, 
who seems to have known him, says in his 
'Poets and Poetry ' (1826, ii. 141), that 
he was, in 1826, preparing a translation of 
Tibullus. In 1830 O'Leary published a 
pamphlet ' On the Late Election in Cork/ 
under the signature of 'A Reporter/ There 
are also some poems by him in Patrick 
O'Kelly's 'Hippocrene' (1831) ("see O'Kelly, 
Patrick] ; ana in 1833 a small collection of 
his poems and sketches appeared at Cork in ! 
an anonymous volume, entitled ' The Tribute.' 
In 1834 he came to London and joined the 
staff of the * Morning Herald ' as parlia- 
mentary reporter. He seems to have met 
with little success in London, and drowned 
himself in the Regent's Canal about 1845. 
O'Leary has been confused with * The Irish 
Whiskey-Drinker ' — i.e. John Sheehan. 

Another contemporary Joseph O'Leary 
(/?. 1835), a barrister, published * Law of 
Tithes in Ireland/ Dublin, 1835, 8vo ; * Rent 
Charges in lieu of Tithes/ Dublin, 1840, 8vo; 
'Dispositions for Religious and Charitable 
Uses in Ireland/ Dublin, 1847, 8vo. 

[Brit. Mu8. Cat.; Windele's Cork and its 
Vicinity, p. 126 ; Ryan's Poets and Poetry, 1826, 
ii. 141 ; Bentley's Ballads, ed. Sheehan, 1869, p. 
142; Dublin and London Magazine, 1825-7; 
O'Donoghue's Poets of Ireland, p. 193.1 

D. J. O'D. 

OLEY, BARNABAS (1602-1686), 
royalist divine, was baptised in the old parish 
church of Wakefield on 26 Dec. 1602, as son 
of * Francis Oley, clarke/ who married Mary 
Mattersouse on 25 June 1600. He was edu- 
cated at Wakefield grammar school, which 
he entered in 1607. In 1617 he proceeded 
to Clare College, Cambridge, probably as 
Cave's exhibitioner from his school, and gra- 
duated B.A. 1621, M.A. 1625, and B.D. A 
crown mandate for the degree of D.D. to 
him and two other eminent divines was 
dated 14 April, and published 17 June 1663, 
but the honour was declined. He was elected 
probationer-fellow of the foundation of Lady 
Clare at his college on 28 Nov. 1623, and a 
senior fellow in 1627, and filled the offices of 
tutor and president. In these positions he 
showed great zeal and ability, the most illus- 
trious of his pupils being Peter Gunning, 
bishop of Ely. Oley was also taxor for the 
university in 1634, and proctor in 1635. In 
1633 he was appointed by his college to the 



vicarage of Great Gransden, Huntingdon- 
shire, and held it until his death ; but for 
several years he continued to reside at 
Cambridge. The first steps for the rebuild- 
ing of the college, which was begun on 
19 May 1638, though not finished until 1715, 
were taken under his direction, and, accord- 
ing to George Dyer, the structure was much 
indebted to his 'benefaction, zeal, and in- 
spections.' Extensive purchases of bricks 
are recorded in the college books as having 
been made by him, and he was called by 
Fuller its ' Master of the Fabric.' He was 
a zealous loyalist, and when the university 
sent its plate to the king at Nottingham to 
be converted into money for his use, it was 
entrusted to his care and safely brought to 
the king's headquarters, August 1642. Par- 
ticulars of the plate, and of the manner by 
which, through the skill of Oley, who knew 
all the highways and byways between Cam- 
bridge and that town, the troops of Crom- 
well were circumvented, are given in the 
< Life of Dr. John Barwick ' (pp. 23-7). He 
also lent a considerable sum of money on 
the communion plate of Clare College, which 
is of solid gold and very valuable, and re- 
stored it to the college in 1660 on receiving 
a portion of this advance. There is a tra- 
dition in the college that its three other very 
old pieces of plate were preserved by his care. 
For not residing at Cambridge, and for not 
appearing before the commission when sum- 
moned to attend, he was ejected by the Earl 
of Manchester from his fellowship on 8 April 
1644. He was also plundered of nis personal 
and landed property, and forced to leave his 
benefice. For seven years he wandered through 
England in great poverty. In 1643 and 1646 
he was at Oxford. Early in 1645, when 
Pontefract Castle was being defended for the 
king, he was within its walls, and preached 
to the garrison ; and when Sir Marmaduke 
Langdale was condemned to death in 1648, 
but escaped from prison, and lay hid for some 
weeks in a haystack, the fugitive at last 
made his way to London in the costume of 
a clergyman which was supplied by Oley. 
Next year he was very ill, ' but God strangely 
brought me back from the Gates of Death.' 
For some time he lived at Heath, near Wake- 
field, and in 1652-3 he stayed ' in the north 
privately, near the place of Lady SaviVs de- 
molished habitation' (Matob, Ferrar. pp. 
303-4). 

In 1659 Oley returned to Gransden, when 
Sir John Hewett of Waresley in Hunting- 
donshire gave him some furniture, and on 
9 July 1600 he was restored to his fellow- 
ship by an order of the same Earl of Man- 
chester. Through the ' voluntary mediation ' 



Oley 



128 



Oley 



of Archbishop Sheldon, he was presented on 
3 Aug. 1660 to the third prebendal stall of 
Worcester Cathedral, and on 8 Nov. 1679 
he was collated, on the nomination of Gun- 
ning, his old pupil, to the archdeaconry of 
Ely. This preferment he resigned in the 
following year through doubts of his ability 
to discharge its duties; but he retained the 
stall at Worcester until his death, being 
then ' the senior prebendary of venerable 
memory ' for his saint-like qualities, and 
having been the means of establishing a 
weekly celebration in the cathedral (Hickes, 
life of Dr. William Hopkins ; Ferrar and 
his Friends, 1892, pp. 223, 271-2). Oley 
died at Gransden, at an extreme old age, on 
20 Feb. 1685-6, and, in accordance with his 
will, was buried there on the night of 22 Feb. 
' with a private and very frugal funeral.' An 
inscription to his memory was placed on the 
wall at the west end of the interior of the 
church. 

Oley edited in 1662 « Herbert's Remains, or 
sundry pieces of that Sweet Singer, Mr. 
George Herbert/ containing ' A Priest to the 
Temple, or the countrey parson, Jacula 
Prudentum,' &c. Prefixed was an unsigned 
* prefatory view of the life and vertues of the 
authour, and excellencies of this book,' which 
was written by Oley. The second edition 
appeared in 1671 as ' A Priest to the Temple, 
or the Country Parson/ with a new preface, 
signed Barnabas Oley, and beginning with a 
confession of the authorship of the old notice. 
The old preface was also reprinted at the 
end. Both of them, but the new preface in 
a slightly enlarged form, were contained in 
the editions of 1675 and 1701, and reprinted 
in the editions of Herbert's ' Works ' by 
Pickering (1848) and Bell and Daldy (1869). 
The manuscript of 'The Country Parson' 
was the property of Herbert's friend, Wode- 
note, who * commended it to the hands ' of 
Oley, and from his prefaces were drawn some 
of the facts set out in Izaak Walton's me- 
moir of Herbert. Three volumes of the works 
of Thomas Jackson [q. v.], president of Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, appeared under the 
editorial care of Oley in 1653-57. The first 
of them (1653) contains an account by him 
of the work, acknowledging Jackson as his 
' master in divines/ and pronouncing him 
'The Divine of his Rank and age.' The 
merits of Jackson had been pointed out to 
him by N. F., i.e. Nicholas Ferrar. To the 
second volume (1654) was prefixed a preface 
to the reader by him, and in the third volume 
(1657) were an epistle dedicatory to Sheldon 
— in which he announced that ' God, by con- 
vincing me of disabilitie, hath taken away 
all hopes and desires of publishing any wort 



of mine own ' — and a preface, both by Oley. 
The three volumes were reissued in 1673, 
with a general dedication by him to Sheldon, 
then Archbishop of Canterbury, and with a 
preface to the reader enlarged and altered 
* out of the three composed before.' It dwells 
upon the feebleness of Oley's memory ' by 
the suddain ingruence of a Lethargy or 
Apoplexy.' This dedicatory address and pre- 
face are reprinted in Jackson's * Works ' (ed. 
1844V vol. i. Some lines by him, prefixed 
to tne translation of Lessius, entitled 
' Hygiasticon/ which appeared in 1634, are 
reproduced in Mayor's 'Nicholas Ferrar/ 
p. viii. Oley was one of those appointed by 
Gunning to sort and revise all nis papers, 
and a long letter on Ferrar from Dr. Robert 
Byng to him is printed in Peckard's ' Life 
01 Ferrar/ pp. 29-34, and reproduced in 
Mayor's 'Memoir/ pp. 7-11. borne of his 
letters were formerly in the possession of 
Mr. Bigg, vicar of Great Gransden, and others 
are now at Clare College. 

Oley's charitable gifts were widespread. 
To the church of Gransden he gave, in his 
lifetime, the pulpit (1633) and the wainscot 
seats in the chancel (1681). He was the 
' first contriver and chief benefactor ' of the 
brick school-house, 1664, which he endowed 
with 20/. a year. He built brick houses for 
six poor people upon his own freehold land, 
leasing them for one thousand years to the 
churchwardens for the time being at a pep- 
percorn rent ; and he erected a vicarage, still 
a solid and comfortable place of residence, 
with barns, stables, outhouses, and a brick 
wall next the street and against the church- 
yard. He also gave one acre of freehold land 
to ' enlarge the Herd Commons at Hanginton 
Layes ' in that parish, and six leather buckets 
to prevent casual fires in the village. Warm- 
field had a share in his bounty, the vicarage 
receiving a considerable augmentation. To 
King's College, Cambridge, he gave 100/. for 
putting up canopies and pillars for the stalls 
in the chapel (Cole MSS. ; Addit. MS. 
5802, ff. 986, 99a), and a like sum to St. 
Paul's Cathedral. 

His will, dated 23 May 1684, with codicils 
19 Aug. 1684, 16 Oct. 1685, and 18 Oct. 
1685, is in the Lansdowne MS. 988, fol. 
946, &c, and Harleian MS. 7043, fol. 
191, &c, the last taken from the copy of 
Mr. Thursby, the executor, and containing 
his marginal notes. With the exception of a 
few specific legacies, all his property was be- 
queathed to pious uses, and ne only left 
twelve pence to his brother, Joseph Oley, 
and one copy of 'The Duty of Man' to 
each of his children, as he had given them 
large sums in his lifetime. Other relatives, 



Olifard 



129 



Oliphant 



called Shillito, Tomson, Dixon, and Pres- 
ton, are mentioned in the will. The books 
which he had taken from the library of Dr. 
Timothy Thurscrosse were left to the vicars 
of North Grimston, Yorkshire, in succession. 
His own books were to be sold and the 
proceeds to be expended by William Nicol- 
son [q. v.], the Bishop of Carlisle, in pur- 
chasing the works of certain specified divines 
for such parishes as he might select. A list 
of the books given to ten poor vicarages in 
the diocese of Carlisle under this bequest and 
the agreement of the various incumbents are 
. printed in Bishop Nicolson's ' Miscellany Ac- 
counts/ pp. 7-9. He inquired after their exist- 
ence and condition at his primary visitation. 
The manuscripts of Jackson passed to Lam- 
plugh, bishop of Exeter. 

Oley left certain articles of furniture to 
Sir John Hewett in exchange for the gifts 
which he had received in 1659. To the dean 
and chapter of Worcester he gave 200/. for 
buttresses for the choir and the chapel at the 1 
cast end of the cathedral ; to Clare College 
he left one hundred marks English for build- 
ing a library, and 10/. to the descendants of 
Jonn Westlev, 'that good workman that 
built the college/ through fear that the 
omission to state his accounts before the 
royalists were ejected from the university 
might have been prejudicial to his interests. 
The junior fellows of King's College received 
the sum of 50/. to be expended in making 
walks for their recreation, and money was 
left for the augmentation of poor vicarages. 

[Le Neve's Fasti, i. 352-3, where Oley is called 
Heyolt, iii. £1, 623, 637; Todd's Table of T. 
Jackson's "Writings (1838), p. iii ; Walton's Lives, 
ed. Zouch (1807), pp. 320-1 ; Lupton's Wake- 
field School ; Bentham's Ely, p. 279 ; Heame's 
T. Caii Vindiciae, ii. 690-2 ; Letters from the Bod- 
leian Library, ii. 80-81 ; Walker's Sufferings of 
the Clergy, ii. 14 1-42;, Notes and Queries, 2nd 
*er. ii. 170; Rennet's Case of Impropriations, pp. 
288-90 ; Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 24489, pp. 472- 
474; Ferrar and his Friends (1892), pp. 223, 
271-2 ; Life of J. Barwick, pp. 111-12 ; Baker's 
St. John's Coll. Cambr., ed. Mayor,i. 219, ii. 632, 
647 ; information from Rev. Dr. Atkinson, Clare 
College. A chapter on Oley, ' his life, letters, 
benefactions, and will,' is in the History of Great 
Gransden, now being published by its vicar, the 
Rev. A. J. Edmonds ; and among the illustra- 
tions is a view of ' Barnabas Oley's Almshouses.' 
Oley is introduced into the last chapter of Short- 
house's romance of • John Inglesant.'] W. P. C. 

OLIFARD, Sib WILLIAM (d. 1329). 
fSee Oliphant, Sir William.] 

OLIPHANT, CAROLINAX176&-1845), 
song and ballad writer. [See Nairne, Ca- 
rolina, Baroness Nairne.] 
vol. xui. 



OLIPHANT, FRANCIS WILSON 
(1818-1859), painter and designer of stained 
glass, son of Thomas Oliphant, Edinburgh, 
of an ancient but fallen family in Fife, was 
born on 31 Aug. 1818 at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
during the temporary residence of his parents 
there. He was trained as an artist at the 
Edinburgh Academy of Art. In early life 
the revival of Gothic style and ornament 
led him to make a profound study of ec- 
clesiastical art, and while still very young 
he attained considerable reputation as a 
designer of painted glass in the works of 
Messrs. Wailes of Newcastle-on-Tyne. He 
afterwards removed to London, and worked 
much with Welby Pugin, especially upon 
the painted windows in the new Houses of 
Parliament. He also sent in a cartoon to 
the competition for the decoration of West- 
minster Hall, which was not successful. 
During this period Oliphant exhibited seve- 
ral pictures in the Royal Academy, the chief 
being a large Shakespearean study of the 
interview between Richard II and John of 
Gaunt, and a striking picture of the Prodi- 
gal Son 'Nearinff Home/ In 1852 he mar- 
ried his cousin, Margaret Oliphant Wilson, 
who was then beginning to be known as a 
writer, and has since achieved a very wide 
reputation in many departments of litera- 
ture. His latter years were occupied with 
an energetic attempt to improve the art 
of painted glass by superintending the pro- 
cesses of execution as well as the design, 
in the course of which he produced the win- 
dows in the ante-chapel of King's College, 
Cambridge, those in the chancel of Ayles- 
bury Church, and several in Ely Cathedral. 
The famous choristers* window at Ely was 
the joint work of Oliphant and William 
Dyce, R.A., the former Deing responsible for 
the original design. This work, however, 
was interrupted by ill-health, which obliged 
him to seek a warmer climate. He died at 
Rome in October 1859, chiefly from the 
effects of overwork. He had published in 
1856 a small treatise entitled 'A Plea for 
Painted Glass.' 

Oliphant had two sons, both of whom died 
in early manhood after making some pro- 
mising efforts in literature. The elder son, 
Cyril Francis Oliphant (1856-1890), who 

fraduated B.A. at fealliol College, Oxford, in 
883, published in 1890, in the series known 
as * Foreign Classics/ a biography and criticism 
of the work of Alfred de Musset, which was 
notable for some well-rendered translations 
from the French. The younger son, Francis 
Romano Oliphant (1859-1894), born at Rome 
after his father's death, graduated B.A. at 
Oxford in 1883. He issued in 1891 < Notes of 



Oliphant 



130 



Oliphant 



a Pilgrimage to Jerusalem and the Holy 
Land/ which originally appeared in the form 
of letters addressed to the * Spectator/ He 
was a frequent contributor to that and other 
periodicals, and largely aided his mother in 
the preparation of her * Victorian Age of Lite- 
rature f (1892). 

[Private information.] 

OLIPHANT, JAMES (1734-1818), Scot- 
tish divine, second son of William Oliphant 
of Stirling, was born in Stirling in 1734. 
He matriculated at the university of Glas- 

fow in 1753, and graduated M.A. in 1756. 
n 1757 Oliphant entered as a divinity stu- 
dent, and attended for four sessions the 
classes in the hall of the secession church 
at Glasgow. He left that body, however, 
owing to a difference with some of the pro- 
fessors, and joined the communion of the 
church of Scotland. After receiving his 
license in 1760 from the presbytery of Kin- 
tyre, he officiated for a time in the Gorbals 
Church, Glasgow, from which he was pro- 
moted in 1764 to be minister of the chapel- 
of-ease in Kilmarnock. Oliphant, who nad 
a strong and sonorous voice, was afterwards 
lampooned by Robert Burns — who, before 
he was fifteen, had heard him preach — in the 
second stanza of his poem entitled ' The Or- 
dination : ' — 

Curst Common Sense, that imp of hell, 

Cam' in wi' Maggie Lauder ; 
But Oliphant aft made her yell, 

An' Russell sair misca'd her. 

(Russell was Oliphant's successor in Kilmar- 
nock.) Oliphant's ultra-Calvinistic views 
excited not only the satire of Burns, but the 
more earnest hostility of the Arminian clergy. 
He ministered in Kilmarnock for eleven 
years, and in 1773, at the request of the in- 
habitants of Dumbarton, he was presented 
by the town council with the charge of the 
parish church in that town. To check the 
spread of the Arminian heresy, which was 
causing no little excitement in Scotland at 
the time, Oliphant compiled a little cate- 
chism for the use of schools and young com- 
municants. In order to annoy him, his op- 
ponents in Kilmarnock — the moderates, as 
they were termed — employed a man to walk 
the streets of Dumbarton, proclaiming as he 
went * the whole works of the Rev. James 
Oliphant, presentee to this parish, for the 
small charge of two pence.' Oliphant lost 
his sight shortly before his death, which 
took place on 10 April 1818. He was twice 
married : first to Elizabeth Hay, on 27 Nov. 
1764 (she died on 29 March 1780, leaving 
a daughter Charlotte, who married Captain 
David Denny of Glasgow) ; secondly, on 



27 April 1784, to Janet, daughter of Hum- 
phrey Colquhoun of Barnhill, who died on 
z7 June 1805, leaving three daughters, Mar- 
garet, Janet (who married Robert Hart, 
merchant in Glasgow), and Anne (who mar- 
ried the Rev. William Taylor, minister of the 
associate burgher congregation, Levenside). 

Oliphant was a * souna and racy theolo- 
gian, and an interesting and highly accom- 
plished preacher/ 'There was a vein of 
humour which pervaded his mind, and oc- 
casionally burst forth in the pulpit in some 
striking, homely, or quaint remark* (Bio- 
graphical Notices, by J. W. Taylor, 1852). 

He was the author of two small pamphlets 
which had an immense popularity in their 
day : 1. ' The Mother's Catechism, doctrinal 
and historical, designed for the school and 
family; and enlarged for the benefit of young 
communicants/ 12mo, Glasgow, 1772. Of 
this work more than twenty editions were 
published before and after his death. 2. ' A 
Sacramental Catechism, designed for com- 
municants old and young ... to which is 
subjoined an abstract of that solemn mode 
of public admission to the Lord's Table 
which has been practised in the parish of 
Kilmarnock/ 12mo, Glasgow, 1779. This 
has also run through numerous editions. 
Oliphant also wrote the history of the parish 
of Dumbarton for Sir John Sinclair's * Statis- 
tical Account of Scotland/ 1792. 

[Presbytery Register of Dumbarton-; tomb- 
stone in Dumbarton churchyard ; McKay's His- 
tory of Kilmarnock ; Scot's Fasti, pt. iii. ; liv- 
ing's Book of Dumbartonshire ; Taylor's Life of 
Rev. "William Taylor ; Cleland's Annals, vol. i. ; 
matriculation album of Glasgow University ; Dr. 
Charles Rogers's Book of Robert Burns.] 

G. S-h. 

OLIPHANT, Sib LAURENCE, of 
Aberdalgie, first Lokd Oliphant (d. 1500?), 
was the eldest son of Sir John Oliphant of 
Aberdalgie (d, 1446), by Isabel, daughter of 
Walter Ogilvy of Auchterhouse, and sister 
of Alexander Ogilvy, second baron Offilvy 
of Inverquharity [q. v.] In his youtn he 
went to France to study the art of war, 
and subsequently travelled in Italy and else- 
where. He was created a peer some time be- 
fore 30 Oct. 1458, when his name so appears 
as witness to a charter ; and under the title 
of Lord Oliphant he sat in the parliament 
of 14 Oct. 1467. He had a charter of the 
barony of Owres, Kincardineshire, from his 
maternal grandfather, Walter Ogilvy, on 
7 Nov. U68(Beg.Mag.Sig.Scotl. 1424-1513, 
entry 965). In 1470 he held the office of sheriff 
of Perthshire (Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, 
viii. 35). On 24 July 1474 the Marchmond 
herald was sent with letters to him and the 



Oliphant 



131 



Oliphant 



Earl of Buchan to ' staunch their gathering 
for the court of Forfar ' (Accounts of the Lord 
High Treasurer of Scotland, p. 61), and on 
28 Aug. to summon them for their gathering 
(ib.) The gathering seems to have resulted 
in bloodshed, for in September Oliphant was 
summoned to answer for the slaughter of 
Thorn of Preston (ib.) 

Oliphant was one of a commission named 
on 30 Aug. 1484 to negotiate a marriage 
between James, duke of Rothesay, heir-ap- 
parent of the Scottish throne, and Lady 
Anne de la Pole, daughter of John, duke of 
Sheffield, and niece of Richard III of Eng- 
land (Cal. Documents relating to Scotland, 
1367-1609, entry 1601), and also to treat 
for a peace and alliance with England (ib. 
entry 1502). Of the treaty, concluded at 
Nottingham on 12 Sept. (#.), he was one of 
the conservators (ib, entry 1606). He sat 
in the first parliament of James I V on 6 Oct. 
1488, when he was chosen a lord of the 
articles for the barons. He was also sworn 
a privy councillor, and in 1490 constituted a 
justiciary within his own bounds and those 
of Strathbaird. He sided with the king 
during the rebellion of 1489, and, while the 
king was crushing the rising in the west, 
sent information to him of the movements 
of the rebel nobles in the north (Accounts 
of the Lord High Treasurer, p. 122). On 
26 Feb. 1490-1 he had a safe-conduct to 
England for six months (Cal. Documents 
relating to Scotland, 1367-1609, entry 1660) ; 
and on 14 June he received a safe-conduct 
and protection for a year from Henry VII 
as ambassador to Charles, king of France, 
and the king and queen of Castile, Aragon, 
and Sicily (ib. entry 1674). In 1491 he was 
bailie of Methven (Exchequer Molls of Scot- 
land, v. 287), and in 1493 and subsequent 
years he was keeper of Edinburgh Castle 
(ib. pp. 388, 466, 605). He was one of the 
lords chosen by the king to the session of 
14 Oct. 1495. He died about 1500. By his 
wife, Lady Isabel Hay, youngest daughter 
of William, first earl of Errol, he had three 
sons : John, second lord Oliphant (d. 1516) ; 
William of Berriedale, Caithness (acquired 
through marriage with Christian, heiress 
of Alexander Sutherland of Duffus) ; and 
George. 

[Authorities mentioned in the text ; Douglas's 
Scottish Peerage, ed. Wood, ii. 332-3.] 

T. F. H. 

OLIPHANT, LAURENCE, third Lobd 
Oliphant (d. 1566), was the son of Colin, 
master of Oliphant (killed at the battle of 
Flodden in 1513), by Lady Elizabeth Keith, 
second daughter of William, third earl Ma- 
rischal. He succeeded his grandfather John, 



1 second lord, in 1616, and was one of the 
! Scottish nobles taken prisoner at the rout of 
' Sol way Moss on 25 Nov. 1642 (Diurnal of Oc- 
currents, p. 25), his capturer being Dacre's 
servant (Hamilton Papers, ed. Bain, i. 325). 
He reached Newark on 15 Dec, he and 
other prisoners being then so ' crazed ' by the 
hardships of their march that their subse- 
quent journey to London was a little delayed 
(ib. p. 335). The annual value of his lands 
was then estimated at two thousand merks 
Scots, or five hundred merks sterling, and 
the value of his goods at four thousand 
merks Scots (State Papers, Henry VIII, v. 
233). He remained in England in the cus- 
tody of Sir Thomas Lee, knt., but on 1 July 
1543 was allowed to be ransomed for eight 
hundred merks sterling, on condition that, 
along with other captive Scottish nobles, he 
should acknowledge Henry VHI as lord- 
superior, should co-operate in procuring him 
the government of Scotland, and should 
exert his influence to get the infant Queen 
Mary delivered to Henry, to be brought up 
in England. On obtaining his liberty he, 
however, made no attempt to fulfil these 
pledges, and he declined to enter himself a 
prisoner in England in August for making 
of his bond ana promise for the payment of 
the ransom. When Lord Huntly began a 
reformation of religion in his territories, 
Lord Oliphant, in February 1560, at a meet- 
ing at Aberdeen, promised to do as Huntly 
advised (Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 1659- 
1560, entry 710) ; but it is doubtful if he 
ever joined against the queen-dowager (ib. 
1660-1, entry 172). He died on 26 March 
1566. By Margaret, eldest daughter of 
James Sandilands of Cruvie, he had three 
sons and four daughters. The sons were : 
Laurence, fourth lord Oliphant [q. v.J ; Peter, 
ancestor of the Oliphants of Langton ; and 
William. The daughters were : Catherine, 
married first to Sir Alexander Oliphant of 
Kellie, and secondly to George Dundas of 
Dundas ; Margaret, married first to William 
Murray of Abercairny, and secondly to 
James Clephane of Carslogie ; Jean, to Wil- 
liam Moncrieffe of Moncrieffe; and Lilias, 
to Robert Lundie of Balgonie. 

[Diurnal of Occurrents (Bannatyoe Club); 
Sadleir's State Papers ; State Papers, Hen. VIII ; 
Hamilton Papers ; Anderson's Oliphants in Scot- 
land, 1879, pp. xxxvii-xl; Douglas's Scottish 
Peerage, ed. Wood, ii. 333-4.] T. F. H. 

OLIPHANT, L AURENCE,fourth Lobd 
Oliphant (1529-1593), eldest son of Lau- 
rence, third lord Oliphant, by Margaret San- 
dilands, was born in 1529. In 1543 he was 
sent to England as a hostage for his father. 
After the Darnley marriage he, while master 

k2 



S" 



Oliphant 



132 



Oliphant 



of Oliphant, sat as an extraordinary member 
of the privy council in August 1566 (Reg* 
P. C. Scotl. 1. 347). In 1665 certain persons 
accused of slaughter and other crimes took 
possession of his house of Berrydale, which 
they garrisoned and held ; but on 13 April 
1566 they were ordered by the council to 
give it up to him within twenty-four hours 
under pain of being treated as rebels (ib. pp. 
447-8). He succeeded his father on 26 March 
of the same year, and was served heir on 
2 May. He sat on the assize for the trial of 
Bothwell for the murder of Darnley, signed 
the band for Bothwell's marriage to the 
queen, and was one of the nine temporal 
lords present at the marriage. At the same 
time as John Hamilton, archbishop of St. 
Andrews, he was admitted a member of the 
privy council (ib. p. 609). He joined the 
association on behalf of Mary at Hamilton 
on 8 May 1568, and fought for her at Lang- 
side. On this account he was charged to 
appear before the regent and lords of the 
privy council, and, failing to do so, was on 
2 Aug. 1568 denounced a rebel and put to 
the horn {ib. p. 633) ; but on 6 April 1669 he 
signed a ' band for the king* (ib. p. 664), and 
on 16 June again appeared as a member of the 
privy council (ib. p. 670). He was one of 
sixteen appointed by Queen Mary at Bolton 
Castle on 6 March 1569 to act as advisers 
with Chatelherault, Huntly, and Argyll in 
the critical circumstances of the kingdom 
(Labanoff, Lettres de Marie Stuart ,ii. 271). 
He attended the convention at Perth on 
31 July of the same year, and voted against 
the queen's divorce from Bothwell (Reg. P. C. 
Scotl. ii. 8). An attack on him and his ser- 
vants on 18 July at the instance of the Earl 
of Caithness was the subject of deliberation 
by the privv council on 12 Oct. (ib. pp. 37- 
40) and 22 'Nov. (ib. 57-8). 

After the death of the regent Moray in Janu- 
ary 1570, Lord Oliphant met the leaders of 
the queen's party at Linlithgow, where they 
had a conference with the French ambassa- 
dor. His name also appears among those 
who, in April 1670, subscribed a letter to 
Elizabeth, petitioning her to * enter into such 
conditions with the Queen's Highness in Scot- 
land as may be honourable for all parties ' 
(Calderwood, ii. 550). Killigrew, in a letter 
to Burghley in 1573, mentions that Oliphant 
joined the anti-Marian party after Morton's 
succession to the regency (Cal. State Papers, 
For. Ser. 1572-4, entry 761) ; but he appears 
to have joined before this, having attended 
a meeting of the privy council at Leith in 
May 1572, while the regent Mar was still 
alive (Beg. P. C. Scotl. ii. 135). After the 
retirement of Morton from the regency, Oli- 



phant attended the meeting of the parlia- 
ment in the castle of Stirling on 16 July 
1578, presided over by the king (Moysie, 
Memoirs, p. 12). In November 1580 he 
was charged to answer before the council for 
an attack on Lord Ruthven (ib. p. 28 ; Hist. 
James the Sext, p. 100), and on 7 Dec. cau- 
tion was given tor him in 1,000/. that he 
would on the 9th enter into ward in the 
castle of Doune in Menteith (Peg. P. C. 
Scotl. iii. 335). Subsequently disputes be- 
tween him and the Earl of Caithness occupied 
the frequent attention of the privy council 
(ib. iv. passim). Oliphant died at Caithness 
on 16 Jan. 1593, and was buried in the church 
of Wick. By Lady Margaret Hay, second 
daughter of George, seventh earl of Errol, he 
had two sons and three daughters. The sons 
were: Laurence, master ot Oliphant; and 
John Oliphant of Newlands. The daughters 
were : Elizabeth, married to William, tenth 
earl of Angus ; Jean, to Alexander Bruce of 
Cultmalindie ; and Margaret, to Sir James 
Johnstone of Westerhall. 

Laurence, master of Oliphant (d. l/;84?), 
was concerned in the raid of Ruthven, and on 
this account was in March 1584 charged, along 
with his brother-in-law, Robert Douglas, son 
of William Douglas of Lochleven, to quit 
the realm. They set sail for the continent, 
but never reached it. According to Calder- 
wood, ' they perished by the way, and were 
never seen again, they, nor ship, nor any be- 
longing thereunto. The manner is uncertain, 
but the most common report was that, being 
invaded by Hollanders or Flusingers, and 
fighting valiantly, slew one of the principal 
of their number, in revenge whereof they 
were all sunk, or, as others report, after they 
had rendered, they were hanged upon the 
mast of the ship ' (History, iv. 46). Another 
report was that they had been made slaves 
by the Turks, and detained in captivity in 
the town of Algiers on the coast of Bar- 
bary (Cal Scottish State Papers, 1509-1603, 
pp. 431, 570). 

[Reg. P. C. Scotl. vols, i.-iv.; CaL State 
Papers, Scotl. Ser. and For. Ser. Eliz. ; Notes 
and Queries, 7th ser. ix. 363; Hist. James the 
Sext. and David Moysie's Memoirs, both in the 
Bannatyne Club ; Calderwood's History of the 
Church in Scotland ; Anderson's Oliphants in 
Scotland. 1879, pp. xl-lxii; Douglas's Scottish 
Peerage (Wood), ii. 334.] T. F. H. 

OLIPHANT, LAURENCE (1691-1767), 
Laird of Gask, Jacobite, son of James 
Og-ilvie, laird of Gask, by Janet, daughter 
of the Rev. Anthony Murray of Woodend, 
Perthshire,wasborn in 1691 . The Gask branch 
of the Oliphants descended from William 
Oliphant or Newton, Perthshire, second son of 



Oliphant 



133 



Oliphant 



Colin, master of Oliphant, slain at Modden. 
The estate of Gask came into the possession 
of the family in 1626. The family possessed 
strong royalist sympathies. At the rebel- 
lion of 1715 the laird of Gask sent his two 
sons to support the insurgents, Laurence re- 
ceiving a commission in Lord Rollo's regi- 
ment dated 2 Oct. 1715. He was present at 
the battle of Sherriffmuir, and in January 
1716 he acted as one of the garrison's adjutants 
during the short time that the Pretender re- 
mained at Scone. After the suppression of 
the rebellion he remained for some time in 
hiding, but subsequently he was permitted 
to return home unmolested. He succeeded 
his father as laird of Gask in 1732. On the 
arrival of the Chevalier in 1745, he joined 
him at Blair Athole. So indignant was he 
with his tenants for refusing to take up arms 
that he laid an inhibition on their cornfields 
(Chambers, History of the Rebellion, ed. 
1869, pp. 63-4) ; but the prince on arriving 
at GasK laughingly removed the inhibition. 
Laurence, eldest son of the laird of Gask, 
born 25 May 1724, acted as aide-de-camp 
of the prince at the battle of Prestonpans, 
and after the battle was sent by the prince 
to prevent the fugitive dragoons from taking 
refuge in Edinburgh. On his way thither 
he slew ten of them, and took a pair of 
colours. When the prince set out for Eng- 
land, he sent the laird of Gask back to Perth, 
to undertake, with LordStrathallan, the civil 
and military government of the north, the 
duties discharged by Gask being chiefly those 
of treasurer. Both father and son were present 
at Falkirk and Culloden ; and after the battle 
of Falkirk, when the prince's troops, on ac- 
count of the slight resistance and rapid flight of 
the enemy, dreaded some ambuscade, young 
Gask and the eldest son of Lord Strathallan 
went down together from the hill towards the 
town of Falkirk, in the guise of peasants, to 
obtain information (Home, History of the Re- 
bellion, p. 1 75). When the prince, after Cullo- 
den, declined further to continue the contest, 
the laird of Gask and his son fled eastward into 
Aberdeenshire, and, after remaining in hiding 
for about six months in the neighbourhood 
of the Dee, obtained, with other Jacobites, a 
passage in a vessel which landed them in 
Sweden on 10 Oct. 1746. Thence they 
passed south to France. The estates of Gask 
were seized by the crown and sold, but in 
1753 they were purchased by some friends 
and presented to Oliphant. On the death of 
Charles, seventh lord Oliphant, on 19 April 
1748, Gask laid claim to the title, which, how- 
ever, was assumed by Charles Oliphant of 
Langton, who died on 3 June 1751, and in 
his will acknowledged the laird of Gask to 



be heir to the title. The peerage was also 
confirmed to him by the Pretender in 1760. 
He was permitted to return home in 1763, 
but the attainder was not reversed. He died 
early in 1767. Oliphant married Amelia Anne 
Sophia, second daughter of William, second 
lord Nairne. His neir, Laurence, paternal 
grandfather of Carolina, lady Nairne [q. v.], 
the poetess, died on 1 Jan. 1792. 

[Histories of the Rebellion ; Anderson's Oli- 
phantsin Scotland; Kington Oliphant's Jacobite 
Lairds of Gask.] T. F. H. 

OLIPHANT, LAURENCE (1829-1888), 
author of 'Piccadilly/ only child of (Sir) 
Anthonv Oliphant (1793-1869), by his wife 
Maria, daughter of Colonel Campbell of the 
72nd highfanders, was born at Capetown in 
1829. Tnomas Oliphant [q. v.], the musician, 
was his uncle. His father, who was third son 
of Ebenezer Oliphant of Condie and New- 
ton, Perthshire, by Mary, daughter of Sir 
William Stirling of Ardoch, had been called 
to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1821, and 

Practised for a time in London as an equity 
raughtsman, but just before his son's birth 
he was appointed attorney-general at the 
Cape. Laurence's father and mother were 
both fervent evangelicals. The mother re- 
turned to Europe on account of her health, 
and took her son with her. He was sent 
to the school of a Mr. Parr at Durnford 
Manor, Salisbury. He spent part of his 
holidays with his mother at Condie, an an- 
cestral home of the Oliphant family. His 
father was in 1839 made chief justice of 
Ceylon, and was knighted. Lady Oliphant 
rejoined him in Ceylon in 1841. Laurence 
was sent out in the winter of the same year, 
in charge of a private tutor, who continued 
to teach him in Ceylon; but his education 
was much interrupted. His father returned 
on two years' leave about 1846, and spent the 
time in a continental tour. Laurence was 
allowed to accompany his parents instead of 
going to Cambridge, as had been intended. 
The family spent the winter of 1846-7 at 
Paris, travelled through Germany and the 
Tyrol during 1847, and at the end of the 
year crossed the Alps to Italy. Here young 
Oliphant was present at some of the popular 
disturbances in the beginning of 1848. He 
went with his parents to Greece, and then 
accompanied them to Ceylon, where he acted 
as his father's private secretary, and was 
called to the colonial bar. At the age of 
twenty-two, he says, he had been engaged in 
twenty-three murder cases. In December 
1851 he was invited by Jung Bahadur, who 
had touched at Ceylon on a return voyage 
from England, to join a hunting excursion 
in NepauL After reaching Khatmandu he 



Oliphant 



134 



Oliphant 



returned to Ceylon. A few months later he 
came to England with his mother, and at 
the end of 1851 began to keep terms at Lin- 
coln's Inn. Besides studying law, he took 
an interest in various labours undertaken by 
Lord Shaftesbury and others among the Lon- 
don poor. In the spring of 1852 he pub- 
lished an account of his tour in Nepaul, 
called ' A Journey to Khatmandu.' He re- 
solved to be called to the Scottish as well as 
the English bar, and began his studies at 
Edinburgh in the summer of 1852. In Au- 

rt 1852 he started with Mr. Oswald Smith 
a visit to St. Petersburg, thence to Nijni- 
Novgorod, and ultimately to the Crimea. He 
published an account of part of the journey, 
' The Russian Shores of the Black Sea in the 
Autumn of 1852, and a Tour through the 
Country of the Don Cossacks/ at the end of 
1853. The approach of the Crimean war 
gave special interest to this book, which soon 
reached a fourth edition. Lord Raglan ap- 
plied to him for information, and he was 
engaged to write for the ' Daily News.' 
While keenly interested in this he received an 
offer of an appointment from James Bruce, 
eighth earl 01 Elgin [q. v.], then governor- 
general of Canada, witn whose family Lady 
Oliphant was intimate. Oliphant acted as 
secretary to Lord Elgin during the negotia- 
tion at Washington of the reciprocity treaty 
with Canada. The treaty, ' floated through on 
champagne/ was signed in June, and Oli- 
phant then accompanied Lord Elgin to 
Quebec. There he was soon appointed 
' superintendent of Indian affairs/ and made 
a journey to Lake Superior and back by the 
Mississippi and Chicago, described soon after- 
wards in ' Minnesota and the Far West/ 
1855. Dancing, travelling, and political 
business filled up his time agreeably ; but on 
Lord Elgin's retirement at the end of 1854, 
he declined offers of an appointment under Sir 
Edmund Head, Elgin's successor. He came 
back to England, whither his father had now 
finally returned. He put forward a plan I 
suggested by his previous journeys, which is 
described in a pamphlet called ' The Trans- 
Caucasian Provinces the proper Field of 1 
Operation for a Christian Army/ 1855. He 
succeeded in obtaining from Lord Clarendon | 
a recommendation to Lord Stratford de Red- | 
cliffe. He wished to be sent as an envoy to 
Schamyl, with a view to a diversion against 
the Russians. His father accompanied him to 
Constantinople. They found Lord Stratford 
about to visit the Crimea, and accompanied 
him thither. Oliphant had a glimpse of the 
siege of Sebastopol ; and, though he could 
not obtain an authorisation for his scheme, 
was invited by the Duke of Newcastle to 



join him on a visit to the Circassian coasts. 
He sailed at the end of August, and made 
a short rush into the country. He after- 
wards joined the force under Omar Pasha, 
and was present at the battle of the Ingour. 
The fall of Kars made the expedition fruit- 
less ; and after much suffering, and a conse- 
quent illness, during the retreat, he returned 
to England at the end of 1855. * The Trans- 
Caucasian Campaign . . . under Omer Pasha : 
a personal narrative/ 1856, describes his ex- 
periences. He had been acting as correspon- 
dent of the ' Times ' during this expedition, 
and in 1856 he was invited by- the editor, De- 
lane, to accompany him on a visit to the 
United States. He travelled through the 
Southern States to New Orleans, and there 
joined the filibuster Walker. His motive, he 
say 8, was partly the fun of the thing, and in 
some degree an offer of confiscated estates if 
the expedition should succeed. The expedi- 
tion fell in with H.M.S. Cossack at the mouth 
of the St. Juan river. Her captain, Cockburn, 
came on board, declared his determination to 

Erevent a fight, and carried off Oliphant, who 
ad admitted himself to be a British subject. 
Oliphant was made welcome as a guest on 
board the Cossack, and, after a few excur- 
sions, returned to England. An account of 
his first trip in the Circassia, and of this 
adventure, is given in his l Patriots and 
Filibusters : Incidents of political and ex- 
ploratory Travel/ 1860. 

In 1857 Oliphant became private secretary 
to Lord Elgin on his visit to China. He went 
with Elgin to Calcutta when the outbreak 
of the mutiny made it necessary to change 
the destination of the Chinese force. He 
then accompanied Elgin to Hongkong, was 

E resent at the bombardment of Canton, and 
elped to storm Tientsin. He was em- 
ployed in several minor missions, and visited 
Japan with the expedition. He published a 
'Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission to 
China and Japan in the years 1857-8-9 ' in 
1859 ; translated into French in 1860, with 
an introductory letter from Guizot. His 
father, with whom he was always upon the 
most affectionate terms, had died just before 
his return. Oliphant was without employ- 
ment for a time, but in 1860 amused himself 
by a visit to Italy, where he saw Cavour, 
and formed a plot with Garibaldi for break- 
ing up the ballot-boxes at Nice on occasion 
of the vote for annexation to France. He 
gave his view of the value of a plebiscite in 
a pamphlet called ' Universal Suffrage and 
Napoleon the Third/ 1860. Garibaldi's ex- 

? edition to Sicily broke up the Nice scheme, 
n 1861 Oliphant travelled in Montenegro 
and elsewhere, and soon afterwards accepted 



Oliphant 



135 



Oliphant 



an appointment as first secretary of legation 
in Japan. He arrived at Yeddo at the end 
of June 1861. On the evening of 6 July a 
night attack was made on the embassy. 
Oliphant rushed out with a hunting-whip, 
and was attacked by a Japanese with a heavy 
two-handed sword. A beam, invisible in 
the darkness, interfered with the blows, but 
Oliphant was severely wounded, and sent on 
board ship to recover. He had to return to 
England after a visit to the Corea, where he 
discovered a Russian force occupying a re- 
tired bay, and obtained their retirement. 

Visits to Corfu with the Prince of Wales, 
then on his way to Palestine, and after- 
wards to the Herzegovina and the Abruzzi, 
were his only occupations in 1862. He 
was now compelled by * family considera- 
tions ' to retire from the diplomatic service. 
Early in 1863 he ran over to look at the in- 
surrection in Poland, and later in the year 
made another attempt, but was turned back. 
He then travelled m Moldavia, and went 
northwards to see a little of the Schleswig- 
Holstein war. He was now disposed to 
settle down. He had already once or twice 
canvassed the Stirling Burghs, and made 
himself popular with the electors. In 1864 
he joined Sir Algernon Borthwick and some 
other friends in starting a journal called ' The 
Owl/ of which Thomas Onwhyn [q. v.] was 
the publisher. It was suggested at a dinner- 
party in fun, and was intended to be partly 
a mystification, supported by an affected 
knowledge of profound political secrets. Sir 
Algernon Borthwick undertook to print it, 
and it caused much amusement to the 
initiated. Oliphant contributed only to the 
first ten numbers, retiring when it was taken 
up more seriously. In the following year 
he published 'Piccadilly: a Fragment of 
Contemporary Biography/ in 'Blackwood's 
Magazine ' (republished, with illustrations by 
R. Doyle, in 1870). 

In 1865 Oliphant was returned at the 
general election for the Stirling Burghs. He 
did little in parliament, and was not much 
edified, it appears, by the manoeuvres which 
attended the passage of the Reform Bill of 
1867. A singular change now took place in 
his life. His rambling and adventurous 
career had given him much experience, but 
had not made up for a desultory education. 
He loved excitement , was a universal favourite I 
in society, and had had flirtations in every I 
quarter of the globe. He was a clear-headed 
man of business, had seen the mysteries of | 
official life, and was a brilliant journalist. ! 
From his earliest years, however, he had 
also strong religious impressions, and in his 
letters to his mother speculations upon his own 



state of mind and the various phenomena 
of religions of all varieties had alternated 
with sparkling descriptions of adventure and 
society. He had been interested successively 
in many of the books which reflect contem- 
porary movements of thought. He had read 
Theodore Parker, W. Smith's 'Thorndale/ 
Maurice's writings, and Morell's ' History of 
Philosophy.' His want of intellectual ballast, 
however, left him* at the mercy of any pre- 
tender to inspiration. His official and social 
experience had dispersed many illusions, and 
his ' Piccadilly/ very brightly written, is not 
a novel proper, but a satire directed against 
the various hypocrisies and corruptions of 
society. He had come, he says, to think that 
the world at large was a ' lunatic asylum/ 
a common opinion among persons not them- 
selves conspicuous for sanity. He mentions 
in it ' the greatest poet of the age, Thomas 
Lake Harris/ author of 'The Great Republic : 
a Poem of the Sun.' Harris is also typified 
in a mysterious prophet who meets the nero, 
and was, in fact, the head of a community in 
America. The creed appears to have been 
the usual mixture of scraps of misunderstood 
philosophy and science, with peculiar views 
about ' physical sensations ' caused by the life 
of Christ in man, and a theory that marriage 
should be a Platonic relation. Oliphant 
had also some belief in ' spiritualism/ though 
he came to regard it as rather diabolical 
than divine. In 1867 he resigned his seat in 
parliament, and joined Harris's community 
at Brocton, or ' Salem-on-Erie.' Harris 
was in the habit of casting out devils and 
forming magnetic circles among his disciples. 
Oliphant became his spiritual slave. He 
was set to work on the farm, was ordered 
to drive teams and 'cadge strawberries on 
the railway/ and, after walking all day, was 
sent out at night to draw water 'till his 
fingers were almost frost-bitten.' He made 
over all his money to the community. Oli- 
phant's mother also joined the community 
in 1868, and, though living* at the same place, 
was not allowed to hold any confidential 
communication with him. After going 
through this probation the disciples were to 
regenerate the world, and mother and son 
are said to have ' found perfect peace and 
contentment.' In 1870 Oliphant returned 
under Harris's orders, and was supported by 
a small allowance. He resumed his former 
occupation by becoming ' Times ' correspon- 
dent in the Franco-German war. He was 
with the French and afterwards with the 
German armies, and suddenly returned to 
America, in obedience, it is said, to a sign 
prescribed by Harris — namely, by a bullet 
grazing his hair. He soon came back, how- 



Oliphant 



136 



Oliphant 



ever, and was again * Times ' correspondent 
at Paris towards the end of 1871. His 
mother was permitted to join him there. 
There he met Alice, daughter of Mr. Henry 
le Strange of Hunstanton, Norfolk, and 
stepdaughter of Mr. Wynne-Finch. All 
who knew her speak of her singular fascina- 
tion. She was twenty-six, and she had been 
much admired in society, but shared some of 
Oliphant's dissatisfaction with the world. 
She adopted his creed, and they were en- 
gaged at the beginning of 1872. The con- 
sent, however, of Harris was required, and the 
genuine ' human sentiment ' was to be con- 
sidered as an ' abstract and spiritual passion/ 
a text upon which Oliphant discourses in 
letters quoted by his biographer. Her family 
were naturally displeased at the pecuniary 
arrangements, as the * whole of her property 
was placed unreservedly in the hands' of 
Hams (Life, p. 115). Oliphant appears (ib. 
pp. 120-2) to have equivocated upon this 
occasion in a rather painful way, though the 
details are not very clear. He was married 
in June 1872 at St. George's, Hanover 
Square, though it would seem the relation 
was regulated in some way by the spiritual 
authorities (ib. p. 125). In 1873 Oliphant, 
with his wiie and mother, returned to Broc- 
ton by Harris's orders. The wife and mother 
were employed in menial offices. Oliphant 
himself was directed to take part in various 
commercial enterprises for the benefit, appa- 
rently, of the community. He was in New 
York and Canada, and occasionally sent over 
to England. In 1874 he joined the * Direct 
United States Cable Company/ and was 
' coaching a bill through the Dominion Legis- 
lature.' He learnt the secrets of commer- 
cial ' rings/ and was kindly treated by the 
great Jay Gould, upon whose mercy he threw 
himself. In 1876 he contributed to ' Black- 
wood's Magazine ' the ' Autobiography of a 
Joint-stock Company/ revealing some mys- 
teries of commercial jugglery. He is said 
to have shown much financial ability in 
these transactions. 

Meanwhile Harris had migrated to Santa 
Rosa, near San Francisco, and taken Mrs. 
Oliphant with him. In the beginning of 
1878 Oliphant went to San Francisco, to the 
office of Mr. J. D. Walker of San Rafael, 
whose friendship he had won by an act of 
kindness. His purpose was to see his wife, 
but permission was refused, and he returned 
to Brocton. In the following autumn Mrs. 
Oliphant left Santa Rosa, though still under* 
Harris's rule, and supported herself for a 
time, first at Vallego and then at Benicia, 
by keeping a school. She was warmly ap- 
preciated by the Californians, and Mrs. 



Walker was able to see her occasionally ~ 
It seems that about this time Harris had 
discovered not only that the marriage was 
not a marriage of 'counterparts/ but that 
Oliphant had a spiritual 'counterpart' in 
the other world, who inspired him with 
rhymed communications, and was therefore 
an obstacle to union with his earthly wife. 
His belief in these communications strikes 
his biographer as the ' only sign of mental 
aberration she ever noticed. Meanwhile 
Oliphant took up a scheme for colonising 
Palestine with Jews, and early in 1879 went 
to the East to examine the country, and en- 
deavour to obtain a concession from the 
Turkish government. An account of his 
journey was given in ' The Land of Gilead, 
with Excursions in the Lebanon/ 1880. The 
attempt upon the Turkish goverment failed,, 
and the scheme broke down. Oliphant re- 
turned to England, and there, in the early 
winter of 1880, he was rejoined by his wife 
She had obtained Harris's permission to re- 
turn by accepting ' irritating conditions on 
the freedom of their intercourse.' They 
made, however, a journey to Egypt in the 
winter, described by him in ' Tne Land of 
Khemi, up and down the Middle Nile, r 
1882. An accidental difficulty at Cairo pre- 
vented them from formally making over to- 
Harris their right in the land at Brocton. 
In May 1881 Oliphant returned to America 
to see his mother, who was still at Brocton^ 
He found her both ill and troubled by doubta 
as to the Harris creed. They went to Santa 
Rosa, where the sight of a ' valuable ring T 
of Lady Oliphant's upon the finger of one 
of Harris's household staggered their faiths 
Oliphant took his mother, in spite of orders- 
from Harris, to a village where there was a 
woman with an infallible panacea. She 
there died, in the presence of her son and 
their kind friend Mrs. Walker. Oliphant 
himself now became sceptical as to the pro- 
phet's inspiration, and, with the help of Mr. 
Walker, recovered his land at Brocton by 
legal proceedings. Harris and his disciples 
took a different view of these transactions. 
His wife had received a telegram from Santa 
Anna during his absence requesting her sanc- 
tion to placing him in confinement. This 
appears to have ended her allegiance to the 
prophet. Oliphant was again in England in 
January 1882, and prepared the volume 
called 'Traits and Travesties/ 1882, consist- 
ing chiefly of reprints from 'Blackwood's 
Magazine.' Oliphant now took up the Pales- 
tine colonisation scheme. He travelled with 
his wife to Constantinople in the summer of 
1882, and settled for some time at Therapia. 
At the end of the year they moved to Haifa 



Oliphant 



137 



Oliphant 



in the Bay of Acre, in the neighbourhood of 
various Jewish colonies. He wrote there his 
story ' Altiora Peto,' 1883, in the ' Piccadilly ' 
style, the name being derived from a motto of 
his branch of the Oliphant family. At Haifa 
they collected a number of sympathisers, 
though they did not form exactly a commu- 
nity. Oliphant, it seems, was now regarded 
as a 'sort of head of affairs at Brocton,' 
which was no longer in connection with 
Harris. Visitors from Brocton, as well as 
natives and Jewish immigrants, fathered 
around them. They built a small nouse at 
Dalieh in the neighbourhood, and endea- 
voured to carry out their ideal of life. They 
gave expositions of their views to various 
inquirers, and were not converted to ' Eso- 
teric Buddhism.' A strange book, called 
4 Sympneumata,' was written by them in 
concert and, as they thought, by a kind of 
common inspiration. Some who had sym- 
pathised, however, were alienated ' in fear ' 
and others ' in disgust/ Others regarded it 
as harmless nonsense. Oliphant also wrote 
' Massollam/ 1886, which gives his final 
judgment of Harris. 

During a trip to the Lake of Tiberias, at 
the end of 1886, Mrs. Oliphant caught a 
fever, and died on 2 Jan. 1887. Oliphant 
believed that she soon came back to him in 
spirit, and sent messages through him to her 
friends. Her presence was shown by strange 
convulsive movements. He returned to Eng- 
land to carry out a tour which they had 
planned to take together. He was much 
broken, though he could still often talk with 
his old brightness. He wrote a series of 
papers in ' Blackwood,' published in 1887 as 
' Episodes in a Life of Adventure ; or Moss 
from a Rolling Stone/ which describe his 
early career with great spirit. He also 
published at Haifa a description of Pales- 
tine and ' Fashionable Philosophy/ 1887, a 
collection of various stories. In 1887 he re- 
turned to Haifa, and wrote a pamphlet called 
'The Star in the East' for the benefit of 
Mahommedans. It is said to have made one 
Arab convert, who was * not much credit to 
his leader.' He returned to England and 
finished his last book, ' Scientific Religion ; 
or Evolutionary Forces now Active in Man/ 
1888. It helped to bring about him a crowd 
of ' spiritualists ' and people capable of mis- 
taking twaddle about the masculine-feminine 
principle for philosophy. He visited America 
in 1888, and returned with Miss Rosamond 
Dale Owen, daughter of Robert Dale Owen 
[q. vj, to whom he was married at Malvern 
on 16 Aug. A few days later he was seized 
with a dangerous illness at the house of his 
old friends, the Walkers, at Surbiton. Thence 



he was moved to York House, Twickenham, 
to be the guest of his friend Sir Mount- 
stuart Grant Duff. The illness was hopeless- 
from the first, though he was flattered by 
hopes of a miraculous cure. He was still 
cheerful and even witty to the last, and died 
peacefully on 23 Dec. 1888. 

The charm of Oliphant's alert and versa- 
tile intellect and sympathetic character was 
recognised by a wide circle of friends. It 
was felt not least by those who most re- 
gretted the strange religious developments 
which led to the waste of his powers and his- 
enslavement to such a propnet as Harris. 
He was beloved for his boyish simplicity 
and the warmth of heart which appeared 
through all his illusions. Suggestions of 
insanity were, of course, made, but appa- 
rently without definite reasons. Remark- 
able talents without thorough training have 
thrown many minds off their balance, and 
Oliphant's case is only exceptional for the 
singular combination of two apparently in- 
consistent careers. Till his last years, at 
any rate, his religious mysticism did not 
disqualify him for being also a shrewd 
financier, a charming man of the world, and 
a brilliant writer. His works have been 
mentioned above. He also cont ributed many 
articles to ' Blackwood's Magazine ' and the 
1 Times.' 

[Memoir of the Life of Laurence Oliphant 
and of Alice Oliphant, his wife, by Margaret 
Oliphant W. Oliphant, 2 vols. 1891. Oliphant's 
writings give many details of his early travels 
and adventures. See also Personal Reminis- 
cences of L. Oliphant, by Louis Leesching 
(n.d.); and, for some account of the Brocton 
community from the other side, Brotherhood of 
the New Life: a letter from Thomas Lake 
Harris, 1893, and the Brotherhood of the New 
Life by Richard MacCully, Glasgow, 1893, pp. 
146-61.] L. S. 

OLIPHANT, THOMAS (1799-1873), 
writer and musical composer, was born 
25 Dec. 1799, at Condie, Strathearn, Perth- 
shire, in the house of his father, Ebenezer 
Oliphant ; his mother was Mary, the third 
daughter of Sir William Stirling, bart., of 
Ardoch, Perthshire. After being educated 
at Winchester College and by private tutors, 
he became for a short time a member of 
the Stock Exchange, London, but soon re- 
linquished commerce to devote himself to 
literature and music. In 1830 he was ad- 
mitted a member of the Madrigal Society, 
of which he afterwards became honorary secre- 
tary, and, for the use of its members, he adapted 
English words to a considerable number 
of Italian madrigals, in some cases writing 
original verses, in others by merely trans- 



Oliphant 



138 



Oliphant 



lating. In 1834 he took part in the chorus, 
as a bass vocalist, in the great Handel 
festival held in Westminster Abbey, and in 
the same year published, under the pseudonym 
4 Solomon Sackbut/ ' Comments of a Chorus 
Singer at the Royal Musical Festival in 
Westminster Abbey.' He also published in 
1835 < A Brief Account of the Madrigal 
Society ; ' in 1836, ' A Short Account of 
Madrigals ; ' in 1 837 ' La Musa Madrigalesca/ 
a volume containing the words ot nearly 
four hundred ' madrigals, ballets, and 
roundelays, chiefly of the Elizabethan age, 
with remarks and annotations. 1 In 1837 ne 
composed the words and music of a madrigal, 
1 Stay one Moment, gentle Sires/ which he pro- 
duced as the work of an unknown seventeenth- 
century composer, Blasio Tomasi,and as such 
it was performed at the anniversary festival 
of the Madrigal Society. He wrote Eng- 
lish versions of Beethoven's ' Fidelio ' and the 
' Mount of Olives/ and the words for nume- 
rous songs of Hatton and other composers. 
By desire of the directors of the Philhar- 
monic Society he translated portions of 
Wagner's opera * Lohengrin/ which were 
performed by the society's orchestra and 
chorus, the composer conducting, at the 
Hanover Square Rooms in March 1855. 
He was engaged for some years in catalogu- 
ing the music in the British Museum, and 
he occasionally lectured in public on musical 
subjects. In 1871 he was elected president 
of the Madrigal Society. He died unmarried, 
on 9 March 1873, in Great Marlborough 
Street, and in the following April his valu- 
able collection of ancient music was sold by 
Messrs. Puttick & Simpson. 

[Private knowledge.] W. H. C. 

OLIPHANT or OLIFARD, Sir WIL- 
LIAM (d. 1829\ of Aberdalgie, Perthshire, 
was eldest son 01 Sir Walter Olifard, justiciar 
of Lothian under Alexander I. This office 
was originally bestowed on his ancestor, 
David de Olifard, who, while a soldier in the 
army of King Stephen, rescued Kin^ David I 
of Scotland fq. v.] at the siege of Winchester 
Castle in 1141, and enabled him to reach 
Scotland in safety. Sir William Oliphant's 
name first appears as witness to a charter of 
John, earl of Atholl, some time before 1296 
{Hist . MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. p. 690). Being 
taken prisoner at the capture of Dunbar 
Castle in 1296, after the defeat of the Scots 
army by John de Warenne, earl of Surrey, 
he was on 16 May committed a prisoner to 
the castle of Devizes, where he remained till 
October 1297 ( Cal. Documents relating to Scot- 
land, 1272-1307, entry 953), and then only 
received his release on condition of serving 



Edward I beyond seas. While at Sandwich, 
previous to embarkation for Flushing, he 
and Edward de Ramsay were allowed 12<J. 
a day, and each of their squires 6d. a day 
(Stevenson, Documents illustrative of the 
History of Scotland, ii. 40). Subsequently 
Oliphant returned to Scotland, and supported 
Wallace in his endeavour to uphold Scottish 
independence. On the capture of Stirling 
Castle from the English in 1299, he was en- 
trusted with its defence by the governor, Sir 
John Foulis. After a feeble attempt to bar 
the progress of Edward in 1304, Comyn [see 
Comtn, John, the younger] gave in his sub- 
mission to Edward, and Stirling Castle re- 
mained the sole fortress in Scotland that had 
not surrendered to the English king. Oli- 
phant, on being commanded to give it up, re- 
plied that, having received the custody of it 
from Sir John Foulis, he could not hand it 
over to Edward without forfeiting his oath 
and honour as a knight, but if permitted would 
instantly go to France to inquire of Sir John 
Foulis what were his commands, and if they 
countenanced surrender he would obey them. 
But Edward, according to Langtoft, being 
then ' full grim/ replied that he would agree 
to no such terms, and that Oliphant would 
retain the castle at his peril (Chronicle, p. 
325). During the siege all the goods and 
chattels of Oliphant were seized by Edward 
and bestowed on Gilbert Malherbe (Cal. 
Documents relating to Scotland, 1272-1307, 
entry 1517). The siege continued for ninety 
days ( Chronicon Galfridi le Baker, ed . Thomp- 
son, p. 2), and the reduction of the castle 
taxed all Edward's ingenuity and resources. 
Thirteen * great engynes ' were brought by 
him to batter down its defences (Langtoft, 
p. 326), the leaden roof of the refectory of St. 
Andrews being melted down to supply leaden 
balls for their use. The siege was under the 
immediate direction of Edward himself, who, 
in his eagerness to effect the fall of the castle, 
frequently exposed himself to imminent 
peril. For a long time the defenders held a 
decided advantage, but ultimately, by the 
use of Greek fire and the construction of 
two immense machines for throwing stones 
and leaden balls, he made such breaches 
on the inner walls, and so harassed the de- 
fenders, that Oliphant offered terms of sur- 
render. It is stated that he stipulated for 
I the freedom of himself and the garrison, but 
that Edward ' belied his troth ' and broke 
I through the conditions; for 'William Oli- 
I phant, the warden thereof, he threw bound 
j into prison, and kept long time in thrall ' 
I (John of Fordoun, ed. Skene, i. 336; 
j Wyntoun, ed. Laing, ii. 362). The castle 
was surrendered on 24 July 1304 (Cal, 



v 



Oliphant 



139 



Oliphant 



Documents relating to Scotland, 1272- 
1307, entry 1562), and Oliphant is mentioned 
as a prisoner in the Tower on 21 May 1306 
(ib. entry 1668 ; Stevenson, Documents il- 
lustrative of the History of Scotland, p. 11). 
From Michaelmas 1306 till Michaelmas 1307 
the sum of 6/. 20d. was paid for his main- 
tenance by the sheriffs of London to the 
committee of the Tower {Cal. Documents 
relating to Scotland, 1307-57, entry 36). 
On 24 May 1308 Edward II gave command 
to the constable of the Tower to liberate 
him on his giving surety for his good be- 
haviour (ib. entry 45). On his way to Scot- 
land he came to Lincoln, and took out of 
prison four Scotsmen who had served under 
nim in Stirling Castle, who were to go with 
him on the king's service into Scotland 
(Rotuli Scot ice, i. 61). He was in receipt of 
pay from the king of England in January 
1310-11 (Cal. Documents relating to Scot- 
land, 1307-67, entry 193), and he was ap- 
Eointed by Edward governor of Perth, which 
eld out for six weeks against Robert Bruce. 
Ultimately it was captured by stratagem, 
Bruce, after retiring with his army for eight 
days, returning suddenly during the night, 
and scaling the walls at the head of his troops. 
The town was taken on 8 Jan. 1311-12, 
when Oliphant was sent a prisoner to the 
Western Isles (Chronicle of Lanercost, p. 
272). On 22 Feb. 1311-12 the collectors of 
customs of wool and hides in Perth were re- 
quired to pay the whole of these to Oliphant, 
in satisfaction of the king of England's 
debt to him (Cal. Documents relating to 
Scotland, 1307-57, entry 247). Oliphant 
obtained his freedom at least before 21 Oct. 
1813, when he received protection on his 
setting out for Scotland, and for his return 
to England (ib. entries 313, 339). On 
26 Dec. 1317 he received from Robert Bruce 
the lands of Newtyle and Nynprony, For- 
farshire, to be held in free barony ; also, by 
subsequent charters, the lands of Muir- 
house in the shire of Edinburgh ; and by 
charter at Scone, on 20 March 1326, the 
lands of Ochtertyre, Perthshire. He was 
present at a great parliament held at Aber- 
brothwick in April 1320, and his seal is 
attached to the remonstrance then addressed 
to the pope asserting the independence of 
Scotland. He was also present at a parliament 
held at Holyrood on 8 March 1326. He 
died in 1329, and was buried at Aberdalgie, 
where the original monument to his memory 
is still in fair preservation. He left a son, 
Sir Walter Oliphant of Aberdalgie, who 
married the Princess Elizabeth, youngest 
daughter of Robert Bruce. From him the 
Lords Oliphant are descended. 



[Authorities mentioned in the text; Ander- 
son's Oliphants in Scotland, 1879, pp. xii-xxi.] 

T F H 
OLIPHANT, Sib WILLIAM (1561- 
1628), of Newton, advocate, son of William 
Oliphant of Newton, in the parish of For- 
gandenny, Perthshire, was admitted to the 
Scottish bar on 20 Oct. 1677. Five years 
later (14 Oct. 1582) he was appointed a 
justice-depute (Pitcairn, i. 101), and in 
1604 he acted as advocate-depute for Sir 
Thomas Hamilton, king's advocate. In the 
same" vear a commission was chosen to dis- 
cuss the question of union with England, and 
Oliphant was added as one 'best affected 
and fittest for that eirand ' (Meg. of Privy 
Council, vii. 457). He was also a commis- 
sioner (1607) for reforming the teaching of 
grammar in schools, which had fallen into 
disrepute by the l curiositie of divers maisters 
. . . taking upon thaim efter thair fantesie 
to teache such grammer as pleases them' 
(Acts of Pari. iv. 374). His reputation at 
the bar meanwhile advanced ; he appears in 
many of the leading cases (Pitcaibn ; Reg. 
of Privy Council, passim). He was chosen, 
with Thomas Craig, to defend the six mi- 
nisters in January 1606 ; but he gave up his 
brief on the eve of the trial, on the plea, 
as Balmerino explained, that the king's 
promise of leniency, provided they acknow- 
ledged their offence, did not justify their 
obstinacy (ib. vii. 478). He thereby won the 
king's favour, and was soon amply rewarded. 
In 1608 the council, in a letter to the king, 
named him first of four who were ' the most 
learned and best experienced of their pro- 
fession ' (Denmylne MSS. A. 2. 39. No. 66). 
In November 1610 he appears as a justice of 
the peace for Perthshire and the stewartries 
of Strathearn and Menteith (Reg. of Privy 
Council, ix. 78). 

He was elevated to the bench in January 
1611, in succession to Sir David Lindsay of 
Edzell, one of the lords-ordinary. There- 
upon the privy council wrote a long letter 
to the king, in which they declared how 
popular had been the election of one ' whose 
oipast cariage is and hes bene onlie force- 
able to hald him in your Majesteis remem- 
berance ' (ib. ix. 592). Next year (19 June) 
he was nominated in a royal letter as kingfs 
advocate, in succession to Hamilton, who 
had been appointed clerk of register. On 
9 July following he was admitted of the 
privy council as lord-advocate, and was 
Knighted by the chancellor in conformity 
with a mandate from the king. He retained 
his seat on the bench (ib. ix. 403). Parlia- 
ment ratified his appointment in October, 
and granted a pension of 1,000/. for life, 



Oliver 



140 



Oliver 



which the king had intimated to the council 
in a letter of 8 April 1611. 

He played a prominent part in the politi- 
cal stir 01 the closing years of James's reign ; 
the sederunts of the privy council show that 
he was present at almost every meeting. 
In December 1612 he was one of a select 
commission of five for the settling of con- 
troversies between burgh and landward jus- 
tices of the peace (ib. ix. 503) ; in August 
1613 a commissioner for the trial of the 
Jesuit Robert Philip, in December 1614 for 
the trial of Father John Ogilvie [3. v.], and 
in June 1615 for that of James Moffat ; in 
December 1615 he was appointed a member 
of the reconstructed court of high commis- 
sion, and in May 1616 one of the committee 
to report on the book ' God and the King/ 
whicn James had determined to introduce 
into Scotland as he had done in England and 
Ireland. On 17 Dec. 1616 Oliphant was 
elected a member of the financial committee 
of the council known as the commissioners 
for the king's rents (ib. x. 676 ; Balfouk, 
Annate, ii. 65). As kind's advocate he ap- 
pears in all the great political trials, notably 
those of Gordon of Gicht and Sir James 
Macdonald of Islay. He had the care, too, 
of putting into force the new acts against 
the sale of tobacco and the carrying of hag- 
buts j and the numerous prosecutions which 
he carried out testify to nis activity. The 
parliament of 1621 ratified the possession of 
the family lands to him and his sons James 
and William in fee (Acts of Pari. iv. 662}. 
Charles Fs proclamation prohibiting the hold- 
ing of an ordinary seat in the court of ses- 
sion by officers of state and nobles compelled 
him to leave the bench (February 1626). He 
died on 1 (13 ?) April 1628, and was buried 
in the Greyfriars' churchyard at Edinburgh. 

To Oliphant is due the present procedure 
of examining witnesses in the hearing of 
the jury. Hitherto evidence had been taken 
by deposition, and the duty of the jury had 
been to examine the indictment in the light 
of this evidence. The change was effected 
in the trial of one Liston, accused of the 
murder of a certain John Mayne (Pitcaikn). 

[Register of the Privy Council of Scotland ; 
Acts of Parliament of Scotland ; Retours ; Den- 
mylne MSS. in Advocates' Library, passim ; 
Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College of 
Justice ; Piteairn's Criminal Trials ; Anderson's 
Oliphants in Scotland, 1879, p. 156.] G. G. S. 

OLIVER of Malmesbury, otherwise 
known as Eilmeb, Elmer, or ^thelm^er 
(fl. 1066), astrologer and mechanician, a monk 
of Malmesbury, is said by William of Malmes- 
bury, who calls him Eilmer, a latinised 
form of the English name ^Ethelmeer, to 



have been a man of learning. In his youth 
he attempted to follow the example of 
Daedalus, fitted wings on to his hands and 
feet, ascended a tower to get the help of 
the wind, threw himself off, and is said to 
have flown a furlong or more. Becoming 
frightened at the strength of the wind, he 
fell and broke his legs, and thenceforward 
was lame. He attributed his failure to his 
having omitted to provide himself with a 
tail, which would have steadied him in his 
flight. He was advanced in years when, on 
24 April 1066, there appeared the great 
comet, which, though seen with awe in 
every part of Europe, was held in England 
and elsewhere to have been a presage of the 
Norman conquest (Freeman, Norman Con- 
quest, iii. 71, 72, 645-50). On beholding it 
Eilmer cried ' Thou hast come, thou hast 
come, bringing sorrow to many mothers. 
Long ago have I seen thee, but now more 
terrible do I behold thee, threatening the 
destruction of this country ' (Will. Malm. 
Gesta Regum, ii. c. 225). The story seems 
to have been popular. It is possible that 
Orderic, writing independently of William of 
Malmesbury, refers to Elmer's words (p. 492) ; 
Alberic of Trois Fontaines (an. 1066) took 
the story from William of Malmesbury. It 
appears in the * Speculum Historiale ' of Vin- 
cent of Beauvais (d. 1204), and is given by 
Higden in his ' Polychronicon/ where the 
monk of Malmesbury is called Oliver, and 
the story consequently is in the two English 
translations of that work. Lastly, it was 
copied by John Nauclerus of Tubingen, 
who wrote his ' Commentaries ' about 1500. 
Bale, in the 1549 edition of his * Catalogue/ 
attributes to Oliver the authorship of the 
'Eulogium Historiarum ; ' he corrects this 
strange mistake in the edition of 1557, where 
he quotes Capgrave as showing that the 
1 Eulogium ' was compiled in the reign of 
Edward III. He says that Oliver was the 
author of three works : ' Astrologorum dog- 
mata quredam/ ' De planetarum signis/ and 
* De Geomantia/ none of which are at pre- 
sent known to exist. 

[Will. Malm. Gesta Regum, lib.ii.c. 225 (Rolls 
Ser.) ; Orderic, p. 492, ed. Duchesne ; Vincent 
ofBeauvais's Speculum Majus, IV, Spec. Hist, 
bk. 25, c. 35, f. 350 ; Higden's Polychronicon, 
vii. 222 (Rolls Ser.) ; John Nauclerus's Memo- 
rab ilium Commentarii, f. 160; Bale's Cat. Illustr. 
SS. cent. ii. p. 163 (1557); Eulogium Hist. i. 
Pref. xxvii (Rolls Ser.) ; Freeman's Norm. Conq. 
iii. 72. Wright (Biogr. Brit. Lit. ii. 18), who did 
not know that Oliver of Malmesbury was the 
same with the Eilmer of William of Malmes- 
bury's 4 Gesta Regum/ says that Bale is the only 
authority for Oliver's existence.] W. H. 



Oliver 



141 



Oliver 



OLIVER (d. 1219), bastard son of King 
John, by a mistress named Hadwisa, who 
must be distinguished from Hadwisa of 
Gloucester, John's first wife, is mentioned, 
along with such men as Hubert de Burgh, 
as a royalist champion during Louis's attack 
upon England in alliance with the revolted 
English barons in the last year of John's reign. 
The invaders, advancing on Winchester, found 
their progress barred (June 1216} * by the 
great castle of the king, and that of the bishop, 
called Wolvesey,' overlooking the city, in 
which last was ' Oliviers, uns fils le roi de 
bas, qui escuiers estoit.' Later on (March 
1 217), under Henry III, Oliver took part with 
Hubert de Burgh in the defence of Dover 
against the French. A grant was made 
him of ' unum dolium vini,' under date 8 Oct. 
1215, by the king at Canterbury. The ' Cas- 
trum de Tonge' was given him at Roches- 
ter on 10 Nov. of the same year, and this was 
confirmed by Henry III on 23 June 1217. 
The * Mansio de Erdington' was granted him 
on 17 July 1216, and the property of Hane- 
don or Hamedon on 14 March 1218, to hold 
4 until Eva de Tracy, who claims it, shall 
have made satisfaction for the same with 
sixty marks.' 

Oliver left England in 1218 to join in the 
fifth crusade. Early in October 1218 he 
arrived at Damiette with the legate Pelayo, 
Earl Ranulf of Chester, Earl William of 
Arundel, and Lord William of Harecourt 
^Matt. Paris). In the following year he 
aied at Damietta, but whether by disease or 
in battle is unknown. 

[Tournoi de Ham's Histoire des Dues de Nor- 
mandie et des Rois d'Angleterre, pp. 173, 
189 ; Close Rolls (Rotuli Litterarum Clau- 
sarum), 1215, 1218, pp. 230 6, 234, 235 A, 266, 
277 6, 297, 299, 312 b, 322, 355 [edit, of 1833] ; 
Oliverus Scholasticus in Eccard's Corpus Histo- 
ricum Medii jEvii, col. 1406; Historia Damia- 
tana, sub ann. 1218 ; James of Vitry's Historia 
Orientalis, lib. iii. sub ann. 1218, in Gesta Dei 
per Francos; Matth. Paris. Chron. Maj. 1218, 
Rolls ed. iii. 41. For Oliver's mother, Hadwisa, 
refer to Close Rolls, a.d. 1217, p. 326. Grant of 
2 Oct. from Lambeth mentions her, along with 
Eva de Tracy, as possessing Hamedon.] 

C. R. B. 

OLIVER, ANDREW (1706-1774), lieu- 
tenant-governor of Massachusetts, born in 
Boston, Massachusetts, on 28 March 1706, 
was son of Daniel Oliver, by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Andrew Belcher. His father, a 
member of the council, was a son of Captain 
Peter Oliver, an eminent merchant, and 
grandson of Thomas Oliver, a surgeon and 
ruling elder of Boston Church, who arrived 
in Boston from London in 1632. Andrew 



graduated at Harvard in 1724. He was 
chosen a member of the general court and 
afterwards of the council. In 1748 he was 
sent with Governor Thomas Hutchinson as 
a commissioner to the Albany congress that 
met to conclude peace with the heads of the 
Six Nations, and: arrange a rectification of 
the frontier. In 1766 he was appointed 
secretary of the province. When the British 
parliament passed the Stamp Act he ac- 
cepted the office of distributor of stamps, 
and in consequence nearly lost his seat on 
the council. On 14 Aug. 1765 he was hanged 
in effigy between figures of Lord Bute and 
George Grenville, on the large elm called the 
' liberty tree.' In the evening the mob, with 
cries of ' Liberty, property, and no stamps 1 ' 
demolished the structure that was building 
for a stamp-office. The next morning Oliver 
signed a public pledge that he would not 
act as stamp-officer. 

A few months later it was rumoured that 
Oliver intended to enforce the Stamp Act, 
and on the day of the opening of parliament 
the ' Sons of Liberty ' compelled him to 
march to the tree and: there renew his pro- 
mise in a speech, and take oath before a 
justice of the peace, Richard Dana, ' that he 
would never, directly or indirectly, take 
measures for the collection of the stamp- 
duty.' In October 1770 he was appointed 
lieutenant-governor. Greatly to his annoy- 
ance, some letters which he had written to 
Thomas Whateley, one of the secretaries of 
the treasury, in 1768 and 1769, fell into 
Benjamin Franklin's hands soon after Whate- 
ley's death, and were laid before the assembly 
in 1772. The worst possible construction 
was put upon them, and Oliver's removal 
demanded. 

Oliver died at Boston on 3 March 1774. 
His remains were followed to the grave by 
a howling mob, and in the evening a coffin, 
rope, ana gallows were exhibited in the 
window of one of the public offices. Oliver 
married first on 20 June 1728 Mary (d. 1732), 
daughter of Thomas Fitch, by whom he had 
two sons and a daughter, and secondly, on 
6 July 1733, Mary (d. 1773), daughter of 
William Sanford, sister of Governor Thomas 
Hutchinson's wife, by whom he had seven 
sons and seven daughters. Two of his sons, 
Andrew (1731-1799) and William Sanford 
(1748-1813), were prominent on the royalist 
side during the revolution. 

A photograph of his portrait by Copley is 
in Thomas Hutchinson's ' Diary/ 

[Whitmore's Descendants of W. Hutchinson 
and T. Oliver, 1865; Diary and Letters of 
Thomas Hutchinson, ed. P. O. Hutchinson ; 
Appieton's Cyclop, of Amer. Biogr.] G. G. 



Oliver 



142 



Oliver 



OLIVER, ARCHER JAMES (1774- 
1842), portrait-painter and associate of the 
Royal Academy, was born in 1774. In 1791 
he exhibited a portrait of himself at the 
Royal Academy, and in 1793 was admitted 
a student in the schools of that institution. 
He was a regular exhibitor at the Royal 
Academy and the British Institution for fifty 
years, his chief work being portraits, though 
he occasionally painted small domestic sub- 
jects or still-life. At one time Oliver had a 
large and fashionable oractice as a portrait- 
painter, with a studio in New Bond Street. 
He was elected an associate of the Royal 
Academy in 1807. Latterly his practice fell 
off, and he was appointed curator of the paint- 
ing school of the Royal Academy. Towards 
the end of his life his health failed, and he 
was supported to a great extent out of the 
Academy funds. Oliver died in 1842. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880 ; Sandby's Hist, of the Royal 
Academy ; Royal Academy Catalogues.] L. C. 

OLIVER, GEORGE, D.D. (1781-1861), 
catholic divine and historian of Exeter, was 
born at Newington, Surrey, on 9 Feb. 1781, 
and was educated, first at Sedgley Park, Staf- 
fordshire, and afterwards at Stonyhurst Col- 
lege, where he taught humanities for five 
years. From an early age he was devoted 
to the study of antiquities, and while at 
Stonyhurst he rode with John Milner, after- 
wards bishop of Castabala, to explore the 
abbey of Whalley (Husenbeth, Life of Mil- 
ner, p. 121). During the eleven years that he 
spent at Stonyhurst, Father Charles Plo wden 
was his spiritual director, and took much 
interest in the progress of his literary studies 
(Olivbb, Jesuit Collections, p. 168). He was 
promoted to holy orders at Durham by Dr. 
Gibson, bishop of Acanthus, in May 1806. 
In October 1807 he was sent to the ancient 
mission of the Society of Jesus at St. Ni- 
cholas, Exeter, as successor to Father Tho- 
mas Lewis ( Western Antiquary, iv. 42). 
This mission ne served for forty-four years, 
retiring from active duty on 6 Oct. 1851. 
He continued, however, to reside in the 

Sriory, and occupied the same room till the 
ay of his death. During the whole of his 
career he enjoyed the regard of members of 
his own faith, and was highly esteemed by 
his fellow-citizens of all denominations. 

Oliver was nearly the last survivor of a 
number of catholic priests, pupils of the Eng- 
lish Jesuits, who, though never entering the 
society, always remained in the service of the 
English province, and subject to its superiors 
(Foley, Records, vii. 659). On 30 March 
1843 he was elected an honorary member of 



the Historical Society of Boston, U.S., and 
on 15 Sept. 1844 he was created D.D. by 
Pope Gregory XVI. On the erection of the 
canonical chapters in 1852, after the restora- 
tion of the hierarchy by Pope Pius IX, 
Oliver was appointed provost 01 the chapter 
of Plymouth, which dignity he resigned in 
1857. He died at St. Nicholas Priory, 
Exeter, on 23 March 1861, and was buried 
on 2 April near the high altar in his chapel. 
Oliver's numerous works relate principally 
to the county of Devon, and are standard 
authorities. The titles of his chief publica- 
tions are: 1. * Historic Collections relating 
to the Monasteries in Devon/ Exeter, 1820, 
8vo. 2. ' The History of Exeter/ Exeter, 1821, 
8vo ; 2nd edit. Exeter, 1861, 8vo. In some 
respects the first edition is more useful than 
the second. An index to the second edition, 

Jrivately printed in 1884, was compiled by 
. S. Attwood. 3. A translation of Father 
John Gerard's Latin ' Autobiography ' from 
the manuscript at Stonyhurst College; 
printed in fourteen Numbers of the ' Catholic 
Spectator/ 1823-6. 4. 'Ecclesiastical An- 
tiquities of Devon, being Observations on 
many Churches in Devonshire, originallj 
published in the " Exeter and Plymouth Ga- 
zette," with a Letter on the Preservation and 
Restoration of our Churches/ Exeter, 1828, 
12mo ; written in conjunction with the 
Rev. John Pike Jones of North Bovey, who, 
however, only contributed the introduction 
and the descriptions of twelve churches. 
5. ' Ecclesiastical Antiquities in Devon, being 
Observations on several Churches in Devon- 
shire, with some Memoranda for the His- 
tory of Cornwall/ 3 vols., Exeter, 1839-40- 
1842, 8vo. Although professedly a second 
edition of the former work, it possesses claims 
to be considered an entirely new one. The 
introduction is the only contribution of the 
Rev. J. P. Jones that was retained. An ex- 
tended edition was sent to the press, and 
partly printed, but never published. It was 
intended to contain a complete list, arranged 
in alphabetical order, of all the churches de- 
scribed by Oliver, many of which had not 
appeared in the previous editions. 6. ' Clif- 
fordiana/ privately printed, Exeter [1828], 
12mo, containing a detailed account of the 
Clifford family, three funeral addresses, and 
a descriptive list of the pictures at Ug- 
brooke Park. The author made collections 
for an enlarged edition of this work. These 
were probably utilised in a series of thirteen 
articles on the 'Cliffords of Devonshire ' that 
appeared in the 'Exeter Flying Post' be- 
tween 1 June and 29 Sept. 1857. 7. ' Memoir 
of the Lord Treasurer Clifford/ London 
[1828 P], 8vo, reprinted from the 'Catholic 



Oliver 



143 



Oliver 



Spectator ; ' the article was subsequently 
rewritten, and appeared in the ' Exeter Fly- 
ing Post/ 22 and 29 June 1857. 8. ' Col- 
lections towards illustrating the Biography 
of the Scotch, English, and Irish Members of 
the Society of Jesus/ Exeter, 1838, 8vo ; a 
second edition, limited to 260 copies, Lon- 
don, 1845, 8vo. These valuable biographical 
notices appeared originally in the * London 
and Dublin Weekly Orthodox Journal/ vols, 
ii.-iv. (1836-7). An interleaved copy of the 
work, with numerous corrections and addi- 
tional notes by Canon Tierney, and notes and 
transcripts by W. B.Turnbull,is in the posses- 
sion of the Bishop of Southwark (Boase and 
Coubtney, Bibl. Cornub. p. 410). 9. ' Merrye 
Englaunde ; or the Goldene Daies of Goode 
QueeneBesse' (anon.), London, 1841, 12mo. 
This first appeared as a serial story in the 
'Catholic Magazine/ vols, ii., iii. (1838-9). 
The plot is laid in Cornwall, and is based 
upon the adventures and persecutions of 
some catholic families in that county. 
10. ' Description of the Guildhall, Exeter/ 
in conjunction with Pitman Jones, Exeter, 
1845, 12mo ; 2nd edit. 1853. 11. ' A View 
of Devonshire in MDCXXX, with a Pedi- 
gree of most of its Gentry, by Thomas West- 
cote/ edited by Oliver in conjunction with 
Pitman Jones, Exeter, 1845, 4to. 12. ' Monas- 
ticon Dioecesis Exoniensis, being a Collection 
of Records and Instruments illustrating the 
ancient conventual, collegiate, and elee- 
mosynary Foundations in the Counties of 
Cornwall and Devon, with Historical Notices, 
and a Supplement, comprising a list of the 
dedications of Churches in the Diocese, an 
amended edition of the Taxation of Pope 
Nicholas, and an Abstract of the Chantry 
Rolls/ Exeter, 1846, fol. An 'Additional 
Supplement . . . with a Map of the Diocese, 
Deaneries, and Sites of Religious Houses/ 
appeared in 1854. Without these additions 
the edition of Dugdale's 'Monasticon* by 
Ellis and Bandinel must be considered in- 
complete. 13. * Collections illustrating the 
History of the Catholic Religion in the 
Counties of Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somer- 
set, Wilts, and Gloucester. . . . With notices 
of the Dominican, Benedictine, and Francis- 
can Orders in England/ London, 1857, 8vo. 
Some of the manuscripts of this work are in 
the Cambridge University Library (Mm. vi. 
40); others are at Stony hurst College (Cat. 
of MSS. in Univ. Library, Cambridge, iv. 
401). The copyright he presented to Dr. 
F. C. Husenbeth, together with very copious 
additions, and several corrections for a second 
edition. 14. ' Lives of the Bishops of Exeter, 
and a History of the Cathedral/ Exeter, 
1861, 8vo. 15. Letters on ecclesiastical 



and parochial antiquities, family history, 
and biography, extending over a period of 
nine years, and communicated, under the 
signature of ' Curiosus/ to local newspapers, 
and principally to the * Exeter Flying Post.' 
Upwards of two hundred of these communi- 
cations were collected and inserted in two 
folio volumes by Pitman Jones, who added 
many valuable notes. Mr. AVinslow Jones, 
son of the latter, presented these volumes in 
1877 to the library of the Devon and Exeter 
Institution. Forty-eight of the communica- 
tions contain the memoirs of about seventy- 
five celebrated Exonians. 

Oliver was a contributor to all the English 
catholic periodicals of his time, his articles 
relating generally to catholic biography, his- 
tory, or antiquities. He also had the principal 
share in preparing for publication the ' Liber 
Pontificalis f of Edmund Lacy, bishop of Exe- 
ter, which appeared in 1847, as edited by Ro- 
bert Barnes, without any mention of its chief 
editor. A copy of Polwhele's ' History of 
Devonshire/ with copious manuscript notes 
by Oliver, is preserved in the British Museum. 

A very characteristic lithographed portrait 
of Oliver was published shortly after his 
death by George G. Palmer of Exeter. This 
was reproduced as a frontispiece to Dr. 
Brushfield's 'Bibliography/ There is also 
an excellent statuette ( Western Antumaru. 
v.153). * ^ 

[The Bibliography of the Rev. G. Oliver, D.D., 
of Exeter, by T. N. Brushfield, M.D., was re- 
printed in 1 885, 8vo, from the Transactions of 
the Devonshire Association for the Advancement 
of Science, Literature, and Art, xvii. 266-76. 
Use has been made in this article of a copy of 
Dr. Brushfield's Bibliography, with numerous 
manuscript additions, kindly lent by the author. 
See also Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornu- 
biensis, i. 279, 410 ; Catholic Miscellany, 1828, 
ix. 148; Gent. Mag. May 1861, p. 575 ; Husen- 
beth's Life of Milner, pp. 121, 361; Journal of 
Archaeological Institute, xviii. 405 ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 1723; Martin's Pri- 
vately Printed Books, 1854, p. 350; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 404, 514, 3rd ser. v. 137, 
202, 6th ser. v. 396, 7th ser. i. 467, 614; 
Oliver's Cornwall, p. 368, and Jesuit Collections, 
p. 168; Tablet, 13 April 1861 p. 235 (by Dr. 
Husenbeth), and 20 April p. 251 ; Trewman's 
Exeter Flying Post, 27 March 1861 ; Weekly 
Register, 6 April 1861 p. 2, 13 April p. 2, 
20 April p. 10.] T. C. 

OLIVER, GEORGE, D.D. (1782-1867), 
topographer and writer on freemasonry, was 
descended from an ancient Scottish family, 
some members of which came to England in 
the reign of James I, and were subsequently 
settled at Clipstone Park, Nottinghamshire. 
He was eldest son of Samuel Oliver, rector 



Oliver 



144 



Oliver 



of Lambley, Nottinghamshire, by Elizabeth, 
daughter of George Whitehead, esq., of Blyth 
Spital in that county. He was born at Papple- 
wick, Nottinghamshire, on 5 Nov. 1782, and, 
after receiving a liberal education at Notting- 
ham, he became in 1803 second master of the 
grammar school at Caistor, Lincolnshire. Six 
years afterwards he was appointed to the head- 
mastership of King Edward's grammar school 
at Great Grimsby. 

He was ordained deacon in 1813, and priest 
in 1814 ; and in July 1815 Bishop Tomline 
collated him to the living of Clee, when his 
name was placed on the boards of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, by Dr. Bayley, subdean of 
Lincoln and examining chaplain to the bishop, 
as a ' ten-year man.' In the same year he was 
admitted as surrogate, and a steward of the 
clerical fund. In 1831 Bishop Kaye gave 
him the rectory of Scopwick, Lincolnshire, 
which he held till his death. A Lambeth 
degree of D.D. was conferred upon him 25 July 
1835 ( Gent . Mag. 1867, i. 537). From 1834 
to 1846 he was perpetual curate of St. Peter's 
collegiate church, Wolverhampton {Clergy 
Lists, 1841 and 1842; Simms, Bibl. Stafford. 

L336). He was also domestic chaplain to 
rd Kensington. He had been elected deputy 
past grand master of masons for Lincolnshire 
in 1832, and in 1840 he was appointed an 
honorary member of the grand lodge of 
Massachusetts, with the rank of deputy grand 
master. 

In 1846 the lord chancellor conferred on 
him the rectory of South Hyckham, Lincoln- 
shire, and he vacated the incumbency of Wol- 
verhampton. In 1854 his voice began to fail, 
and, confiding the charge of his parishes to 
curates, he passed the remainder of his life 
in seclusion at Lincoln. There he died on 
8 March 1867. He was buried on the 7th, 
with masonic rites, in the cemetery attached 
to the church of St. Swithin. 

He married in 1805 Mary Ann, youngest 
daughter of Thomas Beverley, esq., by whom 
he left five children. 

His topographical and theological works 
are : 1. ' A Vindication of the Fundamental 
Doctrines of Christianity against the Attacks 
of Deism and Infidelity, in a Series of Pas- 
toral Addresses/ Great Grimsby [1820 ?18vo. 
2. 'The Monumental Antiquities of Great 
Grimsby: an Essay towards ascertaining its 
Origin and Ancient Population/ Hull, 1825, 
8vo. 3. ' The History and Antiquities of 
the Conventual Church of St. James, Great 
Grimsby/ Grimsby, 1829, 8vo. 4. ' The His- 
tory and Antiquities of the Town and Min- 
ster of Beverley, in the County of York, with 
Historical and Descriptive Sketches of the 
Abbeys of Watton and Meaux, the Convent 



of Haltemprise, the Villages, and the Hamlets 
comprised within the Liberties of Beverley/ 
Beverley, 1829, 8vo. 5. ' An Historical and 
Descriptive Account of the Collegiate Church 
of Wolverhampton, in the County of Stafford/ 
Wolverhampton [18361, 8vo. 6. ' History of 
the Trinity Guild at Sleaford, with an Ac- 
count of its Miracle Plays, Religious Mys- 
teries, and Shows, as practised in the Fif- 
teenth Century. ... To which is added an 
Appendix detailing the Traditions which still 
prevail, and a Description of the Lincoln 
Pageants exhibited during the Visit of King 
James to that City/ Lincoln, 1837, 8vo. 
7. 'Jacob's Ladder: the Ascent to Heaven 
plainly pointed out, in eighteen practical 
Addresses/ London, 1845, 12mo. 8. 'An 
Account of the Religious Houses formerly 
situated on the eastern side of the River 
Witham/ London, 1846, 12mo. 9. 'The exist- 
ing Remains of the Ancient Britons within 
a small District lying between Lincoln and 
Sleaford/ London, 1846, 8vo. 10. ' Y e Byrde 
of Gryme : an Apologue ' [a history of 
Grimsby], Grimsby, 1866, 8vo. 

His masonic works are : 11. ' The Antiqui- 
ties of Free-Masonry, comprising Illustra- 
tions of the five grand Periods of Masonry, 
from the Creation of the World to the Dedi- 
cation of Solomon's Temple/ London, 1823 
and 1843, 8vo. 12. ' The Star in the East/ 
1825; new edition, 1842. 13. 'Signs and 
Symbols illustrated and explained in a 
Course of Twelve Lectures on Freemasonry/ 
Grimsby, 1826, 8vo; reprinted London, 1837, 
and again 1857, 8vo. 14. 'The History of 
Initiation, comprising a detailed Account of 
the Rites, Ceremonies, &c, of all the Secret 
Institutions of the Ancient World/ London, 
1829 and 1841, 8vo. 15. 'The Theocratic 
Philosophy of Freemasonry/ London, 1840, 
8vo, and 1856, 12mo. 16. ' History of Free- 
masonry/ 1841. 17. ' Brief History of the 
Witham Lodge, Lincoln/ London, 1841, 8vo. 
18. 'Historical Landmarks and other Evi- 
dences of Freemasonrv/ 2 vols. London, 
1844-6, 8vo. 19. 'An Apology for the 
Freemasons/ London, 1846, 8vo. 20. ' The 
Insignia of the Royal Arch Degree illustrated 
and explained/ London, 1847, 8vo. 21. 'The 
Golden Remains of the Early Masonic Wri- 
ters, illustrating the Institutes of the Order/ 
5 vols. London, 1847-50, 8vo. 22. ' Some 
Account of the Schism which took place 
during the last Century among the Free and 
Accepted Masons in England, showing the 
presumed Origin of the Royal Arch Degree/ 
1847. 23. 'A Mirror for the Johannite 
Masons/ 1848. 24. ' Institutes of Masonic 
Jurisprudence ; being an Exemplification of 
the English Book of Constitutions/ London, 



Oliver 



*45 



Oliver 



1849, 12mo; reprinted in 1859 and 1874. 
25. ' Book of the Lodge, or Officer's Manual/ 
London, 1849, 12mo; 2nd ed., to which 
was added ' A Century of Aphorisms,' 1856 ; 
3rd ed. 1864; 4th ed. 1879. 26. 'The 
Symbol of Glory, shewing the Object and 
End of Free-Masonry/ London, 1850, 8vo. 
27. 'Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry/ 
1853. 28. 'The Revelations of a Square, 
exhibiting a Graphic Display of the Sayings 
and Doings of eminent Free and Accented 
Masons/ London, 1855, 12mo, with curious 
engravings. 29. 'Freemason's Treasury/ 
1863. 30. 'Papal Teachings in Freemasonry/ 
1866. 31. 'The Origin of the Royal Arch 
Order of Masonry,' 1867. 32. ' The Pvtha- 

forean Triangle, or the Science of Numbers/ 
875. 33. 'Discrepancies of Freemasonry/ 
1875. He also edited the fourteenth edition 
of ' Illustrations of Masonry,' by W. Preston, 
' bringing the History of Freemasonry down 
to 1829/ London, 1829, 12mo, 15th ed. 1840, 
16th ed. 1849 ; Ashe's ' Masonic Manual/ 
1843, and again 1870 ; and Hutchinson's 
' Spirit of Masonry/ 1843. | 

Several of the masonic works contain the 
author's portrait. There is also a large en- 
graved portrait of him, in masonic costume, > 
published separately. , 

[Lincoln, Rutland, and Stamford Mercury, | 
8 March 1867 p. .4 col. 5 and 6, and 15 March 
p. 4 col. 6 ; Freemasons' Mag. 9 March 1867 
p. 185, 16 March p. 217 ; Notes and Queries, 7th ; 
ser. vii. 288, 355 ; Gent. Mag. 1867, i. 537 ; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bonn), pp. 838, 1724; 
Dr. Brushfield's Bibliography of the Rev. G. 
Oliver of Exeter ; Cat. of Books in the Library 
at Freemasons' Hall, London, p. 28 ; Gowans's 
Cat. of Books on Freemasonry, p. 43 ; Simms's 
Bibl. Stafford. 1894, pp. 336-7.] T. C. 

OLIVER, OLIVIER, or OLLIVIER, 
ISAAC (1566 P-1617), miniature painter, 
appears to have heen of French origin, and 
to nave been born about 1556. Sandrart, in 
his * Teutsch Academic/ speaks of him as 
'membranarum pictor Londinensis,' and in 
the inscription below the portrait of him en- 
graved by Hendrik Hondius he is styled 
' Isaacus Oliverus, Anglus.' His contempo- 
raries appear to have all regarded him as an 
Englishman (seePEACHAM, Treatise on Draw- 
ing and Limning, 1634). On the other hand, 
when he signs his name in full he always 
spells it * Olivier ' or ' Ollivier.' There is some 
ground for supposing that he is identical 
with ' Isaac Olivier of Rouen,' who on 9 Feb. 
1602 was married at the Dutch Church, Aus- 
tin Friars, London, to Sara Gheeraerts of 
London (Moenb, Registers of Dutch Church, 
Austin Friars). The siege and capture of 
Rouen by the Guises in 1562 drove many 

VOL. XLH. 



huguenots to take refuge in London, among 
whom may well have been Oliver's parents, 
with their boy of five or six years old. More- 
over, in the portrait by Hondius mentioned 
above there is seen through a window a river 
scene resembling nothing in England, but 
very like the scenery of the Seine near Rouen ; 
this may indicate the place of his birth. This 
identification would possibly lead also to 
that of the anonymous author of a treatise 
on limning (Brit Mus. Harl. MS. 6000), who 
alludes more than once to his late cousin, 
Isaac Oliver. Sara Gheeraerts, Olivier's wife, 
appears to have been daughter of Marcus 
Gheeraerts the elder [q. v.], by his second 
wife Susanna De Critz, who was certainly 
related to John De Critz [q. v.], serjeant- 
painter to James I. Francis Meres, in his 
'Palladis Tamia' (1598), selects the three, 
1 Hilliard, Isaac Oliver, and John De Critz ' 
as especially excellent in the art of painting. 
Assuming De Critz to be a cousin by marriage 
of Isaac Oliver, he may well have been the 
author of the said treatise on limning. There 
seems no ground for connecting Oliver with 
the family seated at East Norton in Leicester- 
shire, as stated in Burton's manuscript col- 
lections for that county (Nichols, Hist, of 
Leicestershire, vol. iii. pt. i. p. 489). 

Oliver was the pupil of Nicholas Hilliard 
[q. v.], as we learn from R. Haydocke s in- 
troduction to Lomazzo's ' Art of Painting/ 
He followed Hilliard's manner in miniature- 
painting very closely, and often excelled 
him. Their works, being very similar and 
contemporaneous in many cases, have been 
frequently confused. Like Hilliard, Oliver 
painted most of his miniatures on a light 
blue ground (no doubt adopted by Hilliard 
from Hans Holbein), and sometimes on a 
crimson satin ground. The actual portrait 
often forms but a small portion of the minia- 
ture, great attention being given to the de- 
tails of costume, armour, jewels, and other 
accessories, with a decorative purpose. Oli- 
ver's portraits are to be found in nearly every 
important collection, such as those of the 
queen, the Duke of Buccleuch, the Duke of 
Devonshire, the Earl of Derby, Mr. James 
Whitehead, Dr. Lumsden Propert, &c. They 
have always been highly prized, and figured 
conspicuously at the exhibitions at South 
Kensington m 1862 and 1866, at Burlington 
House in 1879, at the Burlington Fine Arts 
Club in 1889, and other exhibitions. He 
painted James I, his family, and most of the 
court and nobility of the time. Among the 
best known is the full-length portrait of Sir 
Philip Sidney, formerly Dr. Mead's, and now 
in the royal collection at Windsor. A big 
limning of Henry, prince of Wales, in gilt 

L 



Oliver 



146 



Oliver 



armour, was in the collection of Charles I. 
A. series of miniature portraits of the family 
of Sir Kenelm Digby [q. v.] and his wife 
Venetia Stanley, done by Isaac and Peter 
Oliver, was formerly at Strawberry Hill, but 
is now divided between the collections of 
Mr. Wingfield Digby and Baroness Burdett- 
Coutts. Oliver usually signed with his initials 
in a monogram. Perhaps the earliest minia- 
ture known with a date is that of Sir John 
Clench (1583), in the collection of the Duke 
of Buccleuch. An interesting group of the 
three sons of the second Viscount Montagu, 
painted by Isaac Oliver in 1598, was one of 
the few treasures saved from the disastrous 
fire at Cowdray House in 1793. It is not cer- 
tain whether Oliver painted any miniatures 
of Queen Elizabeth, though there are some of 
her attributed to him. He certainly drew 
the portrait of her in the richly ornamented 
robes supposed, without ground, to be those 
in which she went to St. Paul's Cathedral to 
return thanks for the defeat of the Spanish 
Armada. This portrait was finely engraved 
by Crispin Van de Passe the elder, and a pen 
drawing on vellum in the royal collection at 
Windsor may be Oliver's original drawing 
(see O'Donoghue, Portraits of Queen Eliza- 
beth, p. 70, No. 160). Several pen drawings 
by Oliver exist, some being copies from old 
masters. Six drawings by him are in the 
print-room at the British Museum, two of 
which are signed ' Ollivier.' 

Vertue states on the authority of Antony 
Russel, a painter, that Oliver also painted 
larger pictures in oil, and he mentions two 
pictures of ' St. John the Baptist' and 'The 
Holy Family' as then in Russel's possession 
(Brit Mas. Add. MS. 21111, f. 60). Russel 
was doubtless well acquainted with Oliver's 
work. His grandfather, Nicasius Roussell 
or Russel, jeweller to James I, seems to 
have been a kinsman of Oliver. To Nicasius's 
son, Isaac Russel, Oliver stood godfather in 

1616, while Oliver's widow stood godmother 
to Nicasius, another of Nicasiuss sons, in 
1619. A portrait of Sir Thomas Overbury 
(1581-1613) [q.v.], on a blue ground, in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford, is attributed to 
Oliver. 

In 1616 Oliver had commenced a large 
limning of ' The Entombment of Christ,' with 
a great number of figures. This he left un- 
completed at his death, and it eventually 
passed into the royal collection, where it still 
remains; it was the subject of unstinted 
admiration from his contemporaries. Oliver, 
who resided in Blackfriars, died on 2 Oct. 

1617, aged about 61, and was buried in the 
church of St. Anne, Blackfriars, where a 
monument was erected to his memory, with 



a bust and epitaph. This was destroyed in 
the great fire of London ; but Vertue saw a 
clay model of the bust in the possession ot 
Russel, with several leaves from Oliver's 
sketch-book (loc. cit. f. 52). By his will, 
dated 4 June, and proved 30 Oct. 1617 (P.C.C. 
93 Weldon), Oliver appointed his wife Eliza- 
beth his executrix, and bequeathed all his 
'drawinges allreadye finished and unfinished, 
and Lymminge pictures, be they historyes, 
storyes, or anything of Lymming whatsoever 
of my owne hande worke as yet unfinished/ 
to his ' eldest sonne Peter, if he shall live 
and exercise that arte or Science which he 
and I no we doe ; ' and failing him, ' to suche 
another of my sonnes as will use and exercise 
that arte or Science.' As his younger sons 
appear to have been under age at the time 
of his death, they must have been sons of a 
later wife than the mother of Peter Oliver 
[q. v.] If the identification given above is 
correct, it would show that Oliver was twice, 
if not thrice, married — a not uncommon 
event in the small community of artists in 
London. He further mentions his kins- 
woman Judith Morrell, and signs his will 
' Isaac Oliver.' Oliver painted his own por- 
trait in miniature more than once ; one ex- 
ample is in the royal collection at Windsor. 
Russel (loc. cit.) also possessed an oil paint- 
ing of Oliver by himself, with those of his 
wife and children. Two engravings by 
BLondius and Miller are mentioned by Brom- 
ley. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting (ed. "Wor- 
num, pp. 1 76-83) contains all that was known 
of Oliver from Vertue and other sources to the 
present time : other authorities cited in the text.] 

L. C. 

OLIVER, JOHN (d. 1552), dean of 
Christ Church, Oxford, graduated in the uni- 
versity of Oxford. His degrees were B.C.L. 
on 30 June 1516, B. Can. L. and D. Can. L. 
on 20 May 1522, D.C.L. on 11 Oct. 1522. 
He must have had powerful influence in the 
church, as he received very numerous pre- 
ferments. He may liave been the John 
Oliver or Smith who became prebendary of 
Hinton on 5 July, and of Norton on 20 July 
1512, both in the cathedral of Hereford. On 
22 Aug. 1522 he received the living of Win- 
forton in the diocese of Hereford, and in 
1522 he became an advocate at Doctors' Com- 
mons. He was also rector of St. Mary Mount- 
haw, London, but resigned the living in 
1527. Oliver seems to have been one of the 
many young men whom Wolsey advanced, 
and in 1527 was his commissary. On 4 Sept. 
1527 he received the living of Pembridge in 
the diocese of Hereford, and on 8 Sept. 1528 
that of Whitchurch, Lincolnshire ; he had 



Oliver 



147 



Oliver 



other minor preferments or promises of pre- 
ferment. He had now become prominent at 
the court as an active official of the new way 
of thinking. On22Feb. 1528-9 he was sent to 
take the fealty of Elizabeth Zouche, the new 
abbess of Shaftesbury ; and at the end of the 
same year he became prebendary of South- 
well. In 1531 he was employed in the pro- 
ceedings about Henry's divorce, and in 1532 
he was one of those consulted by the king as 
to the consecration of Cranmer. In the same 
year he took part in the trial of James Bain- 
ham [q. v.] for heresy. On 4 May 1533 Oliver 
-was made dean of Christ Church, Oxford, in 
succession to John Hygdon [q.v.] He at- 
tended to other affairs, however, and in 1533 
formed one of the court which declared 
Queen Katherine contumacious. In 1540 
he was consulted by convocation as to the 
validity of the king's marriage with Anne of 
Cleves ; and other similar public duties were 
confided to him (Acts of the Privy Council, 
1542-7, pp. 118, 126,292). 

When it was determined to alter the foun- 
dation of Christ'Church, Oliver had to resign 
his deanery. This he did on 20 May 1545, 
receiving in exchange the substantial pen- 
sion of 70/. a year. He returned to Doctors' 
Commons, became a master in chancery in 
1547, and at some time master of requests ; 
on Wriothesley's fall the same year, he was 
one of the commissioners who transacted the 
lord-chancellor's business in the court of 
chancery. He took part in Gardiner's trial 
at the close of 1550, was a commissioner for 
the suppression of the anabaptists in Kent 
and Essex in 1551, and the same year ac- 
companied the embassy to France to treat of 
the King's possible marriage. He took part 
in 1551 in the trials of Day and Heath, 
bishops of Chichester and Worcester, and, as 
Lord-chancellor Rich [q. v.] was ill, he 
helped to clear off the chancery business. 
He died in Doctors' Commons about May 
1552. 

Another John Oliveb (1601-1661) was 
born in Kent, of an obscure family, in 1601, 
matriculated from Merton College, Oxford, 
on 26 Jan. 1615-16, became a demy of Mag- 
dalen College on 7 April 1619, graduated 
B.A. on 11 Dec. 1619, and became fellow in 
1620. He also proceeded M.A. on 3 July 
1622, B.D. on 18 May 1631, D.D. on 29 April 
1639. He was tutor to Edward Hyde, earl 
of Clarendon, when he was at Oxford, be- 
came vice-president of his college in 1634, 
held several livings and was made canon of 
Winchester in 1638, chaplain to Laud 1640, 
and president of Magdalen College in 1644. 
Laud left him one of his watches by his will. 
He was duly ejected in 1647, suffered great 



hardship, but was restored to his preferments 
at the Restoration, and, by Hyde s influence, 
made dean of Worcester on 12 Sept. 1660. 
He died 27 Oct. 1661, and was buried in 
Magdalen College antechapel. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Wood's 
Athenae, ed. Bliss, iv. 300 n., and Fasti Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, i. 60 ; Laud's Works (Libr. Anglo-Oath. 
Theol.), iii. 410, ir. 444, vi. 583, vii. 545, 553; 
Bloxam's Reg. of MAgdalen Coll. v. 82-8 ; Welch's 
Alumni Westmon. i. ; Wood's Hist, and Antiq. 
Univ. of Oxf. ed. Gutch, i. 428-9; Coote's Engl. 
Civilians, p. 18; Reg. Univ. of Oxf. (Oxf. Hist. 
Soc.) i. 90; Lit. Rem. of King Edw. VI (Rox- 
burghe Club), p. 316, &c; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. 
Angl. i. 508, 519, iii. 438; Leach's Visitors and 
Memorials of Southwell (Camd. Soc), pp. 153, 
158; Letters and Papers Hen. VIII passim; 
Foxe's Acts and Mon. iv. 703, &c. ; Dixon's Hist, 
of the Church of Engl. i. 161-2, iii. 257; Strype's 
Cranmer, p. 24, Memorials, 1. i. 560, 11. i. 385, 
ii. 199, &c, in. i. 38, &c. ; Acts of the Privy 
Council.] W. A. J. A. 

OLIVER, JOHN (1016-1701), glass- 
painter and master-mason, born in 1616, has 
been without ground supposed to have been 
related to Isaac and Peter Oliver [q. v.], the 
celebrated miniature-painters. He was more 
probably related to John Oliver, who was 
master-mason in the reign of James I. He 
appears to be identical with John Oliver, 
who was city surveyor and one of the three 
commissioners for the rebuilding of London 
after the great fire in 1666. Oliver appears 
to have executed many small glass-paint- 
ings for windows. One of these remains 
in Northill Church, Bedfordshire, in a win- 
dow originally put up by the Grocers' Com- 
pany, but no longer in its original position ; 
it is signed and dated 1664, and represents 
the royal arms and other heraldry connected 
with the company. Another window at 
Christ Church, Oxford, signed and dated 
1700, and presented by Oliver himself, por- 
trays ' St. Peter delivered out of prison.' In 
Lambeth Palace there were formerly paint- 
ings in a window (now removed), erected 
by Archbishop Sheldon, representing a sun- 
dial with the archbishop's arms and a view 
of the Sheldonian theatre at Oxford. He is 
probably also identical with John Oliver who 
engraved a few portraits in mezzotint, includ- 
ing a curious one of Lord-chief-j ust ice Jeffreys, 
as earl of Flint (this he published himself at 
the ' Eagle and Child ' on Ludgate Hill), and 
who also etched some views of Tangier after 
Hollar. Oliver died in 1701, aged 85. In 
his will (P. C. C, 157, Dyer), dated 19 March 
1699, and proved 18 Nov. 1701, he describes 
himself as master-mason to the king, directs 
that he shall be buried in St. Paul's Cathe- 

l2 



Oliver 



148 



Oliver 



dral, and gives legacies to his wife Susanna, 
his daughter Grace Shaw, his son-in-law 
George Seagood, and also to the Company of 
Glaziers. William Fafthorne the elder [q. v.] 
drew his portrait. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wor- 
num ; Cnaloner Smith's British Mezzotinto Por- 
traits.] L. C. 

OLIVER, JOHN (1838-1806), AVelsh 
poet, was born on 7 Nov. 1838 at Llanfynydd, 
a small village in Carmarthenshire, where 
his parents kept a shop. He spent seven 
years (1843-50) at the village school, and 
nearly four at a Carmarthen school. Before he 
was sixteen he passed on to the presbyterian 
college in the same town. Here he made 
great progress with the regular studies, and 
read widely, on his own account, in English 
and German literature. He was soon able 
to preach with equal facility in Welsh and 
English. He left college in his twenty-first 
year, and abandoned an intention 01 con- 
tinuing his studies at Glasgow, owing to 
failing health. Subsequently he preached 
occasionally, and devoted himself to Welsh 
poetry. Most of his Welsh poems were 
written during his enforced retirement. His 
most ambitious poem is one on 'David, 
the Prince of the Lord.' Other long poems 
are * The Beauties of Nature/ < The Widow 
of Nam/ 'The Wreck of the Royal Charter/ 
all showing great promise. His shorter 
poems, however, are his best, and there is 
not a better in the language than ' Myfyrdod/ 
a meditation or soliloquy. Of his English 

?oems, the best are perhaps ' Life 'and ' When 
die ; ' but being his earliest productions, 
they are inferior to his Welsh poems. Oliver 
diea on 24 June 1866, in his twenty-eighth 
year, and his remains were interred in the 

Earish churchyard of Llanfynydd, of which 
e had sunt so sweetly. His collected works 
(Welsh and English) were published at New- 
port, Monmouthshire, under the name ' Cerddi 
Cystudd/ by his brother, the Rev. Henry 
Oliver, with biographical preface and a photo- 
graphic portrait, in 1867, small 8vo. 

[Biography as above, and biography in 
Athraw, 1866, from the pen of the Rev. W. 
Thomas, M.A. ; article in Cymru, February, 
1894 ; personal knowledge.] R. J. J. 

OLIVER, MARTHA CRANMER, 
always known as Pattie Oliver (1834- 
1880), actress, daughter of John Oliver, a 
scene-painter, was born at Salisbury in 1834, 
and appeared on the stage of the theatre 
in that town when only six years old. Here 
and at Southampton her performances of 
children's parts attracted attention, till in 
1847 she made her metropolitan d6but 



under Mrs. Warner's management at the> 
Marylebone Theatre. Her success gained 
her an engagement with Madame Vestris at 
the Lyceum, which lasted from 1849 to 1855. 
In 1855 she went to Drury Lane, where onr 
10 Oct. she played Matilda in ' Married for 
Money/ and on 4 Sept. 1856 Celia in ' As 
you like it/ In the same year her perform- 
ance of Helen in the ' Hunchback' won such 
praise from the critics that Buckstone offered 
her an engagement at the Hay market. There- 
she was seen in Talfourd's burlesque of ' Ata- 
lanta'on 14 April 1857. Accepting an offer 
from Miss Swanborough,she became the lead- 
ing actress in comedy and burlesque at the 
Strand Theatre for several seasons. On 
29 Dec. 1858 she acted Amy Robsart in the* 
burlesque of ' Ye Queen, ye Earl, and ye 
Maiden ;' on 14 June 1859 Pauline in Byron's 
burlesque, the l Lady of Lyons ; ' on 26 Dec. 
Lisetta in Talfourd's burlesque ' Tell and the 
Strike of the Cantons ;' and on 26 Dec. 1860 
the Prince in Byron's burlesque, * Cinderella/ 

At the Havmarket, on lo Nov. 1861, she 
was cast for "Mary Meredith in ' Our Ame- 
rican Cousin/ on Sothern's first appearance 
as Lord Dundreary in London. In 1863 she 
was at the Princess's, and on 10 April took 
the title-role in Byron's burlesque, ' Beauti- 
ful Haidee.' On 31 March 1806 she became 
manageress of the New Royalty Theatre, 
and opened with a revival of the * Ticket-of- 
Leave Man/ and Recce's burlesque, ' Ulf the 
Minstrel.' In a clever and successful piece 
by II. T. Craven, entitled * Meg's Diversion/ 
which was produced on 17 Oct., she acted 
Meg, the author played Jasper Pidgeon, and 
F. De war took the part of Roland. On 29 Nov. 
1866 she put on the stage F. C. Burnand's 
burlesque, * The Latest Edition of Black-eyed 
Susan, or the Little Bill that was taken up/ 
The piece although it failed to please the 
critics, had an unprecedented run, and on 
its performance at the Royalty on 23 Sept. 
1868, it was said that Miss Oliver had re- 
peated the song of ' Pretty See-usan, don't 
say no/ no less than 1775 times. During 
the run of this burlesque she produced as a 
first piece Andrew Halliday's drama, ' Daddy 
Gray/ 1 Feb. 1868, and on 26 Nov. 1868 a 
serio-comic drama by the same author, en- 
titled ' The Loving Cut).' Other burlesques 
were afterwards introduced, but they were 
not very successful. 

On 3 March 1870 ' Black-eyed Susan' was 
revived, and played for the four hundred and 
twenty-first time. The last night of Miss 
Oliver's lesseeship was 30 April 1870, when 
the burlesque was given for the four-hundred- 
and-ninetieth time. After this period she 
was seldom seen on the stage. She was a 



Oliver 



149 



Oliver 



very pleasing actress and singer, and a general 
favourite with the public. She led an un- 
blemished life, and gave liberal aid to the 
aged and unfortunate members of her profes- 
sion. She died at 5 Grove End Road, St. John's 
Wood, London, on 20 Dec. 1 880. She married 
by license at the registry office, Marvlebone, 
on 26 Dec. 1876, William Charles Phillips, 
auctioneer, aged 31, son of William Phillips, 
auctioneer, of Bond Street, London. 

[Blanchard's Life, 1891, i. 143, ii. 513, 719; 
Players, 1860, i. 97-8, with portrait ; Era, 1 Jan. 
1881. p. 8; Theatre, 1 Feb. 1881, p. 127; Towns- 
hend's Handbook of 1868, 1869, pp. 364-5.1 

G. C. B. 

OLIVER or OLIVIER, PETER (1594- 
1648), miniature-painter, was eldest son of 
Isaac Oliver [q. v.], probably by his first wife. 
Like his father, he excelled in portrait- 
miniature, and attained as high a repute. 
He painted many of the court and nobility 
during the latter part of the reign of James I 
und the whole of that of Charles I, and was 
especially noted for his copies in water- 
colour of celebrated pictures by the old 
masters. Besides the great miniature of ' The 
Entombment of Christ,' begun by Isaac Oliver 
and finished by Peter, several miniatures by 
Peter Oliver, made at the king's request, are 
enumerated in the catalogue of Charles l's 
<5ollection, being copies of historical subjects 
after Raphael, Tit ian, Correggio, and Holbein. 
These were dispersed at the sale of the col- 
lection, but seven still remain in the royal 
collection at Windsor. On one of these pieces 
he signs himself ' P. Olivier fecit, 1628/ He 
also made a number of drawings in sepia and 
blacklead. In the collection of portraits of 
the Digby family [see under Oliver, Isaac] 
there are two fine copies after Vandyck by 
Peter. His copy of Vandyck's portrait of 
Rachel Massue de Ruvigny , countess of South- 
ampton, is one of the most remarkable works 
in miniature existing. Oliver resided at Isle- 
worth in Middlesex, where he died in De- 
cember 1648, and was buried beside his father 
in St. Anne's, Blackfriars. By his will, dated 
12 Dec. 1647, and proved 15 Dec. 1648 
(P.C.C. 1&4, Essex), he left his whole estate 
to his wife Anne. Antony Russel the painter 
[see under Oliver, Isaac] told Vertue (Brit. 
Mus. Add. MS. 21111, f. 49) a story, that 
after the Restoration Charles II heard that 
Oliver usually made duplicates of all pictures 
which he painted for tne king, and, finding 
that Olivers widow was still living at Isle- 
worth, went thither incognito to see them. 
When she declined to sell them until the 
king had seen them, he declared himself, and 
purchased the greater part of what was left, 
giving her in payment an annuity for life of 



300/. It was subsequently reported to the 
king that Mrs. Oliver had denounced in dis- 
respectful terms the royal mistresses to 
whom some of the pictures had been given, 
and her salary was consequently stopped. 
The rest of the limnings in Mrs. Oliver's DOS- 
session passed into the hands of Theoaore 
Russel, father of Vertue's informant. Several 
portraits of Peter Oliver exist. At Hampton 
Court there is a portrait by Adriaen Hanne- 
man [q. v.]; of this there is a fine but anony- 
mous engraving, in which the picture is attri- 
buted to Vandyck. Hanneman is said to have 
painted a companion portrait of Oliver's 
wife. Bromley mentions a portrait of Oliver 

Eainted by himself and engraved by T. Cham- 
ars, as well as an anonymous etching. In the 
Earl of Derby's collection there is a leaf ot 
a pocket-book with drawings by Oliver in 
blacklead of himself on one side and of his 
wife on the other side. 

A license was issued in the diocese of 
Canterbury for a marriage between Peter 
Oliver of Sandwich and Elizabeth Tylman of 
Sellinge, on 18 Sept. 1602 (Cowper, Canter- 
bury Marriage Licenses) ; and on 8 April 1606 
a grant was made of the reversion to Peter 
Oliver of the office of bailiff of Sandwich for 
life (Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. James I, 
1603-10). It does not appear likely that this 
was the miniature-painter ; he was probably 
a member of a refugee family known to be 
then resident at Sandwich. 

[For authorities other than those mentioned 
in the text, see under Oliver, Isaac] L. C. 

OLIVER, RICHARD (17S4 P-1784), 
politician, the only surviving son of Rowland 
Oliver, a puisne judge of the court of com- 
mon pleas of the Leeward Islands, and 
grandson of Richard Oliver, speaker of the 
House of Assembly in Antigua, was baptised 
in St. John's, Antigua, on 7 Jan. 1734-5. 
At an early age he was sent to London, 
where he entered the office of his uncle, 
Richard Oliver, a West India merchant. 
He took up his freedom in the Drapers' 
Company on 29 June 1770, and on 4 July 
following was elected alderman of Billings- 
gate ward. At a by-election a few days 
afterwards he was returned to the House of 
Commons for the city of London, which he 
continued to represent until the dissolution 
of parliament in September 1780. On 6 Dec. 
1770 Oliver seconded Serjeant Glynn's mo- 
tion for a committee to inquire into the 
administration of criminal justice (Pari. 
Hist. xvi. 1215-7). 

In March 1771 he became engaged in the 
famous struggle between the city and the 
House of Commons [see Crosby, Brass], 



Oliver 



*5° 



Oliver 



and was committed to the Tower by order 
of the speaker on the 26th of that month 
(ib. xvii. 155). On 5 April he was brought 
up on a writ of habeas corpus before Lord 
Mansfield, who declined to interfere, as par- 
liament was still sitting. A similar appli- 
cation was made on his behalf to the court 
of exchequer on 30 April, with the same 
want of success. The parliamentary session, 
however, closed on 8 May, when Oliver and 
Crosby were released from the Tower, and 
conducted in a triumphal procession to the 
Mansion House. Though formerly an active 
supporter of Wilkes, Oliver refused to serve 
as sheriff with him in 1771 (Gent. Mag. 
1771, p. 189), and was elected to that office 
with Watkin Lewes on 1 July 1772. The 
friends of Wilkes were so enraged at the 
election of Townshend as lord mayor in this 
year that they appear to have accused Oliver 
' of having taken the vote of the court be- 
fore their party had arrived ' (Fitzmatjrice, 
life of William, Earl of Sherburne, 1875- 
1876, ii. 289). On 26 Jan. 1773 Oliver 
spoke in favour of Sawbridge's motion for 
leave to bring in a bill for shortening the 
duration of parliaments (Pari. Hist. xvii. 
692-5), and on 1 Feb. 1775 he seconded a 
similar motion (ib. xviii. 216). On 27 Nov. 
1775 his proposed address to the king re- 
specting * the original authors and advisers ' 
of the measures against the American colo- 
nies was defeated by 163 votes to 10 (ib. 
xviii. 1005-7, 1021). His name appears for 
the last time in the ' Parliamentary History ' 
on 10 May 1776, when he seconded Saw- 
bridge's resolution that the American colo- 
nies should 'be continued upon the same 
footing of giving and granting their money 
as his Majesty's subjects in Ireland are, by 
their own representatives' (ib. xviii. 1353). 
Oliver resigned his gown at a court of alder- 
men held at Guildhall on 25 Nov. 1778, and 
shortly afterwards sailed to Antigua in 
order to look after his West Indian estates. 
He died on board the Sandwich packet, 
while returning to England, on 16 April 
1784. 

Oliver married, on 2 Feb. 1758, his cousin 
Mary, daughter of Richard Oliver of Low 
Leyton, Essex, by whom he had no issue. 
He was elected a general of the honourable 
artillery company in August 1773. The 
silver-gilt cup which was presented to him 
by the livery in March 1772 ' for joining 
with other magistrates in the release of a 
freeman, who was arrested by order of the 
House of Commons, and in a warrant for 
imprisoning the messenger who had arrested 
the citizen and refused to give bail/ is pre- 
served among the corporation plate at the 



Mansion House. His portrait, which was 
painted in the Tower by It. Pine in 1772, 
nas been engraved. 

["Walpole's Memoirs of the Reign of George ILL 
1845, iv. 211, 291, 299-301, 307, 316-17, 327-8 ; 
Chatham's Correspondence, 1838-40, iv. 121, 
125-7, 129-34, 138-40, 187 ; Woodfall's Junius, 
1814, ii. 205-22, iii. 345 et seq. ; Memoir of 
Brass Crosby, 1829 ; Trevelyan's Early History 
of C. J. Fox, 1881, pp. 339-55, 362-77 ; Beloe's 
Sexagenarian, 1818, ii. 23, 25-6; Oldmixon's 
British Empire in America, 1741, ii. 205, 215 ; 
Highmore's History of the Artillery Company, 
1804, pp. 291-S, 303, 312; Orridge's Some 
Account of the Citizens of London and their 
Rulers, 1867, pp. 97-101, 249; Gent. Mag. 
1758 p. 94, 1770 pp. 339-40, 341. 1771 pp. 
139-41, 188, 233, 234, 284, 330, 1772 pp. 294, 
338, 489, 492, 1776 pp. 147-8, 1778 pp. 434-5, 
549, 605, 1784, pt. i. p. 395 ; Notes and Queries, 
8th ser. iv. 67, 217 ; Official Return of Lists of 
Members of Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 140, 153.] 

G. F. R. B. 

OLIVER, ROBERT DUDLEY (1766- 
1850), admiral, was born on 31 Oct. 1766. 
He entered the navy in May 1779, on board 
the Prince George, carrying the flag of Rear- 
admiral Robert Digby [q. v.], and in her, 
during the early months of 1780, was ship- 
mate of Prince William, afterwards Wil- 
liam IV. Remaining in the Prince George, 
Oliver went in her to North America in 
1781, and later on to the West Indies, where 
he was present in the operations before St. 
Kitts in January 1782 [see Hood, Samttel, 
Viscount] and at the defeat of the French 
fleet off Dominica on 12 April [see Rodney, 
George Brydges, Lord]. After further ser- 
vice in North America and in the Channel, 
he was in 1793 lieutenant of the Active in 
the North Sea; in 1794 in the Artois with 
Captain Edmund Nagle [q. v.], and after the 
capture of the R6volutionnaire on 21 Oct. 
he was promoted to be commander, taking- 
seniority from the date of the action. In 
1795 he commanded the Hazard sloop on the 
coast of Ireland, and on 30 April 1796 was 
posted to the Nonsuch, guardship in the 
H umber, which he commanded till February 
1798, when he was appointed to the Nemesis 
going out to Quebec with a large convoy. 
In March 1799 he joined the Mermaid, in 
which he went to the Mediterranean, and 
after an active and successful commission 
brought home Lord Hutchinson from Egypt 
in July 1802. On the renewal of the war 
he was appointed in March 1803 to the 
Melpomene, which during the next two years 
was actively employed on the coast of France. 
In September 1805 she was in dock at Ports- 
mouth, and Oliver, calling on Lord Nelson, 
then on the point of sailing to resume the 



Oliver 



151 



Oliver 



command off Cadiz, expressed his concern 
that his ship was not able to accompany 
him. ' I hope/ answered Nelson, * you will 
come in time to tow some of the rascals.' 
The Melpomene joined the fleet off Trafalgar 
the day after the battle, and did help to tow 
off the prizes. Oliver was appointed to the 
Mare, vacant by the death of Captain Duff, 
which he commanded on the coast of France 
till September 1806. In May 1810 he com- 
missioned the Valiant, in which, in 1813-14, 
he took part in the operations on the coast 
of the United States. He resigned the com- 
mand in July 1814, and had no further ser- 
vice, though promoted in regular succession 
to be rear-admiral 12 Aug. 1819, vice- 
admiral 22 July 1830, admiral 23 Nov. 
1841. He died at his residence, near Dublin, 
on 1 Sept. 1850. Oliver married, in 1805, 
Mary, daughter of Sir Charles Saxton, bart., 
for many years resident commissioner of the 
navy at Portsmouth, and by her had a large 
family. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biogr. i. 725 ; O'Byrne's 
Nav. Biogr. Diet.; Gent. Mag. 1850, ii. 547; 
Return of Services in the Public Record Office.] 

J. K. L. 

OLIVER or OLYUER, THOMAS (d. 
1624), physician and mathematician, is said 
to have been educated at Cambridge. He 
certainly published his chief book at the 
university press, but his name does not 
figure in the university register, and no de- 
tails respecting his connection with the uni- 
versity are accessible. Before 1597 he was 
settled at Bury St. Edmunds as a physician, 
and usually described himself as ' Buriensis 
Philiatros. He practised his profession at 
Bury St. Edmunds until his death in 1624. 

Oliver was a mathematican as well as a 
physician, and wrote learnedly in both 
capacities. In 1601 he published ' A New 
Handling of the Planisphere, divided into 
three sections . . . pleasant and profitable 
generally for all men, but especially such 
as would get handines in using the ruler and 
compasse, and desire to reape the fruits of 
astronomicall and geographicall documents 
without being at the charge of costly in- 
struments. Invented for the most part, and 
first published in English, by Thomas 
Olyver/ London, by Felix Kyngston for 
Simon Waterson and Rafe Iacson, 1601, 
4to. In a dedication dated from Bury St. 
Edmunds 6 Jan. 1600-1, and addressed to 
Sir John Peter of Thorndon, Essex, he ac- 
knowledges obligations to ' Ciauius his 
Astrolabe/ Many diagrams appear in the 
text. 

In 1604 Oliver published at the press of 



John Legate [q. v.l at Cambridge four 
separate tracts hound in a single volume, 
and usually known by the title of the first 
tract : ' De Sophismatum Praestigiis cavendis 
Admonitio,' dedicated to Henry Howard, 
earl of Northampton, from Bury, 23 Nov. 
1603. This tract is succeeded by 'De 
Rectarum Linearum Parallelismo et Concursu 
Doctrina Geometrica,' dedicated to Lancelot 
Browne [q. v.], ' archiatro doctissimo,' and 
by ' De Missione Sanguinis in Pueris ante 
annum decimum quartum Diatribe niedica/ 
dedicated to William Butler (1536-1618) 
[q. v.], 'medico et nhilosopho praestantissimo 
amico suo charissimo Cantabrigiani.' The 
book concludes with ' De Circuli Quadra- 
ture Thesis logica,' dedicated to 'Adriano 
Romano equiti aurato in Academia Wurce- 
bur^ensi Mathematicorum professori cele- 
berrimo nunc medico C838areo,'27 Aug. 1597. 
In Addit, MS. 4626 (art. 23 or 24) are two 
unpublished tracts by Oliver, respectively 
entitled 'ThomsB Oliueri Buriensis Tabula 
Longitudinum etlatitudinumlocorummemo- 
rabihum in Europa/ and ' Mechanics Circuli 
quadrature cum equatione cubi et sph&ro.' 

[Davy's Athenae SuffolceDses in Addit. MS. 
19165, f. 267; Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, 
i. 510; Oliver's Works.] S. L. 

OLIVER, THOMAS (1725-1799), me- 
thodist preacher. [See Olivbbs.] 

OLIVER, THOMAS (1734-1815), lieu- 
tenant-governor of Massachusetts, said to 
have been born in Dorchester, Massachusetts, 
on 5 Jan. 1734, was son of Robert Oliver by 
Ann, daughter of James Brown of Antigua. 
His father was living in Antigua in 1738, 
but had settled at Dorchester before 1747. 
Thomas graduated at Harvard in 1753. 
He probably resided at Dorchester until 
1766, when he purchased an estate on Elm- 
wood Avenue, near Mount Auburn, Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, and erected the man- 
sion afterwards the residence successively 
of Governor Gerry, the Rev. Dr. Lowell, 
and James Russell Lowell. Being a man of 
fortune, he was not actively engaged in 
business, nor did he take much part in public 
affairs until March 1774, when he accepted 
the office of lieutenant-governor of the pro- 
vince and president of a council appointed 
by the king in a manner especially galling 
to popular feeling. The councillors were 
visitea by bands of Middlesex freeholders, 
and one after another forced to renounce 
their offices. On the seizure by the royal 
troops of the public stock of powder pro- 
vided for the militia, the yeomen of the 
neighbouring towns marched to Cambridge, 
some of them bringing arms. General Gage 



Oliver 



152 



Oliver 



thereupon prepared to send troops against 
them. Oliver, after vainly endeavouring to 
persuade the people to turn back, hastened 
to Boston and prevailed on Gage to refrain 
from military action. On his return the 
resignation of his seat on the council board 
was demanded. He urgently requested de- 
lay, inasmuch as he could not with pro- 
priety renounce that office while he held 
that of lieutenant-governor; but when a 
threatening multitude surrounded his house 
on the morning of 2 Sept. he yielded, and 
signed a solemn engagement ' as a man of 
honour and a Christian' that he would 
1 never hereafter, upon any terms what- 
soever, accept a seat at the said board, on 
the present novel and oppressive plan of the 
government.' He left Cambridge imme- 
diately and never returned. At the evacua- 
tion of Boston he accompanied the British 
forces, and soon afterwards took passage 
from Halifax to England. He was pro- 
scribed in 1778, and his estate confiscated. 

Oliver died at Bristol on 29 Nov. 1815 
{Gent Mag. 1815, pt. ii. p. 641). By his 
marriage in 1760 to Elizabeth, daughter of 
Colonel John Vassall, he had a family of 
daughters. He is represented as being of a 
gentle, retiring disposition. It has even 
been suggested that his name was inserted 
in the commission by mistake instead of the 
name of Chief-justice Peter Oliver (1713- 
1791). 

[Paige's Hist, of Cambridge, Massachusetts ; 
Appleton's Cyclop, of Amer. Biogr.] G. G. 

OLIVER, TOM (1789-1864), pugilist, 
born at Breadlow in Buckinghamshire in 
June 1789, left his native place as a boy, and 
entered the service of Mr. Baker, a gardener, 
at Millbank, London. A visit to a prize-fight 
in 1811 fired his ambition to enter the ring. 
His first essay was with Kimber, a stone- 
mason, at Tothill Fields in the same year. 
In a fight of an hour and forty minutes he 
was hailed the conqueror. He at once became 
known as the Chelsea gardener, an appella- 
tion which adhered to him throughout his 
career. After several minor fights, he on 
15 May 1813 encountered George Cooper at 
Moulsey Hurst, Surrey, and, after thirteen 
rounds of a severely contested engagement 
lasting seventeen minutes, was declared the 
victor. On Tuesday, 17 Mav 1814, he met 
Ned Painter at Shepperton Itange, Middle- 
sex, for a purse of 50/., given by the pugi- 
listic club, to be contended for in a 24- 
foot ring. In the second round Oliver re- 
ceived a blow which all but disabled him ; 
but, coming up to time and adopting Tom 
Cribb's system of milling on the retreat, he 



won the battle in the eighth round. He 
now became the landlord of the Duke's Head, 
31 Peter Street, Westminster, a house which 
* the fancy' of the Westminster district made 
their headquarters. On 4 Oct. 1816 he met 
Jack Carter, ' the Lancashire hero/ at Gretna 
Green, for one hundred guineas a side. The 
spectators numbered about thirty thousand, 
and the Marquis of Queensberry and Captain 
Barclay acted as the umpires. In the thirty- 
second round, at the end of forty-six minutes, 
he was taken out of the ring in a state of 
stupor, and completely deprived of sight. 

On 10 July 1818 Oliver encountered Bill 
Neat of Bristol at Gerrard's Cross, but the 
authorities interfered, and the ring was re- 
moved to Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, 
where Lord Yarmouth, Sir Henry Smith, and 
other celebrities were present. After one 
hour had elapsed, and twenty-eight rounds 
had been fought, Oliver was knocked sense- 
less, and could not come up to time. How- 
ever, on 28 May 1819 he completely defeated 
Hendrick the black. He next, on 2 1 July 1 8 19, 
encountered Dan Donnelly, the champion of 
Ireland, at Crawley Hurst, Sussex, for one 
hundred guineas a side. Intense interest was 
manifested in this affair in both countries, 
and bets amounting to upwards of 100,000/. 
were made on the result. Oliver fought with 
his accustomed bravery, but in the thirty- 
fourth round the victory fell to the Irishman. 
On 13 Jan. 1820 Oliver defeated TomShelton 
at Sawbridgeworth, Hertfordshire ; but in a 
fight with his former opponent, Ned Painter, 
at North Walsham, Norfolk, on 17 July 1820, 
he lost the battle. He was then matched to 
fight Tom Spring on 20 Feb. 1821 at Hayes, 
Middlesex. Spring was too much for him ; 
but he showed great forbearance in the fight, 
and allowed Oliver much latitude. In en- 
counters with T. Hickman, the gas-lightman, 
on 12 June 1821, and with Bill Abbott on 
6 Nov. 1821, Oliver's age told against him. 
He was now appointed to take charge of the 
ropes and stakes of the prize-ring, and he 
was a constant attendant at the ring-side as 
commissary. His last fight was with Ben 
Burn at Hampton, Middlesex, on 28 Jan. 
1834, when he won the victory in twenty- 
five minutes. On 15 July 1846 he was sen- 
tenced at the Oxford assizes to three weeks' 
imprisonment for being present at a fight 
between Gill and Norley. During his latter 
years he was a fruiterer and greengrocer in 
Pimlico and Chelsea. He died in London 
in June 1 864, leaving a son, Frederick Oliver, 
also a pugilist and a commissary of the ring, 
who died on 30 Jan. 1870. 

[Fistiana, by the editor of Bell's Life (1868), 
pp. 92-3 ; Boxiana, 1818-24, ii. 95 &c, iii. 262, 



Oliver 



iS3 



Oliver 



with portrait, iv. 233 &c; Miles's Pogilistica, 
1880, li. 89-103, with portrait ; Hannan's Guide 
to British Boxing, pt. ii. pp. 43-6 ; The Fancy, 
by an Operator, 1826, i. 609-16, with portrait.] 

G. C. B. 

OLIVER, WILLIAM (1659-1716), phy- 
sician, born in 1669, belonged to the family 
of Oliver dwelling at Trevarnoe, in Sithney, 
Cornwall. He was entered in the physic line 
at Ijeyden University on 17 Dec. 1683, when 
aged 24, but his medical studies were inter- 
rupted by his joining the Duke of Monmouth's 
expedition to England, and serving with the 
troops as one of their three surgeons ( Robekts, 
Life of Monmouth, i. 253). After its defeat 
he rode off the field with the duke, Lord 
Grey, and a few others. When they had 
ridden about twenty miles he proposed to the 
duke to turn off to the sea-coast of Somerset, 
seize a passage-boat at Uphill, and cross to 
Wales. This advice was not adopted, and 
Oliver rode away to Bristol, about twelve 
miles distant (Oldmixon, History under the 
Stuarts, p. 704). There he concealed him- 
self with his friends, and, after the * bloody 
assizes/ travelled to London with the clerk 
of Judge Jeffreys, to whom he had been 
recommended by a tory friend. He then 
escaped to the continent, and made his way 
to Holland. In 1685 he was at Kbnigsberg 
in Prussia, and he spent one winter in the 
most northern part of Poland ; but his name 
appears again in the list of the students at 
Leyden on 17 Feb. 1688. He accompanied 
William III to England in 1688 as an officer 
in his army, and was soon rewarded for his 
services. On 30 Sept. 1692 Oliver qualified 
as a licentiate of the College of Physicians at 
London, and he held from 27 April 1693 to 
1702 the post of physician to the red squa- 
dron. This caused him to be with the fleet at 
Cadiz in 1694, and to spend two summers in 
the Mediterranean, during which period he 
eagerly prosecuted his inquiries in medicine 
and science. Extracts from two letters written 
by Oliver when with the fleet were communi- 
cated by Walter Moyle to the ' Philosophical 
Transactions/ xvii. 908-12, and a third letter, 
written at the same period, was published in 
the same ' Transactions/ xxiv. 1562-4. A 
letter * on his late journey into Denmark and 
Holland/ about 1/01, also appeared in the 
4 Philosophical Transactions/ xxiii. 1400-10. 
These communications led to his election as 
F.R.S. on 5 Jan. 1703-4. From 1702 to 1709 
he dwelt in London and Bath, his ' Practical 
Essay ' being dated from ' Red Lion Court 
in Fleet Street, July 10, 1704 ; ' • but it is 
doubtful whether he ever practised at Bath* 
(Falconer, Bath Hospital, ed. 1888, p. 11). 
From 1709 to 1714 he was physician to the 



hospital at Chatham for sick and wounded 
seamen, and from 1714 to 1716 he was phy- 
sician to the Royal Hospital at Greenwich. 
He died unmarried at Greenwich on 4 April 
1716, and was buried in the abbey church at 
Bath, where a monument was erected to his 
memory. 

Oliver published in 1704 ' A practical 
Essay on Fevers, containing Remarks on the 
hot and cold Methods of their Cure/ at page 
202 of which begins ' a Dissertation on the 
hot waters of Bathe/ the first draft of his 
subsequent work. The essay, through its 
author's references to Dr. Radcliffe, was at- 
tacked in * A Letter to Dr. Oliver, desiring 
him to reconcile some few of the contra- 
dictory assertions in his Essay on Feavers/ 
dated "from Tunbridge, 25 July 1704. The 
treatise on Bath was expanded into ' A 
Practical Dissertation on Bath Waters ; to 
which is added a Relation of a very extra- 
ordinary Sleeper near Bath/ 1707, 1719; 5th 
edit. 1764. This account of the sleeper, 
Samuel Chilton, a labourer at Timsbury, and 
twenty-five years old, is also in the * Philo- 
sophical Transactions/ xxiv. 2177-82, and 
was issued separately in 1707 and 1719. A 
further communication by him is in the same 
'Transactions/ xxiv. 1696. His rules for 
health, written for the use of John Smalley 
of Plymouth, his cousin, and a discourse of 
' Christian and Politike Reasons ' why Eng- 
land and Holland should not war with each 
other, with other manuscripts, are in the 
Sloane MS. No. 1770 at the British Museum, 
and a letter from him to Sir Hans Sloane is 
in the same collection, No. 4054. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. 2nd edit. pp. 493- 
494 ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ; 
Wright's Historic Guide to Bath, p. 194 ; 
Britton's Bath Abbey, p. 91 ; Peach's Historic 
Houses of Bath, 2nd ser. pp. 73-6.] W. P. C. 

OLIVER, WILLIAM (1695-1764), phy- 
sician and philanthropist, born at Ludgvan, 
Cornwall, on 4 Aug. 1695, was baptised on 
27 Aug. 1695, and described as son of John 
Oliver. The statement of some writers that he 
was the illegitimate child of William Oliver 
(1669-1716) [q. v.] may be dismissed from 
consideration. His family, originally seated 
at Trevarnoe in Sithney, resided afterwards in 
Ludgvan, and the estate of Treneere in Ma- 
dron, which belonged to him, was sold, after 
his death, in 1768. When he purposed erect- 
ing a monument in Sithney churchyard to 
the memory of his parents, Pope wrote the 
epitaph and drew the design of the pillar 
( Quarterly Review, October 1875\ He was 
admitted a pensioner of Pembroke College, 
Cambridge, on 17 Sept. 1714, graduated M.B. 
in 1720, and M.D. in 1725, and, to complete 



Oliver 



154 



Oliver 



his medical training, entered at Leyden Uni- 
versity on 15 Nov. 1720. On 8 July 1756 
he was incorporated at Oxford, and he was 
elected F.R.S. on 22 Jan. 1729-30. 

On returning from Leyden, Oliver prac- 
tised for a time at Plymouth, but about 1725 
he settled at Bath and remained there for 
the rest of his life, obtaining in a very short 
time the leading practice ot the city. This 
was mainly due to his friendship with Ralph 
Allen (a fellow Cornishman, who introduced 
him to Pope, Warburton, and the rest of the 
guests at Prior Park), and with Dr. Borlase, 
his 'friend and relation/ who, after being his 
patient in 1730, sent to him the gentry of 
the west country. Oliver took great pains 
in obtaining subscriptions for the erection of 
the Water or General Hospital, now called 
the Royal Mineral Water Hospital, at Bath, 
and in 1737 made an offer of some land for 
its site, which was at first accepted, but 
afterwards declined. Next year he was ap- 
pointed one of the treasurers to the fund, 
and in July 1739 he became a deputy-pre- 
sident. On 1 May 1740 he was appointed 
physician to the hospital, and on the same 
aay Jeremiah (known as Jerry) Peirce be- 
came the surgeon. The regulations for the 
admission and removal of English patients 
were drawn up by him ; and in 1756, when 
the privileges were extended to patients 
from Scotland and Ireland, he compiled a 
set of rules applicable to their case. Until 
1 May 1761, when he and Peirce both re- 
signed, he ruled the institution. The third 
article in Charleton's ' Three Tracts on Bath 
Waters/ 1774, consisted of ' histories of 
hospital cases under the care of the late Dr. 
Oliver/ a subject on which he had himself 
contemplated the publication of a volume ; 
and * Some Observations on Stomach Com- 
plaints/ which were found among his papers, 
were printed in pp. 76-95 of the same work. 
Peirce and Oliver were painted together by 
William Hoare, R.A., in 1742, in a picture 
now in the board-room of the hospital, in the 
act of examining three patients, candidates 
for admission. Oliver's position in the medi- 
cal world of Bath involved him in trouble. 
Archibald Cleland, one of the hospital sur- 
geons, was dismissed in 1743 on a charge of 
improper conduct, and the dismissal led to 
many pamphlets. An inquiry was held into 
the circumstances, under the presidency of 
Philip, brother of Ralph, Allen; this resulted 
in Oliver's conduct being highly commended. 
In 1757 Oliver and some other physicians in 
the city declined to attend any consulta- 
tions with William Baylies, M.D. [q. v.], and 
Charles Lucas, M.D. [q. v.], in consequence 
of their reflections on the use and abuse of the 



waters, and their censures on the conduct of 
the physicians at the hospital. Much corre- 
spondence ensued, and it was published as 
proving the existence of a * physical con- 
federacy in Bath.' His medical skill is men- 
tioned by Mrs. Anne Pitt (Suffolk Letters, 
1824, ii. 246-50) and bv Mrs. Delany (^ttfo- 
biography, ii. 17, iii. 625). He and Peirce 
attended Ralph Allen in his last illness, and 
each received a complimentary legacy of 100/. 

Oliver purchased in 1746, as a vacation 
residence, a small farmhouse two 'miles from 
Box, near Bath, and called it Trevarnoe, 
after the scene of his childhood and the abode 
of his fathers. For many years before his 
death he was subject to the gout. He died 
at Bath on 17 March 1764, and was buried 
in the church of Weston, near that city, 
where an inscription ' on a white tablet, sup- 
ported by palm-branches/ was erected to his 
memory. There is also a plain mural tablet 
to his memory in the abbey church. The 
statement in the * Life and Times of Selina, 
countess of Huntingdon ' (i. 450-1), that he 
remained * a most inveterate infidel till a 
short time before his death ' is probably an 
exaggeration. He was generally admitted 
to have been an eminently sensible man, and 
one also of a most compassionate and bene- 
volent nature. His library was sold in 1764. 
His son, the third William Oliver, matricu-* 
lated from Christ Church, Oxford, on 20 Jan. 
1748-9, aged 18, and his name appears on 
the books at Leyden on 21 Sept. 1753. The 
eldest daughter married a son of the Rev. 
John Acland, rector of Broadclyst, Devon- 
shire ; the second daughter, Charlotte, mar- 
ried, 14 April 1752, Sir John Pringle, bart., 
F.R.S. Some of his descendants are said to 
have been living at Bath in 1852. 

He invented the * Bath Oliver ' biscuit, and 
shortly before his death confided the receipt 
to his coachman Atkins, giving him at the 
same time 100/. in money and ten sacks of 
the finest wheat-flour. The fortunate re- 
cipient opened a shop in Green Street, and 
soon acquired a large fortune. The ' Bath 
Oliver ' is still well known. 

Oliver published, in 1753, ' Myra : a pas- 
toral dialogue sacred to the memory of a 
lady who died 29 Dec. 1753, aged 25.' His 
' Practical Essay on the Use and Abuse of 
warm Bathing in Gouty Cases ' came out in 
1751, passed into a second edition in 1751, 
and into a third in 1764. Philip Thicknesse 
inserted some remarks on this essay in his 
1 Valetudinarian's Bath Guide/ 1780, pp. 30- 
36. 01 i ver was also the anonymous author of 
' A Faint Sketch of the Life, Character, and 
Manners of the late Mr. Nash/ which was 
printed at Bath for John Keene, and sold at 



Oliver 



*55 



Oliver 



3d, It was praised by Goldsmith as ' written 
with much good sense and still more good 
nature/ and it was embodied in Goldsmith's 
* Life of Beau Nash/ It also appeared in the 
1 Public Ledger' of 12 March 1761, and in 
the Rev. Richard Warner's ' History of Bath,' 
pp. 370-1. To the < Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' for 1723 and 1755 respectively he 
contributed brief papers on medical topics, 
the former being addressed to Dr. Richard 
Mead. 

Oliver wrote some elegiac lines on the 
death of Ralph Thicknesse ; he was standing 
at Thicknesse's elbow at the moment that 
Thicknesse fell dead as he was playing the first 
fiddle in a performance of a piece of his own 
composition at a concert in Bath (cf. Philip 
Thicknesse, New Prose Bath Guide, p. 33 ; 
Nichols, Lit. Anecd. ix. 253; Britton, 
Bath Abbey Church, p. 92 ; Brtdges, Besti- 
tuta, iv. 421-2). His lines to Sir John Cope 
'upon his catching Sir Anthony's fire by 
drinking Bath waters,' are in Mrs. Stopford 
Sackville's manuscripts {Hist. MSS. Comm. 
9th Rep. App. iii. 132). 

Oliver applied to Dr. Borlase for minerals for 
Pope's grotto, and his name frequently occurs 
in the letters of Pope and Borlase at Castle 
Horneck, near Penzance. A letter to Oliver 
from Pope, dated 8 Oct. 1740, and the pro- 
perty of Mr. H. G. Bohn, was inserted with 
the first draft of the reply in Carruthers's 
' Life of Pope ' (Bonn's Illustrated Library, 
1857, pp. 173-4). Several other letters were 
formerly in the possession of Upcott. One, 
dated 28 Aug. 1743, is printed in Roscoe's 
' Works of Pope,' i. 541-2, and it was re- 
printed with two others which were taken 
from the 'European Magazine/ 1791, pt. ii. 
p. 409, and 1792, pt. i. p. 6, in Courthope's 
edition, x. 242-5. In the summer of 1743 
Oliver wrote to Pope to free himself from all 
knowledge of John Tillard's attack on War- 
burton, which was dedicated to him without 
his knowledge ( Works, ed. Courthope, ix. 
233). Two letters from Warburton to Oliver 
are m Nichols's 'Literary Anecdotes,' v. 581- 
582, and several communications from him 
to Doddridge from 1743 to 1749 are con- 
tained in the latter's ' Correspondence,' v. 223- 
225, 302-4, v. 66-7, 126-9. Three letters 
from Stephen Duck to him are printed in 
the 'European Magazine,' 1795, pt. i. p. 
80 and pt. ii. p. 79. He bestowed many 
favours on Duck, and was, no doubt, the 
polite son of ^Esculapius depicted in that 
author's ' Journey to Marlborough, Bath, &c.' 
( Works, 1753, p. 75). A letter from Oliver 
to Dr. Ward on two Roman altars discovered 
at Bath is in the British Museum, Addit. 
M8. 6181, f. 63, and three more letters re- 



ferring to some dirty and miserly old ac- 
quaintance of Jacob Tonson at Bath in 1735, 
are in Addit. MS. 28275, fols. 366-61. 
Some manuscript letters to Jurin belong to 
the Royal Society. Benjamin Heath dedi- 
cated to him in 1740 'The Essay towards a 
demonstrative Proof of the Divine Existence ; ' 
plate 18 in the ' Antiquities of Cornwall ' 
was engraved at his expense and inscribed 
to him by Dr. Borlase ; and the later impres- 
sions of Mary Chandler's 'Description of 
Bath ' contained (pp. 21-3) some verses to 
him acknowledging that he had corrected 
her poem, and that ' ev'n Pope approvM 
when you had tun'd my Lyre.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1764, p. 147 ; Collinson's Somer- 
set, i. 165 ; Tunstall's Bath Rambles (1848), p. 
33 ; Peach's Historic Houses of Bath, 2nd ser. 
pp. 77-9 ; Britton'sBath Abbey, p. 98 ; Hunter's 
Bath and Literature, p. 89 ; Moukland's Litera- 
ture of Bath, pp. 6-7, and Suppl. p f 51 ; Wright's 
Historic Guide to Bath, pp. 131-4 ; Murch's Bath 
Physicians, pp. 21-2 ; Falconer's Bath Hospital, 
passim ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, 
iii. 636, v. 92 ; D. Gilbert's Cornwall, iii. 88 ; Pea- 
cock's Leyden Students (Index Soc.) ; Quarterly 
Review, October 1875, pp. 379-94 (by W. C. 
Borlase) : Western Antiquary, tu. 8.1 

W. P. C. 

OLIVER, WILLIAM (1804 P-1863), 
landscape-painter, was born about 1804. 
He painted in oil as well as in water-colours, 
but chiefly in the latter, and took most of his 
subjects from foreign scenery, especially in 
France and the Pyrenees. He began to ex- 
hibit in 1829, when he sent to the Society 
of British Artists ' A Beach Scene in Kent ' 
and a l Fish Boat.' In 1834 he was elected a 
member of the New Society (now the Royal 
Institute) of Painters in Water-Colours, and 
his drawings appeared annually at its exhibi- 
tions until 1854. He also sent oil-paintings 
to the Royal Academy from 1835 to 1853, and 
to the British Institution from 1836. He 
published in 1842 a folio volume of * Scenery 
of the Pyrenees/ lithographed by George 
Barnard, Thomas Shotter Boys, Carl Hughe, 
and others, 

Oliver died at Langley Mill House, Hal- 
stead, Essex, on 2 Nov. 1853, aged 49. 
There is an oil-painting by him of ' Foligno ' 
in the South Kensington Museum. 

His wife, Emma Sophia Oliver (1819- 
1885), daughter of W. Eburne, coachbuilder, 
of Rathbone Place, London, was born on 
15 Aug. 1819, and married in 1840. She 
was elected a member of the New Society 
of Painters in Water-Colours in 1849, and 
exhibited also landscapes both in water- 
colours and in oil at the Royal Academy, 



Olivers 



156 



Oilier 



British Institution, Society of British Artists, 
and various provincial galleries. After Oli- 
ver's death she married, about 1856, John 
Sedgwick, a solicitor, of Watford, Hertford- 
shire, but continued to follow her profession 
in her first husband's name until her death, 
which took place at the Brewery House, 
Great Berkhamstead, on 15 March 1885. 

[Art Journal, 1853, p. 311 ; Bryan's Dictionary 
of Painters and Engravers, ed. Graves and Arm- 
strong, 1886-9, ii. 225 ; Miss Clayton's English 
Female Artists, 1876, ii. 227-30; Exhibition 
Catalogues of the Royal Academy, British In- 
stitution (Living Artists), Society of British 
Artists, and New Society of Painters in Water- 
Colours.] R. E. G. 

OLIVERS, THOMAS (1725-1 799), Wes- 
ley an methodist preacher and hymn- writer, 
was the son of Thomas and Penelope Oliver. 
The parish register of Tregynon, Montgo- 
meryshire, shows that he was baptised at that 
church on 8 Sept. 1725. His father died in 
December 1728 and his mother in 1729, and 
he was then entrusted to the care of a great- 
uncle, who, however, did not long survive 
Olivers's parents, but left him a small for- 
tune, providing that the interest should be 
employed in the lad's bringing-up, and the 
principal paid to him when he came of age. 
He received only an imperfect education, and 
was, at the age of eighteen, apprenticed to a 
shoemaker. According to his own account, 
he was a restless, idle youth, who, as he grew 
to manhood, spent his time in roving from 
place to place, no doubt earning a precarious 
livelihood as a cobbler. In the course of his 
wanderings he happened to hear Whitefield 
preach at Bristol, and this at once changed 
the current of his life. He joined the me- 
thodist society at Bradford, Wiltshire, and 
soon became one of the local preachers of the 
organisation, taking long journeys in dis- 
charge of his Sunday duties. Wesley soon 
prevailed upon him to become one of the 
itinerant preachers whose time was fully 
taken up by the work. On 24 Oct. 1753 he 
set out for Cornwall. In 1766 he was at 
Dundee. After travelling for twenty-two 
years, he was, in 1775, appointed by Wesley 
supervisor of the methodist press, a position 
which he held until 1789, when Wesley re- 
moved him, because, as he said, ' the errata 
were insufferable/ and pieces were inserted 
in the magazine without his knowledge 
(Journal, 8 Aug. 1789). The remainder of 
his life was spent in retirement in London, 
where he died in March 1799. He was buried 
in Wesley's own tomb, in the City Road 
burying-ground. His portrait is among the 
collection of portraits of Wesleyan me- 
thodist ministers who occupied the meeting- 



house at Dundee which was lent by Mr. 
George Worrall to the Old Dundee Exhi- 
bition, 1892-3. 

Olivers was the author of: 1. * Twelve 
Reasons why the People called Methodists 
ought not to buy or sell uncustomed Goods.' 
2. * Reply to a Pamphlet entitled " A few 
Thoughts on Matters of Fact concerning 
Methodism." ' 3. * Reply to a Pamphlet on 
Wesley and Erskine.' 4. ' Letter to Top- 
lady.' This was a part of the Calvinistic 
controversy among the early methodists, in 
which Olivers figured prominently. 5. * Pam- 
phlet against Richard Hill.' 6. 'A Full 
Defence of the Rev. John Wesley against 
Rev. Caleb Evans/ 1776, 12mo. 7. ' Answer 
to Rowland Hill.' 8. Account of his own 
life. 9. * A Full Refutation of the Doctrine 
of Unconditional Perseverance,' 1790, 8vo. 
10. * Defence of Methodism,' Leeds, 1818, 
8vo. 11. 'Tract against Dancing.' Better 
known are Olivers's verse compositions. 
12. 4 Hymn on the Last Judgment (* Come, 
Immortal King of Glory,' 1st edit. Leeds, 
n.d.; 2nd edit. Bristol, 1763). 13. 'Hymn 
of Praise to Christ ' ('Our Hearts and Hands 
to Christ we raise,' composed and printed in 
Ireland about 1756 ; 2nd edit. Bristol, 1763). 
14. 'Hymn to the God of Abraham' ('The 
God of Abraham praise/ 1st and 2nd edit. 
Nottingham, n.d. ; others in rapid succession, 
1772-9). It is upon this hymn, now to be 
found in nearly all collections, that Olivers's 
fame chiefly rests. 15. ' A descriptive and 
plaintive Elegy on the Death of the late 
Reverend John Wesley/ London, 1791. Oli- 
vers also composed the hymn-tune called 
' Helmsley.' 

[Olivers's Account of my own Life in Lives 
of Early Methodist Preachers ; Southey's and 
Tyerman's Lives of Wesley; reprint of hymns 
and elegy, with biography, by the Rev. John 
Kirk. London, 1868; Williams's Montgomery- 
shire Worthies, 2nd edit. 1894; Julian's Diet, 
of Hymnology.] J. E. L. 

OLLIER, CHARLES (1788-1859), pub- 
lisher and author, was born in 1788. He was 
descended from a French protestant family 
which migrated to England in 1685, and he 
began life in the banking-house of Messrs. 
Coutts. About 1816 he was in business as 
a publisher in Vere Street, Bond Street, 
in partnership with his brother James. James 
was the man of business ; Charles possessed 
a keen sense of the beauties of poetry, and, 
having made the acquaintance of Leigh 
Hunt, undertook the publication of his 
' Foliage/ ' Hero and Leander/ and the second 
edition of 'The Story of Rimini.' Through 
Hunt he became known to Keats, and, out 
of admiration for his genius, volunteered to 



Oilier 



'57 



Oilier 



Sublish his first poems (1817). The book 
id not succeed, and Keats, attributing the 
failure to Ollier's inactivity, quarrelled with 
him, and published his subsequent books 
with Taylor and Hessey. Shelley was more 
constant, although he, too, with equal un- 
reasonableness, complained of Oilier for insist- 
ing on the alterations which converted ' Laon 
and Cythna ' into ' The Revolt of Islam,' and 
without which the sale would soon have been 
stopped by a prosecution. All the subsequent 
works of Shelley published in his lifetime, 
except ' Swell foot the Tyrant/ were never- 
theless brought out by Oilier, to whom the 
unsold copies of * Alastor/ published in 1815 
by Baldwin and Cradock, were also trans- 
ferred. 'Julian and Maddalo' was also ad- 
vertised for publication by Oilier, but did not 
appear until printed by John Hunt, along 
with the posthumou8poem8, in 1824. Shelley's 
letters to Oilier are published in the ' Shelley 
Memorials/ and are very valuable for the 
literary history of his works. The most im- 
portant of Ollier's other publications were 
the collected works of Cnarles Lamb and 
several of Barry Cornwall's early volumes. 
In 1819 he published ' The Literary Pocket 
Book/ in which Shelley's poem of ' Marianne's 
Dream' was first printea; and in 1820 he 
brought out the first part of ' Ollier's Lite- 
rary Miscellany/ not continued. Besides a 
remarkable article on the German drama by 
Archdeacon Hare, this publication contained 
Peacock's paradox, ' The Four Ages of Poetry/ 
memorable for having provoked Shelley's 
' Defence of Poetry.' Shelley gave his essay 
to Oilier for the second part 01 the ' Miscel- 
lany/ but this never appeared; and when 
Ollier's unsuccessful business was shortly 
afterwards wound up, the ' Defence ' came 
into the possession of John Hunt, who pre- 
pared it for publication in 'The Liberal/ 
tut that periodical also expired before it 
could be published. Oilier became, and long 
continued, a literary adviser to Bentley, and 
would seem, from a passage in one of Leigh 
Hunt's letters to him, to have contributed to 
the ' Naval and Military Gazette/ as well as to 
' Ainsworth's Magazine.' His independent 
publications were : 1. ' Altham and his Wife : 
a domestic Tale/ 1818. Of this Shelley wrote : 
' It is a natural story, most unaffectedly told 
in a strain of very pure and powerful English.' 
2. ' Inesilla ; or the Tempter : a Romance, 
with other Tales/ 1824 ; also very well 
written. This had been announced for pub- 
lication several years before, but the compo- 
sition was impeded by the author's grief for 
the loss of a daughter. 3. ' Ferrers/ 1842, 
a romance on the execution of Earl Ferrers 
in 1760, somewhat in the style of Harrison 



Ainsworth, but much inferior. 4. ' Fallacy 
of Ghosts, Dreams, and Omens, with Stories 
of Witchcraft, Life-in-Death, and Mono- 
mania,' 1848; reprinted from 'Ainsworth's 
Magazine/ and published by the author him- 
self Several letters from Leigh Hunt, pub- 
lished in the latter's correspondence, cast an 
agreeable light upon Ollier's latter years, 
showing that his literary tastes and sym- 

Sathies remained unimpaired. He died at 
>ld Brompton on 6 June 1869, while the 
letters which he had contributed to the 
'Shelley Memorials' were passing through 
the press. His son Edmund is separately 
noticed. 

[Athenaeum ; Leigh Hunt in Spectator, 18 June 
1859; Shelley Memorials; Leigh Hunt's Corre- 
spondence ; Shelley's Works (Forman's edition).} 

R. G. 

OLLIER, EDMUND (1827-1886), au- 
thor, son of Charles Oilier [q. v.], was born 
in 1827, and privately educated. He 'be- 
held Charles Lamb with infantile eyes, and 
sat in poor Mary Lamb's lap.' As a boy he 
used to listen to Leigh Hunt's and B. R. 
Haydon's stories. He adopted the profes- 
sion of literature, and, after some years of 
miscellaneous work, became connected with 
the ' Daily News/ ' Athenaeum/ ' Household 
Words/ and ' All the Year Round.' In 1867 
he republished verses which had originally 
appeared in the periodicals under the title of 
' Poems from the Greek Mythology, and Mis- 
cellaneous Poems.' In the same year he 
contributed an edition of the first series of 
the ' Essays of Elia/ with a memoir of the 
author, to 'Hotten's Worldwide Library;' 
and in 1869 published an edition of Leigh 
Hunt's ' Tale for the Chimney Corner.' Be- 
coming connected with the publishing firm 
of Cassell, Petter, & Galpin, Oilier wrote a 
memoir of Dore, &c, for the 'Dor6 Gallery/ 
1870; 'Cassell's Illustrated History of the 
War between France and Germany/ 2 vols. 
1871-2 ; ' Our British Portrait-Painters from 
Sir Peter Lely to J. Sant/ 1874; 'Cassell's 
Illustrated History of the United States/ 
3 vols. 1874-7; 'Cassell's Illustrated His- 
tory of the Russo-Turkish War/ 2 vols. 1877- 
1879; 'A Popular History of Sacred Art,' 
1882 ; 'Cassell's Illustrated Universal His- 
tory/ 4 vols. 1882-6. At the time of his 
death he was engaged upon the ' Life and 
Times of Queen Victoria/ The first eleven 
chanters were by Oilier, and the remainder 
of the work by Robert Wilson. 

Oilier died at his house in Oakley Street, 
Chelsea, on 19 April 1886. He married a 
Miss Gattie, who survived him, but left no- 
issue. He was a man of wide biographical 



Olliffe 



158 



Ollivant 



and topographical knowledge, but his works 
were cniefly compiled from obvious sources. 
[Times. 23 April 1886; Athenaeum, 1 May 
1886; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; personal knowledge.] 

L. C. S. 

OLLIFFE, Sib JOSEPH FRANCIS 
(1808-1869), physician, son of Joseph Olliffe, 
merchant, of Cork, by Elizabeth, daughter of 
Charles McCarthy of Sunville, co. Limerick, 
was born at Cork m 1808. He was educated 
in Paris, and graduated M. A. at the university 
in 1829, and M.D. in 1840. For some time he 
acted as tutor in the family of the Count de 
Cresnoi, but in 1840 he commenced the 
practice of medicine in Paris. He was a 
fellow of the Anatomical Society of Paris, 
and at one period filled the post of president 
of the Paris Medical Society. Louis-Philippe 
in 1846 appointed him a knight of the Legion 
of Honour, and he was promoted to the rank 
of officier in 1855 by Napoleon III. In March 
1852 he became physician to the British em- 
bassy, and on 13 June in the following year 
was knighted at Buckingham Palace. The 
board of trade nominated him a juror for 
hygiene, pharmacy, surgery, and medicine in 
the French international exhibition in April 
1855 ; in 1861 he was appointed one of the 
committee for sanitary appliances in the 
international exhibition of 1862, and he 
became a fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians of London in 1859. He en- 
joyed for many years a large practice and 
considerable social position. Inheriting by 
his marriage in 1841 with Laura, second 
daughter of Sir William Cubitt, a large 
fortune, he was able to entertain on a large 
scale. The friend as well as the physician 
of Count de Morny, he joined him in ex- 
tensive building operations at Deauville, near 
Trouville, a watering-place which they may 
be said to have created. The heavy responsi- 
bilities connected with this unremunerative 
speculation much clouded his later years. 
He died at Brighton on 14 March 1869. 

[Register and Magazine of Biography, April 
1869, p. 296 ; British Medical Journal, 20 March 
1869, p. 274.] G. C. B. 

OLLIVANT, ALFRED (1798-1882), 
bishop of LlandafT, son of William Ollivant 
and Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Stephen Lang- 
ston of Great Horwood, Buckinghamshire, 
some time alderman of London, was born in 
Manchester, where his father was engaged in 
business, on 16 Aug. 1798. The family after- 
wards removed to London, and Ollivant's 
father, whose affairs had become involved, 
obtained a clerkship in the navy office, and 
then resided at 11 Smith Street, Northamp- 
ton Square. On 22 Aug. 1809 Alfred was 



admitted a scholar of St. Paul's School, along 
with an elder brother, Langston. Rising to be 
captain of the school, he was elected in 1817 
to a Campden exhibition at Trinity College, 
Cambridge. His career at the university 
was brilliant. After gaining a Perry exhibi- 
tion in 1819, in 1820 lie was elected Craven 
scholar, and in 1821 graduated sixth wrangler, 
obtaining also — what was then the highest 
classical distinction — the senior chancellor's 
medal. Soon afterwards he was elected fellow 
of Trinity. In 1822 he gained the Tyrwhitt 
Hebrew scholarship, and in 1822 and 1823 
the members' prize for a Latin essay. He pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1824, B.D. and D.D. in 1836. 
In 1827 he was appointed vice-principal 
of the newly founded college of St. David, 
Lampeter, under the Rev. Llewelyn Lewellin, 
afterwards dean of St. David's. In this office 
he continued sixteen years, during which he 
held several small preferments in Wales, and 
obtained a competent knowledge of the Ian- 

§uage. He was prebendary (third cursal) of 
t. David's, 28 July 1829; sinecure rector of 
Llangeler, Carmarthenshire, 22 Feb. 1831 ; 
prebendary of St. Harmons, Brecon, 10 Nov. 
1831 ; vicar of Llangeler, 10 April 1832 ; 
rector of Bettws Bledrws, Cardiganshire, 
31 March 183o ; and vicar of Kerry, Mont- 
gomeryshire, 8 Nov. 1836 (Foster, Index 
Ecclesiatticus, pp. 131-2). In 1843 he was 
elected to the regius professorship of divinity 
at Cambridge, carrying with it the rectory 
of Somersham, Huntingdonshire ; and in 
1849, on the nomination of Lord John Rus- 
sell, he was raised to the see of Llandaff 
(nom. 29 Oct., cons. 2 Dec.) in succession to 
Edward Copleston [q. v.] 

His long episcopate of thirty-three years 
was marked by much useful work and by 
many reforms. For many generations no 
bishop had been, properl v speaking, resident. 
Copleston, as dean of St. Paul's, spent 
much of his time in London. The small in- 
come, before the provision of one by statute, 
coupled with the want of a residence, had 
proved fatal to the interests of the see ; but 
Ollivant devoted himself wholly to his dio- 
cese, only leaving it to attend convocation or 
to sit in parliament when church questions 
were under discussion, or to fulfil his duties 
as a member of the Old Testament revision 
company. The proposal in convocation in 
1870 to revise the New Testament had been 
extended to the Old on his initiative. As a 
result of his self-denying labour he could 
point in the end to a cathedral finally restored 
from its ruins (the work, which commenced 
under his predecessor, costing about 35,000/.), 
while about one hundred and seventy churches 
were built, restored, or enlarged, more than 



Ollyffe 



*59 



Olmius 



seventy parsonage-houses added or rendered 
habitable, and a sum of not less than 360,000/. 
raised and spent on church work in his dio- 
cese. One of the most valuable efforts of 
his episcopate was the establishment of the 
Church Extension Society (Morgan, Four 
Biographical Sketches,?^). On 30 Nov. 1882, 
little more than a fortnight before his death, 
his portrait, painted by Ouless, was presented 
to him by Lord Aberdare in the town-hall 
at Cardiff in behalf of the clergy and laity of 
his diocese. He died at Bishop's Court, Llan- 
daff, on 16 Dec. 1882, having been for some 
time the senior member of the bench, and was 
buried in the churchyard of his cathedral. A 
tomb, with his effigy in marble by Armit- 
stead, was erected by the diocese in his 
memory on the north side of the altar steps. 

By his wife Alicia Olivia, daughter of i 
Lieutenant-general Spencer of Bramley i 
Grange, Yorkshire, who died on 13 July 
1886, in her eighty-fifth year, he had several 
children, of whom three sons survived him : 
Alfred, colonel B.S.C. ; Joseph Earle, chan- 
cellor of the dioceses of Llandaff and St. 
David's ; and Edward, colonel R.H.A. 

In person the bishop was tall and spare, 
with features said by many to resemble those 
of the Duke of Wellington. In advancing 
years he suffered from deafness, but his in- 
tellect was keen and vigorous to the last. 

His published works, which are numerous, 
consist chiefly of sermons and charges, rang- 
ing in date from 1827 to 1881. Among these 
may be specified : 1. * An Analysis of the 
Text of tne History of Joseph/ in Hebrew, 
for the use of his students at Lampeter ; an 
interleaved copy of the second edition (1833), 
with the author's notes, is in the library of 
St. Paul's School, and another of the third 
edition (1836) in that of St. David's College, 
Lampeter. 2. ' Some Account of the Con- 
dition of the Fabric of Llandaff Cathedral,' 
of which the first edition appeared in 1857, 
and the second, with plates, in 1860. 

[Gardiner's Admission Registers of St. Paul's 
School; articles in the Pauline, February 1883; 
Morgan's Four Biographical Sketches, 1892; 
Guardian, 20 Dec. 1882; Annual Register, 1882, 
p. 166 ; Le Neve's Fasti, ii. 2.57, Hi. 656 ; personal 
knowledge.] J. H. L. 

OLLYFFE, JOHN (1647-1717), divine, 
son of John Ollyffe of Arundel, Sussex, was 
born there in 1647. After spending three 
years at Cambridge he removed to Oxford, 
and matriculated at Queen's College on 
7 Feb. 1667-8. In 1672 he proceeded B.C.L. 
from New Inn Hall, and took holy orders. 
He was instituted, in 1673, rector of West 
Aimer, Dorset, where he remained twenty 
years. In 1693 he was preferred to the 



rectory of Dunton, Buckinghamshire, where 
he remained until his death on 24 June 1717. 

Ollyffe had three sons: John (b. 1676), 
rector of Hedgerley, Buckinghamshire, 1699- 
1743 ; George (b. 1682), vicar of Kemble 1707, 
and of Wendover 1715 ; and Thomas, vicar of 
Dunton and Ey worth, Bedfordshire, 1712-42, 
and rector of Denham, Buckinghamshire, 
1742-8. 

Ollyffe published, besides separate ser- 
mons : 1. ' A Brief Defence of Lifant-Bap- 
tism : with an Appendix, wherein is shewed 
that it is not necessary that Baptism should 
be administred by Dipping/ London, 1694. 
2. ' The Blessedness of Good men after 
Death : a Sermon Preach'd at the Funeral 
of the Rev 4, Mr. Henry Cornish, B.D. . . . 
with a Preface to Rectifie some Misrepre- 
sentations, &c, in a late Pamphlet entitled 
" Some Remarks on the Life, Death, and 
Burial of the said Mr. Cornish,"' London, 
1699. 3. ' An Essay towards a Compre- 
hension, or a Persuasive to Unity amongst 
Protestants. Humbly offered to the Con- 
sideration of the two Houses of Parliament, 
and especially to the Most Reverend the 
Archbishops, the Right Reverend the Bi- 
shops, and the rest of the Clergy assembled 
in Convocation,' London, 1701. 4. ' A De- 
fence of Ministerial Conformity to the Church 
of England: in answer to the Misrepre- 
sentations of the terms thereof by Mr. 
Calamy, in the Tenth Chapter of his 
Abridgement of the " History of Mr. Bax- 
ter's Life and Times," ' London, 1792. This 
was replied to by ' J. A/ in ' A Letter to the 
Reverend Mr. John Ollyffe touching the 
Declaration of Assent and Consent to the 
Liturgy and the Imposition of certain things 
scrupled therein,' London, 1703, and by 
Edmund Calamy the vounger in 4 A Defence 
of Moderate Non-Conformity,' 3 pts. London, 
1703-5. The third part contains ' an Index 
of some Peculiarities in Mr. Ollyffe's manner 
of writing in this controversie.' Ollyffe 
replied with (5) ' A Second Defence of Minis- 
terial Conformity to the Church of England,' 
London, 1705 ; and again with (6) ' A Third 
Defence of Ministerial Conformity to the 
Church of England/ London, 1706. 7. * A 
Practical Exposition of the Church Cate- 
chism,' 2 vols. London, 1710. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Hutchins's 
Hist, of Dorset, iii. 496 ; Wood's Athenae Oxen, 
ed. Bliss, iv. 533 ; Kennet's Register, 837 ; Wil- 
son's Dissenting Churches, i. 380, iv. 75 ; Register 
of Arundel, per the Rev. J. E. G. Farmer ; Raw- 
linson MS. B. lxxx.] C. F. S. 

OLMIUS, JOHN LUTTRELL-, third 
Earl o* Carhampton (d. 1829). [See under 
Ltjttrell, James.] 



O'Lochlainn 



1 60 



O'Lochlainn 



O'LOCHLAINN, DOMHNALL (1048- 
1121), king of Ireland, born in 1048, was son 
of Ardghal, chief of the Cinel Eoghain and 
lord of Oilech, who received the submission of 
Connaught in 1063, died at Tullaghoge, and 
was buried at Armagh in 1604. Domhnall 
became king of Oilech, as the chief of Cinel 
Eoghain was called, in 1083, and immediately 
made a foray into Conaille (co. Cavan),whence 
he car ried off a large number of cattle. In 1 084 
he plundered Ulidia (Down and Antrim), and 
also attacked and slew Domhnall O'Gairm- 
leaghaidh, a weak neighbour. In 1087 he slew 
another minor chief, Domhnall O'Laithen, 
and made an unsuccessful expedition into 
Meath. In 1088 he invaded Connaught, and 
received the submission of Ruadhri O'Conor 
[q. v.], the king, marched on into Munster as far 
south as Kilmallock, co. Limerick, plunder- 
ing Emly, co. Tipperary, Loch Gur, Bruree, 
Dunachip,Drummin,andSingland, co. Lime- 
rick, and Ceanncoradh, co. Clare, and bring- 
ing home eight score hostages, afterwards 
redeemed by Murtough O'Brien [q.v.l for 
a ransom 01 cows, horses, gold, ana silver. 
He slew two of his kinsmen on one day in 
1090, Maelruanaidh O'Cairellan of Tirkee- 
ran, co. Londonderry, and Gillachrist O'Lui- 
nigh, chief of Cinel Moen, and in the same 
year received a formal submission from Muir- 
cheartach O'Brien, king of Cashel or Munster, 
Domhnall O'Maeleachlainn, king of Meath, 
and Ruadhri O'Conor, king of Connaught ; 
and thenceforward the chroniclers speak of 
him as king of Ireland. The Danes of Dublin 
gave him two hostages to secure his passive 
support in a plundering expedition which 
they made into Magh Breagh as far as Ath- 
boy, co. Meath, with O'Brien. He captured 
Aedh O'Cannanain, chief of the Cinel Conaill 
(co. Donegal), in 1093, and put out his eyes, 
and thenceforward ruled the Cinel Conaill, 
and led them with him into all his wars. 
In 1094 he again invaded Ulidia, and slew 
Donnsleibhe O'Heochadha, its king, at the 
battle of the pass of Gortinure, co. London- 
derry, after which he marched south at the 
head of the Cinel Eoghan and Cinel Conaill, 
and, in alliance with the Danes of Dublin 
under their king Godfrey, defeated the Mun- 
stermen and the men of Leinster and Ossory 
at Oughterard, co. Kildare. He then returned 
to Ulster, while the Munstermen marched 
east, drove Godfrey out of Dublin, and forced 
the king of Meath, who had also joined in 
the attack, to fly to the north. Four years 
later he repelled an invasion of Ulster by 
Muircheartach O'Brien at Fidh Conaille, co. 
Louth. The archbishop of Armagh made 
peace between them ; but in 1099 a second 
attack was made by the Munstermen near. 



Slieve Fuaid, co. Armagh, where Domhnall 
again held them in check. A year's peace be- 
tween the north and south was then made by 
the archbishop. Domhnall crossed into Ulidia 
between Lough Neagh and Lough Beg, and 
after a battle at Creeve, co. Antrim, chiefly 
between horsemen, the Ulidians gave up an 
1 abbot and two chiefs as hostages. He cut 
I down the great tree called Craobh Tulcha, 
I under which the kings of Ulidia were in- 
; augurated. As soon as the year of peace 
was up, Muircheartach O'Brien tried to in- 
vade Ulster at Assaroe,co. Donegal, but was 
driven back by Domhnall, who afterwards 
marched on into Meath and brought home 
much booty. O'Brien, with the aid of a 
Danish fleet, attacked Derry from the sea, 
and was again defeated; but in 1101 he 
got into Ulster at Assaroe, and destroyed 
Grianan Oiligh, near Londonderry, in re- 
venge for the sack of Cenncoradh by Domh- 
nall. Domhnall's son and his foster-brother 
had been captured by the Ulidians, and he 
gave up Donnchadh O'Heochadha, their king, 
whom he had captured some years before, in 
exchange. In 1102 Domhnall MacAmhal- 
ghaidh, archbishop of Armagh, took hostages 
from him and from O'Brien for another year's 
peace between them. In 1103 he expelled 
the successor of that O'Cannanain, whom he 
had blinded in 1090, and again made war on 
the Ulidians, who obtained aid from Munster, 
Leinster, Connaught, Ossory, and Meath. 
Domhnall held them in check near Armagh 
till O'Brien, with most of his men and the 
men of Meath and Connaught, marched away. 
He then fell upon the Leinstermen, who were 
supported by some Munstermen, the clans 
of Ossory, and some Danes of Dublin, and 
defeated them with great slaughter on 7 Aug. 
1103, near Donaghmore in the barony of 
Iveagh, co. Down. Domhnall obtained much 
spoil. In 1106 he permitted Cealiach, arch- 
bishop of Armagh, to make a general visi- 
tation of Ulster, and to receive a cow from 
every six inhabitants. The archbishop again 

Prevented a battle between Domhnall and 
>'Brien at Slieve Fuaid, co. Armagh, in 1109. 
He made peace in 1111 with his old enemy, 
Donnchadh O'Heochadha, king of Ulidia,. 
in 1112 attacked the Danes in Fingall, 
co. Dublin, and carried off many cattle and 
prisoners; and in 1113 again made war on 
Donnchadh, drove him from Ulidia, and 
caused his own tribe to put out his eyes. 
Twice during this year, near Armagh and at 
Greenoge,co.Meath,thearchbishopprevented 
a battle between O'Brien and O'Lochlainn. 
After marching to Ratlikenny, co. Meath, in 
1114, O'Lochlainn took hostages from the 
men of Meath, and, with the Connaught men. 



O'Lochlainn 



161 



O'Lochlainn 



invaded Munster and made peace for a year 
at Tullagh O'Dea, co. Clare. He came home 
through Connaught. His last expedition 
was in 1120, when he marched to Athlone 
to support Murchadh (VMaeleachlainn, who 
was attacked by the king of Connaught. He 
died at Derry on 9 Feb. 1121. He is praised 
for his fine physical form by the Ulster 
chroniclers, and for his virtues ; but, except 
some traces of religious feeling shown in his 
relations towards two archbishops of Armagh, 
nothing but acts of unrelenting warfare are 
recorded of him. He married Bebhinn, daugh- 
ter of Cenneidigh O'Brien, in 1090, and had 
by her two sons— Muircheartach, who died 
in 1114, and Niall, who died in 1119. She 
died in 1110. 

[O'Donomn's edition of Annala Rioghachta 
Eireann, Dublin, 1851, vol. ii. ; Colgan's Acta 
Sanctorum Hiberniae, Louvain, 1650 ; Clarendon 
MS. xlv. in British Museum.] N. M. I 

O'LOCHLAINN, MUIRCHEARTACH 

(d. 1166), king of Ireland, son of Niall 
O'Lochlainn, son of Domhnall O'Lochlainn j 
£q. v.], chief of the Cinel Eoghain, was ninth ' 
in descent from Domhnall, brother of Niall 
(870P-919) [q. v.], king of Ireland, from ' 
whom, and not from their more remote an- 
cestor, Niall Naighiallach, the O'Neills take 
their name, according to O'Donovan. His 
family, who in later times were more often j 
called MacLochlainn, were the senior branch ' 
of the Cinel Eoghain, the descendants of 
Eoghan, son of Niall Naighiallach. He first i 
appears in the chronicles in 1139, when I 
he defeated the Clann Laithbheartaigh or 
O'Dubhdas of Ulster, and slew their chief, I 
Mathghamhain. In 1142 he won a battle 
over the O'Donnellys, a sept of the Cinel , 
Eoghain, in which he received a severe 
wound. The chiefship of the Cinel Eoghain i 
was assumed in 1143 by Domhnall O'Gairm- | 
leadhaigh, the tribe having expelled Muir- | 
cheartach. He went to the Cinel Conaill, ! 
and, with their aid, displaced O'Gairmlea- | 
dhaigh, and was established as chief of Cinel I 
Eoghain. Cu Uiadh MacDuinnsleibhe, king . 
of Ulidia or Lesser Ulster, made a foray in | 
1 147 into Farney, co. Monaghan. Muirchear- 
tach O'Neill led the Cinel Eoghain, in alliance 
with Donnchadh O'Cearbhaill and the Oir- 
ghialla, and attacked the Ulidians, whom 
they found at Uchdearc, co. Down, drove be- 
fore them to Dundrum, co. Down, and routed 
in a battle fought on the feast of SS. Peter 
and Paul, returning with much plunder to 
Tyrone. He again invaded Ulidia in 1 148, and 
took hostages ; but the Oirghialla, who had 
marched with him, unexpectedly joined the 
Ulidians, and he had to retreat. He soon 

VOL. XLII. 



returned, crossing the Ban at Toome Bridge, 
deposed Cu Ulaah, and set up Donnchadh 
MacDuinnsleibhe as king of Ulidia. Later 
in the year he attended a convention of the 
chiefs of the Cinel Eoghain, the Oirghialla, 
and the Ulidians, who all swore to preserve 
general peace on a famous relic — the crozier 
known as the 'bachall iosa' — in the pre- 
sence of Gilla MacLiag, archbishop of Ar- 
magh. The Oirghialla, Cinel Conaill, and 
Ulidians, all gave him hostages at this time. 
War, however, broke out in 1 149, and he again 
invaded Ulidia and took many cattle, and re- 
ceived the king's son as a hostage. He went 
on with all his horsemen to Louth, and 
there received hostages sent by Tighearnan 
O'Rourke from Breirne. He next marched 
to Dublin, and received the submission of 
the Danes and hostages from Diarmaid Mac- 
Murchadha, king of Leinster. In 1150 he 
gave a gold ring of five ounces and other 
gifts to Flaibheartach O'Brolchain [q. v.], 
coarb of Columba, and permitted a general 
taxation of Cinel Eoghain for the wants of 
the church of Derry. He marched to Inis- 
mochta in Meath, and there received hostages 
sent to indicate the acknowledgment of nib 
supremacy by Connaught, afterwards going 
on to Dunlochad, near Tara, where he ratifiea 
a treaty of peace with the foreigners of Dublin 
and Fingall. Turlough O'Brien and Tur- 
lough O'Connor [q. v.] were engaged in war, 
and the Munstermen, under the former, suf- 
fered a disastrous defeat at Moinmor in 
Munster in 1151. O'Lochlainn, taking ad- 
vantage of this, led the Cinel Eoghain, Cinel 
Conaill, and Oirghialla across the Erne at 
Assaroe, co. Donegal, to the Curlew Moun- 
tains. Turlough O'Connor, unable to resist 
such an attack after his long fighting with 
O'Brien, sent hostages. Next year O Loch- 
lainn expelled Donnchadh O'Cearbhaill from 
the kingship of the Oirghialla, in revenge for 
an insult to the Archbishop of Armagh. He 
met Turlough O'Connor at the Moy near 
Ballyshannon, co. Donegal, where they de- 
clared amity on the bachall iosa and some 
relics of St. Columba. They afterwards met 
at Rathkenny in Meath, and Diarmaid Mac- 
Murchadha also came to the meeting. They 
deprived Tighearnan O'Rourke of Con- 
mhaicne,a country consisting of Longford and 
the southern part of Leitrim, and divided 
Meath into east and west, giving the west 
to Murchadh O'Maeleachlainn, and East 
Meath to his son Maeleachlainn O'Maeleach- 
lainn. In 1153 he decided to try and re- 
store Turlough O'Brien, and marched to 
Creeve, co. West meath. Tadhg O'Brien, who 
had displaced Turlough O'Brien, marched 
thither to attack him, and Turlough O'Connor 



O'Lochlainn 



162 



O'Lochlainn 



advanced from Connaught. Muircheartach, 
with a light division, advanced rapidly and 
defeated Tadhg O'Brien, then returning to 
Creeve, and marched with his whole army 
against Turlough O'Connor. He found 
Ruaidhri, Turlough's son, pitching his camp 
at Fardrum,co. Westmeath, attacked him at 
once and routed his force. Turlough O'Brien 
was then restored as kin £ of Munster. Tur- 
lough O'Connor tried in 1154 to attack 
O'Lochlainn by sea; but his fleet was de- 
feated off Inishowen, and his commander, 
O'Dubhda of Connaught, was slain. Muir- 
cheartach O'Lochlainn at once invaded Con- 
naught, but was not strong enough to ob- 
tain hostages or plunder. He then crossed the 
Shannon into Breifne and drove out Godfrey 
O'Reilly, went on to Dublin, was received 
as king by the Danes, and gave them twelve 
hundred cows, which he had collected in 
Meath, to secure their future service in war. 
In 1155 he made an expedition to Dungol- 
man, co. Westmeath, and took hostages for 
the territory of Teathbha. He restored to the 
Meathmen the cattle he had taken from them 
in the previous year. Turlough O'Connor 
died in 1156, and this year is considered by 
the annalists to be the first of Muircheartach 
O'Lochlainn'8 reign as king of all Ireland. 
He was entitled to the succession, being of 
the royal race, the head of the northern Ui 
Neill, the descendant of Niall Naighiallach, 
in the two branches of whose descendants 
the kingships had rested, in alternate suc- 
cession, for the six hundred years preceding 
Brian [q. v.] The Ulidians attacked him, 
and he invaded Dalnaraidhe and killed 
O'Loingsigh the king. He then made a foray 
into Ossory with Diarmaid MacMurchadha, 
who had given him hostages. In 1157 he 
attended a synod at the abbey of Mellifont, 
co. Louth, at which a papal legate, seventeen 
bishops, and the Archbishop of Armagh were 
present. He gave to the abbey 160 cows, 
sixty ounces of gold, and the lands in Meath 
called Finnabhair-nan-Inghean. He then 
marched through Leinster into Desmond, 
and thence into Thomond, obtaining host- 
ages ; took Limerick, and received the submis- 
sion of the Danes. He returned in triumph, 
but found that Roderic O'Connor [q. v.] had 
made a foray into Tyrone in his absence. 
O'Lochlainn had a quarrel with the Cinel 
Conaill in 1158, and ravaged their country. 
About this time he gave a charter and bene- 
faction to the Cistercian abbey of Newry, co. 
Down. This charter, which has never been 
accurately printed, though a copy was in the 
possession of Sir James W are, styles the king 
' Mauritius MagLachlain Rex totius Hiber- 
nise.' In 1 159 he led an army to Rubhachonaill, 



co. Westmeath, and deposed the king of Meath, 
Diarmait O'Maeleachlainn, and set up hi& 
brother Donnchadh O'Maeleachlainn over all 
Meath. He was threatened bytheConnaught- 
men, who, with the men 01 Breifne and of 
Thomond, crossed Meath to attack the Oir- 
ghialla. He came up with them at Ardee, 
and defeated them with great slaughter. He 
then marched home, and immediately after 
ravaged Connaught as far as Tuam, co. Gal- 
way. He returned thence by way of Meath, 
and quartered his army on that country. The 
sept of his old enemy O'Gairmleadhaigh at- 
tacked him in Tyrone after he had, in 1160, 
induced the chief of Fermanagh to entrap and 
kill Domhnail O'Gairmleadhaigh and several 
of the gentlemen of the sept. He defeated 
them in a pitched battle at Magh Luadhat, 
near Newtown-Stewart, co. Tyrone, and 
captured a great booty of cows. He met 
Roderic O'Connor at Assaroe to arrange a 
treaty, but none was made. In 1161 he took 
hostages from the Ui Briuin, and marched 
through Breifne to Lickbla, co. Westmeath. 
There Roderic O'Connor and Diarmaid Mac- 
Murchadha formally submitted to him, so 
that he was king of Ireland not only by right, 
but ' cen fresabhra ' (' without opposition ') 
— a term used by Irish historians to express 
undisputed sway. In 1162 he aided Flai- 
bheartach O'Brolchain in improving Derry, 
besieged Dublin, and plundered Fingall. The 
Danes paid him 120 ounces of gold. He 
was paid one hundred ounces of gold for the 
kingdom of Westmeath in 1163. He again 
aided the Bishop of Derry, and the cathedral 
was rebuilt in 1164. The Ulidians attacked 
him in 1165, and he in return ravaged their 
country, banished Eochaidh MacDuinn- 
sleibhe, their king, burnt their stronghold 
of Inislachan, and returned with much 
spoil. He gave to the church of Saul, co. 
Down, some land which the king of Ulidia 
handed over to him, with the sword of the 
son of the earl (probably a Dane) and many 
jewels. In 1166 he put out the eyes of this 
king Eochaidh, breaking an oath he had 
sworn at Armagh after the war. Donnchadh 
O'Cearbhaill invaded Tyrone to revenge this 
violation of treaty, and met the Cinel Eoghain 
in small force at Leitir Luin, near New- 
town-Hamilton, co. Armagh. Muircheartach 
O'Lochlainn was there slain in 1166. He 
was succeeded by his son Niall. 

[Annala Rioghachta Eireann, ed. O'Donovan ; 
Annals of Ulster, 2 vols. (Rolls Ser.) ; Claren- 
don MS. in British Museum, xlv. 179; Reeves's 
Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, Connor, and 
Dromore, Dublin, 1 847 ; O'Donovan's Topographi- 
cal Poems of O'Dubhagain and O'HuidhrH ; 
O'Flaherty's Ogygia.] N. M\ 



O'Loghlen 



163 



O'Loghlen 



0'LOGHLEN,SirCOLMAN MICHAEL 

(1819-1877), lawyer and politician, eldest 
son of Sir Michael O'Loghlen, bart. fa. v.], 
and Bidelia, daughter of Daniel Kelly of 
Dublin, was born on 20 Sept. 1819, and was 
educated at private schools in England, 
afterwards graauating B.A. at Dublin Uni- 
versity in 1840. In the same year he was 
called to the Irish bar, and went the Mun- 
ster circuit; he took silk in 1862. From 
1856 to 1859 he was chairman of Carlow 
quarter sessions, and from 1859 to 1861 held 
the same position in Mayo. In 1863 he be- 
came M.P. for Clare, and in 1865 was made 
a third serjeant-at-law for Ireland, becoming 
second serjeant in the following year. He 
was appointed judge-advocate-general in 
Mr. Gladstone's ministry and a member of 
the privy council in December 1868; he 
held the former office till November 1870. 
He introduced and carried the bill enabling 
catholics to obtain the position of lord 
chancellor of Ireland. His unassuming 
manner and his good nature made him uni- 
versally popular. He died suddenly, on 

22 July 1877, on board the mail-boat while 
crossing from Holyhead to Kingstown. He 
was buried in the family vault in co. Clare. 
He was unmarried, and his brother Bryan 
succeeded to the title. 

[Foster's Baronetage and Knightage ; Times, 

23 and 27 July 1877 ; Todd's Dublin Graduates ; 
Ward's Meu of the Keign; Haydn's Book of 
Dignities.] D. J. O'D. 

O'LOGHLEN, Sir MICHAEL (1789- 
1842), Irish judge, born in October 1789, 
was the third son of Colman O'Loghlen of 
Port, co. Clare, by his second wife, Susannah, 
daughter of Michael Finucane, M.D., of 
Ennis. He was educated at the Erasmus 
Smith school at Ennis and Trinity College, 
Dublin, where he graduated B.A. in 1809 
(Todd, Dublin Graduates, s.v. ' O'Loughlin '), 
and he was called to the Irish bar in Michael- 
mas term 1811. His first distinction was 
gained in 1815, in a case involving important 
questions of law, in which he was O'Connell's 
junior. The case came on for argument in 
the king's bench the day after the fatal duel 
between O'Connell and D'Esterre, and O'Con- 
nell was in consequence absent. O't^ohlen 
asked for a postponement, but, the other side 
objecting, he argued the case alone, obtained 
judgment in his favour, and was specially com- 
plimented by the court on the ability and learn- 
ing of his argument. He became a favourite 
with O'Connell, was constantly employed as 
his junior, and succeeded to a large part of 
his practice when O'Connell became absorbed 
in politics. In a ' Sketch ' by Sheil, written 



in 1828, he is described as an excellent 
lawyer, a master of the practice of the courts, 
in receipt of an immense income, and a great 
favourite with the judges because of the 
brevity, simplicity, and clearness with which 
his points were put. His custom was on re- 
ceipt of a fee to take the shilling from each 
guinea and put it in a box for his wife, and at 
the end of one term Mrs. O'Loghlen is said 
to have received fifteen hundred shillings 
(O'Flanagan, The Irish Bar). On the pass- 
ing of the Catholic Emancipation Act 
(April 1829), the leading catholic barristers 
expected to be made king's counsel. The 
honour was somewhat unfairly deferred till 
Trinity term 1830, when, at the instance of 
Lord Francis Leveson-Gower ^afterwards 
Lord Francis Egerton), then chief secretary, 
O'Loghlen, Sheil, and two other catholics 
were called within the bar (McCtjllaqh, 
Memoirs of Sheil, 1855, vol. ii. p. 53). 

In January 1831 O'Loghlen was appointed 
third serjeant, and in 1832 he was elected a 
bencher of the King's Inns. In the same 
year he unsuccessfully contested the repre- 
sentation of the city of Dublin in parliament. 
For a few months in 1834 he was solicitor- 
general for Ireland in Lord Melbourne's first 
fovernment. At the general election in 
anuary 1835 he was returned for Dungar- 
van, and, on the formation of Lord Melbourne's 
second government in that year, became again 
solicitor-general for Ireland, and in August 
of the same year attorney-general. In No- 
vember 1836 he was appointed a baron of the 
court of exchequer in Ireland, and in the 
following January he succeeded Sir William 
McMahon [q. v.] as master of the rolls. He 
was the first catholic law officer and the first 
catholic judge in Ireland since the reign of 
James II. In 1838, on the coronation of the 
queen, he was created a baronet. He died in 
George Street, Hanover Square, London, on 
28 Sept. 1842 (Dublin Evening Post, 1 Oct. 
1842 ; Times, 3 Oct. 1842). 

Both at the bar and on the bench O'Logh- 
len enjoyed a high reputation. O'Connell. 
writing to Lord Duncannon in October 1834, 
says: ' Than O'Loghlen, a more amiable man 
never lived — a more learned lawyer, a more 
sensible, discreet, and, at the same time, a 
more powerful advocate never belonged to 
the Irish bar. He never made an enemy, he 
never lost a friend. . . . He possesses in an emi- 
nent degree all the best judicial qualities ' 
(Correspondence of O'Connell, ed. Fitz- 
Patrick, i. 490). On the bench he justified 
O'Connell's forecast of his judicial powers. 
* There never was a judge who gave more en- 
tire satisfaction to both the suitors and the 
profession ; perhaps never one sitting alone 

m2 



O'Lothchain 



164 



O'Maelchonaire 



and deciding so many cases of whose deci- 
sions there were fewer reversals* (Irish Equity 
Reports, v. 130). He was so industrious, and 
so anxious to save the suitors of his court 
from unnecessary costs, that he frequently 
undertook work which might properly have 
been referred to the master. He was very 
courteous, carried patience almost to a fault, 
and was especially kind and considerate to 
youngmen appearing before him. His statue, 
by McDowell, is in the hall of the Four 
Courts, Dublin ; and another, by Kirke, in 
the Court House, Ennis. 

He married, 3 Sept. 1817, Bidelia, daughter 
of Daniel Kelly of Dublin. His eldest son, 
Colman Michael (second baronet), is sepa- 
rately noticed ; his third son, Bryan (third 
baronet), called to the Irish bar in 1866, 
admitted to the Victoria bar in 1863, has 
been twice attorney-general of Victoria, and 
premier of that colony 1881-3. 

[Annual Register, 1842, p. 292; O'Flanagan's 
Irish Bar, 1879; Sheil's Sketches, Legal and 
Political, 1855; Times, 3 Oct. 1842; Burke's 
Peerage and Baronetage, 1894 ; Debrett's Baro- 
netage, 1894; Smyth's Law Officers of Ireland.] 

J. D. F. 

O'LOTHCHAIN, CUAN (d. 1024), 
Irish historian, was Primheices or chief 
man of learning to Maelsechlainn II [q. v.] 
After the death of that king in 1022, the 
' Annals of Clonmacnoise ' state that Cuan 
O'Lothchain and Corcran Cleirech governed 
Ireland. Tighearnach, who may have known 
some of O'Lothchain's contemporaries, re- 
cords his death in 1024. He was slain by 
some men of Teffia, co. Westmeath. He pro- 
bably lived near Dun-na-«ciath, Maelsech- 
lainn's chief residence in Westmeath. He 
wrote an account of the rights of the king 
of Tara, in the eleventh century the title of 
the king of Ireland, and of Tara itself, be- 
ginning * Teamair toga na tulach ' ( 4 Tara, 
choice of hills '), of which there is a copy in 
the * Book of Ballymote/ a fourteenth-cen- 
tury manuscript, fol. 351, column A, line 47. 
The library of Trinity College, Dublin, has 
a copy (numbered H. 3.3), which Dr. Petrie 
states is more ancient ( Tara Hill, p. 143), 
and other good copies exist. The poem begins 
by stating the rights of the king, then de- 
scribes the several roads, ramparts, wells, 
and raths, and the past history of each land- 
mark, with some account of Cormac Mac Airt 
and other famous dwellers at Tara, which 
ceased to be a royal residence in the sixth 
century. The concluding lines give a lively 
picture of the following of a king of Ireland 
in the eleventh century : the lesser king and 
the ollav next to him. the learned man, the 
physician, the cup-bearer, the smith, the ad- 



ministrator of the law, the builder of earth- 
works, the maker of shields, the soldier, who 
had all a right to be in the king's house, ' do 
ibdis conn ' (* to drink liquor ') ; then follow 
the sorcerer, the chess-player, the buffoon, the 
piper, and many others, all entitled to enter- 
tainment. A poetical account of the origin 
of the name of the river Shannon, which 
forms part of the * Dinnsenchus ' in the * Book 
of Lecan/ is attributed to him in that manu- 
script. In the ' Book of Leinster,' a twelfth- 
century manuscript, this passage is not attri- 
buted to any separate author, but (fol. 151) 
there is a long poem, undoubtedly by him, on 
the origin of the name of the hill of Drumcree, 
co. Westmeath. The direct statement of au- 
thorship in a manuscript written within one 
hundred and fifty years of the death of Cuan 
O'Lothchain is supported by the internal evi- 
dence of the poem. The name of the hill 
is derived from the fate of the sons of Eochu 
Feidlech, and the poem concludes by con- 
necting the history of the hill with Maelsech- 
lainn II, O'Lothchain's patron, and tracing 
Maelsechlainn's descent from Eochu Feidlech 
through Colman MacDiarmada, Cairpe Liph- 
echar, Feradach Fechtnach, and other kings. 
A prose treatise ascribed to him, * Geasa agus 
buadha riogh Eireann ' (' The restrictions and 
prerogatives of the kings of Ireland '), is con- 
tained in the ' Book of Lecan,' and nas been 
printed and translated by O'Donovan. 

[Book of Leinster, facsimile, 1880; Book of 
Ballymote, facs. 1887; Leabhar na g'Ceart, ed. 
ODonovan, Celtic Society, Dublin, 1847 ; George 
Petrie'8 History and Antiquities of Tara Hill, 
1 839, in Trans, of Royal Irish Academy ; Annala 
Rioghachta Eireann, ed. O'Donovan, vol. ii. ; 
O'Curry's Lectures on Manuscript Materials of 
Irish History; Whitley Stokes's The Bodleian 
Dinnshenchas in Folk Lore, vol. iii. No. 4, where 
the text with translation of the article on the 
Shannon in the Bodleian manuscript Rawlinson 
B. 506 is printed.] N. M. 

O'MAELCHONAIRE, FEARFEASA 
(Ji. 1636), Irish chronicler, belonged to a 
family of hereditary men of letters in Con- 
naught, where he was born, probably at 
Cluainnahoidhche, near Lochnahoidhche, in 
the parish of Clooncraff, co. Roscommon. He 
was one of the authors of the ' Annals of 
the Kingdom of Ireland* [see O'Clery, 
Michael], and, with the three other chief 
writers, was included by Colgan in the de- 
signation 'Annales Quatuor Magistrorum' 
(Preface to Acta Sanctorum Hibernia, p. 7), 
which has become the popular name of the 
book. A trace of his influence in the work 
is the record of more than forty of the Ui 
Maelchonaire. Of these, two were distin- 
guished ecclesiastics : Thomas, archdeacon of 



O'Maelchonaire 



165 



O'Mahony 



Tuam, who died in 1260 ; and Flathri, son of 
Fithil, archbishop of Tuam, who died in 1629, 
and is described under Florence Conry, 
the name by which he is known in English 
state papers. Neidhe, who is described as a 
seanchaidhe or historian, is the earliest of 
the family. He died in 1136. 

Duinnin, who died in 1231, was ollamh of 
the Sil Muireadhaigh, the O'Connors, and 
allied clans, and was succeeded in.office by 
many others of the family; Maoileoin the 
Deaf (d. 1266) ; Tanaidhe mor, son of Duinnin 
(d. 1270); Dubhsuilech (d. 1270); Conaing 
(d. 1314) ; Tanaidhe (d. 1385). Gregory, son 
of Tanaidhe (d. 1400), was heir to the office, 
and qualified for it, but was killed by a dart 
thrown at him by William MacDavid Burke, 
who mistook him for a foe. His importance 
is indicated by the eric of 126 cows which 
was paid as compensation for his homicide. 
Donnchadh the Fair (d. 1404) wrote a poem 
of 172 verses still extant, ' Eisdigh a eigsi 
Banbha' (/ Attend, O learned of Ireland'). 
It recounts the succession and deeds of the 
kings of Connaught. Maoilin (d. 1441) wrote 
a poem on the kings of Ireland, of which four 
lines are quoted under the year 1384 in the 
' Annals of the Four Masters.' He was buried 
at Kilbarry, co. Roscommon. 

Torna (d. 1468) is described as ' ollamh 
a seanchus agus a filidhecht' (' professor in 
history and in poetry '). He lived at Lisfea- 
rhain, co. Roscommon, and was buried at 
Elphin. 

Erard (d. 1483) succeeded Torna as ollamh 
of Sil Muireadhaigh, and is described as 
learned both in Latin and in Irish. He was 
buried at Elphin, co. Roscommon. 

Siodhraidhe (d. 1487) succeeded him, and 
is praised by the chronicles for jocularity. 

Maurice (d. 1487) went to Donegal to 
teach poetry and there died. 

Maurice (d. 1543), son of Paidin, was rich 
as well as learned. He made a copy in a fine 
Irish handwriting of the 4 Old Book of Cail- 
lin,' now called the 4 Book of Fenagh,' in 1516, 
for the coarb of Fenagh, Tadhg O'Roduighe. 
This copy was in the possession of the catholic 
bishop of Ardagh, himself a member of the 
family of O'Maelchonaire, in 1875. The book 
is a statement in prose and verse of the 
tributes and privileges of the abbey of Fenagh, 
the ruins of which are still to be seen a few 
miles from the foot of the mountain Sithmor, 
co. Leitrim. In its general plan it resembles 
the more important Leabhar na g*Ceart, which 
states in prose and verse the rights and 
duties of the king of Ireland and his subject 
kings. In the manuscript Maurice O'Mael- 
chonaire states that the coarb O'Roduighe 
asked him to reduce to prose some of the 



verse of the original manuscript, and that 
he had done so {Book of Fenagh, pp. 310, 
312). A printed edition was prepared in 
1871 by W. M. Hennessy and D. H. Kelly. 

Maoilin (d. 1519) was ollamh of Sil Mui- 
readhaigh, but was later made their ollamh 
by the Fitzgeralds, and died at Abbeyderg, 
co. Longford. 

John (Ji . 1 566) wrote an interesting poem on 
Sir Brian-na-Murtha O'Rourke [q. v.], of 136 
verses, i Fuair Breifne a diol do shaeghlann ' 
('Breifne has obtained her due of a prince'). 

Maurice (JI. 1601) wrote ' Orpheus og ainm 
Eoghain ' (' Young Orpheus is the right name 
for Eoffhan') (a harper named O'Halloran). 
He took part for one month (Colgan, Preface 
to Acta Sanctorum) in the compilation of the 
' Annals of the Four Masters.' 

Diarmait (JI. 1601) wrote three poems on 
Our Lady, of which copies are extant, and 
which were prepared for publication by Dr. 
John Carpenter,catholic archbishop of Dublin. 

Peter (Ji. 1701), son of Fearfasa, was poet 
to the O'Roduighe, and lived in Leitrim. He 
wrote a poem of 224 verses in praise of his 
patron's familv : ' Niamhadh na huaisle an 
eagna' ('Wisdom is the beauty of nobility') ; 
one of eixty verses, in March 1696, on the 
illness, and one of sixteen verses on the want 
of liberalitv, of his patron ; and one on the 
misery of the Irish. There are copies in the 
Royal Irish Academy. 

[Annala Rioghachta Eireann, ed. O'Dono- 
van, Dublin, 1851 ; Colgan's Acta Sanctorum 
Hiberniae, Louvain, 1645 ; The Book of Fenagh, 
ed. Hennessy and Kelly, Dublin, 1871 ; Irish 
Archaeological Miscellany, vol. i. ; O'Reilly in 
Proceedings of Iberno-Celtic Soc. Dublin, 1820.] 

N. M. 

O'MAHONY, CONNOR or CONSTAN- 
TINE (Ji, 1650),Irish Jesuit. [See Mahont.] 

O'MAHONY, DANIEL (d\ 1714), 
general in the French and Spanish services, 
came of an ancient Irish stock which claimed 
descent from Brian (926-1014) [q. v.], king 
of Munster. His brother Dermod attained 
the rank of colonel in James II's Irish army 
and distinguished himself at the Boyneand at 
Aughrim, where he met his death. Having 
attained the rank of captain in the royal Irish 
foot-guards, Daniel went to France in 1692, 
and became major in the Limerick and Dillon 
regiments successively. He served under Vil- 
leroy in the north of Italy in the autumn of 
1701, and he held the command of Dillon's 
regiment during the absence of its colonel in 
January 1702. The regiment was then forming 
part of the garrison of Cremona, and O'Mahony 
woke up on 1 Feb. to find Villeroy a captive, 
and the Austrians, who had obtained entrance 



O'Mahony 



166 



O'Mahony 



into Cremona by means of a sewer, in pos- 
session of the town. Prince Eugene had dis- 
covered the quarters of many of the French 
officers, who were captured before they had 
time to dress. O'Mahony, however, seized his 
pistols, and found means of joining a detach- 
ment of his regiment which held the Po gate. 
This position formed the nucleus of an effec- 
tive resistance to Eugene's occupation of the 
town. As O'Mahony obtained reinforcements 
he spread them along the ramparts, and kept 
up a galling fusillade on the enemy. This 
diversion gave the Comte de Revel time to 
concentrate and reanimate a large number 
of French troops in the neighbourhood of the 
Mantua gate, and Eugene, finding himself 
between two fires, thought it expedient to 
retire from the city after a vain attempt to 
bribe O'Mahony to relinquish his occupation 
of the Po gate. Thus ended the surprise of 
Cremona, one of the most remarkable events 
in modern warfare: a garrison of seven 
thousand men, in a town strongly fortified, 
surprised in their beds, obliged to march in 
their shirts, in the obscurity of the nigfht, 
through streets filled with cavalry, meeting 
death at every step ; scattered in small bodies, 
without officers to lead them, fighting for ten 
hours without food or clothes, m the depth 
of winter, yet recovering gradually every 
post, and ultimately forcing the enemy to a 
precipitate retreat. On account of the im- 
portant service rendered by the Irish major 
to the French cause, he was selected to carry 
the despatch to Paris. Louis accorded him 
an hour's private conference at Versailles, 
gave him his brevet as colonel, and a pension 
of a thousand livres, besides a present of a 
thousand louis-d'or to defray the expenses of 
his journey. From Versailles OMahony 
proceeded to St. Germains, where he was 
Knighted by the Pretender, James III (Sevin 
de Quixcy, Hist. Militaire, iii. 629 ; Pelet, 
Mimoires Militaires, ii. 670, 'Relation de 
M. de Vaudry '). The gallantry displayed by 
the Irish in this affair occasioned the once 
favourite air, ' The day we beat the Germans 
at Cremona/ O'Mahony continued to serve 
in North Italy under Vendome ; he was ap- 
pointed governor of Brescello upon its sur- 
render on 28 July 1703, and in January 1704 
he took part in Vend6me's successes at San 
Sebastian and Cast el Novo de Bormida. Earlv 
in the same year, however, O'Mahony left 
Italy. Efficient officers were urgently needed 
in the Spanish service, and Louis XIV con- 
sequently recommended the Irish colonel to 
his nephew, Philip V. A regiment was soon 
found for him, composed largely of deserters 
from the British expedition to Cadiz (Jour" 
nal de Dangeau, ix. 358), and during the re- 



mainder of 1704 and the whole of 1705 
O'Mahony made himself conspicuous under 
the Prince de Tilly by his services against 
the miquelets of the archduke's party. The 

Eicturesque details of his being circumvented 
y Peterborough at Murviedro early in 1 706, 
drawn from Carleton's 4 Memoirs ' and Freind's 
'Relation of Peterborough's Services in 
Spain/ are probably whol ly fictitious. O'Ma- 
hony had at the time but a small force under 
his control, and was occupied in the trans- 
port of wounded soldiers, so that he probably 
had no alternative but to let Peterborough 
pass on his way to Valencia. If he had been 
culpable of such indiscretion as the story im- 
plies, he would hardly, as was the case, have 
been created marechai-de-camp by Philip V 
in the course of this same spring. Shortly 
after his promotion O'Mahony stormed? and 
sacked En^uera, and in June he bravely de- 
fended Alicante against Sir John Leake. 
Though the garrison was small, and the 
ramparts needed incessant repairs, he would 
have held out much longer than twenty- 
seven days had not the Neapolitans under 
his command forced the surrender by delibe- 
rately poisoning the wells. As it was, his 
troops marched out with the honours of war, 
and were transported to Cadiz without loss 
of service. The courtesy of General Gorges 
permitted a British surgeon to attend to the 
severe wound which O Mahony received in 
the course of the defence. Early in 1707 
O'Mahony resumed his command in Valencia, 
and captured several towns from the allies. 
He also commanded a brigade of horse at 
the battle of Almanza, and at the head of 
his Irish dragoons, according to Bellerive, 
performed astonishing actions. On 7 July 
he was again badly wounded at the siege of 
Denia. Before the close of 1707, however, 
he was again in command of some six thou- 
sand regular troops in Valencia, and he cap- 
tured the important town of Alcoy on 2 Jan. 
1708 (Lafuente, Historia, xviii. 207). In 
March 1709 he was appointed to the com- 
mand of the Spanish forces in Sicily, com- 
prising upwards of three thousand infantry, 
in addition to his regiment of Irish dragoons. 
He reached Messina in April, suppressed 
several Austrian conspiracies, and took such 
precautions as effectively prevented the Eng- 
lish fleet from landing any of the allied 
forces. In 1710 he returned to Spain, where 
he was required to command the cavalry of 
the Galio-Spanish army. On his return 
Philip promoted him lieutenant-general, and 
created him a count of Castile. He subse- 
quently served in the campaign of Ivaris, 
under the king, and on 20 Aug. 1710 he 
commanded the Spanish cavalry at Sara- 



O'Mahony 



167 



O'Mahony 



gossa. Placed upon the extreme right, he 
was opposed to the Portuguese horse, whom 
he utterly broke and drove into the Ebro ; 
then, continuing - his impetuous charge, he 
rode over the enemy's artillery, and, as he 
could not carry it oft', cut the sinews of four 
hundred artillery mules. In the meantime 
the main body of Vendome's army was in 
retreat, and O Mahony had the utmost diffi- 
culty in rejoining. He was criticised for 
having carried his successful onslaught too 
far. He was, however, placed at the head 
of the cavalry at Villa Viciosa, and specially 
distinguished himself. The Spanisn king 
rewarded his valour by a commandership of 
the order of St. Iago, producing a rent of 
fifteen thousand livres (Bacallar y Sana, 
Comentarios). O'Mahony pursued the re- 
treating army into Aragon, and captured at 
the stronghold of Illueca Lieutenant-general 
Dom Antonio de Villaroel with a detach- 
ment of 660 men (Quincy, vi. 463). He 
continued to act in Spain under Vendome 
until the cessation of hostilities in 1712. 
Before the end of that year O'Mahony, whose 
first wife, Cecilia, daughter of George Weld 
of the ancient Dorset family, had died 
about 1708, remarried Charlotte, widow of 
Charles O'Brien, fifth viscount Clare [q. v.], 
and a sister of the Duchess of Berwick. 
O'Mahony had been ennobled by Louis XIV, 
and the marriage took place at St. Germains, 
where the bridegroom was warmly received 
by the court. lie did not, however, long 
survive his second marriage, dying at Ocana 
in Spain in January 1714. By his first wife 
he left two sons : James, who rose to be a 
lieutenant-general in the Spanish service, 
governor of Fort St. Elmo, commander of 
the order of Saint Januarius, and inspector- 
general of cavalry in the Spanish kingdom 
of Naples; and Demetrius (Dermod), who 
became ambassador from Spain to Austria, 
and died at Vienna in 1776. Neither of the 
sons left male descendants. A collateral 
descendant, who also held the title Count 
O'Mahony, commanded a regiment of dra- 
goons at Barcelona in 1756. 

' Le fameux Mahoni,' as he was called, to 
distinguish him from others of his family 
who had taken service under the Bourbons, 
was more than a dashing officer ; he was an 
accomplished soldier, and Bellerive says of 
him with justice, * He was not only always 
brave, but laborious and indefatigable ; his 
life was a continued chain of dangerous 
combats, desperate attacks, and honourable 
retreats ' ( Camp, de Vendosme, pp. 237-9). St. 
Simon says of O'Mahony that ne was a man 
of wit as well as of valour ; and Louis XIV 
assured De Chamillart, when O'Mahony was 



at Versailles in 1702, * qu'il n'avait jamais 
vu personne rendre un si bon compte de 
tout, ni avec tant de nettetS d'esprit et de 
justesse, meme si agreablement.' When at 
the end of his first interview Louis observed, 
'But you have said nothing of my brave 
Irish ' at Cremona, O'Mahony replied, ' They 
fought in conjunction with the other troops 
of your majesty/ 

[O'Callagban's Irish Brigades in tbo Service of 
France, pp. 204-21, 231-6, 241-51, 273-8; 
O'Conor's Military History of the Irish Nation, 
pp. 245, 254, 329, 336, 356; D'Alton's King 
James's Irish Army List, p. 256 ; O'Hart's Irish 
Pedigrees, 1 887.1. 236. ii. 803 ; Wilson's James II 
and tbe Duke of Berwick, vol. ii. passim; Savin 
de Quincy's Histoire Militaire, vols. iii. v. and vi. 
passim ; Parn ell's War of the Succession in Spain, 
pp. 145, 192, 215, 227, 281, 295; Eonsset's 
Histoire Militaire du Prince Eugene, ii. 70- 
76 ; Bellenve'8 Histoire des Campagnes de Mon- 
seigneur le Due de Vendosme, 1715; Targe's 
Hist, de l'av£nement de la maison de Bourbon 
au trone d'Espagne, ii. 94-6; Relation exacte 
de l'Entreprise faite snr Cremone par le Prince 
Eugene, 1703; Pelet's Memoires Militaires re- 
latifs a la Succession d'Espagne sous Louis XIV, 
passim ; Bacallar y Sana's Comentarios de la 
Guerra de Espana, bk. iv. ; Lafuente's Historia 
General de Espana, xvii. 187, 207, 287-9.] 

T. S. 

O'MAHONY, JOHN (1816-1877), Irish 
politician, born at Kilbeheny, co. Limerick, 
in 1816. His family was one of the oldest 
and most popular in the country, and still re- 
tained some small remnant of the tribal lands, 
adjoining and partly jutting into the demesne 
of the Earls of Kingston. Hence, as weU 
as from more general causes of race and re- 
ligion, there was a permanent feud between 
the O'Mahonys ana their powerful neigh- 
bours. The father and uncle of John were 
both « out ' in the rebellion of 1798. 

O'Mahony was sent early in life to a good 
classical school in Cork, and afterwards en- 
tered Trinity College, Dublin, but never took 
a decree. He was a good Greek and Latin 
scholar, and always more or less devoted to 
linguistic and philological pursuits, especially 
in connection with his native Gaelic tongue. 
In 1857 he published* The History of Ireland, 
by Geoffrey Keating, D.D., translated from 
the original Gaelic, and copiously annotated' 
(New Y ork, 1857). It is the best translation 
yet published. According to Dr. Todd, the 
Irish antiquary, * it is a great improvement 
upon the ignorant and dishonest one pub- 
lished by Mr. Dermod O'Connor more than 
a century ago . . . but has been taken from 
a very imperfect text, and has evidently been 
executed [as O'Mahony himself confessed] 
in great haste.' O'Mahony contributed to 



S 



O'Mahony 



168 



O'Malley 



various Irish- American newspapers, but it is 
doubtful whether, as Mr. Webb states, he 
wrote articles for French journals. His 
articles were mostly political, and generally 
somewhat ponderous in style. 

It is, however, as a man of action that 
O'Mahony is remembered. Through his 
whole life he showed little care for anything 
save the cause of his country, and as little 
for self as any man who has striven to serve 
Ireland. He was a repealer in O'Connell's 
time. But he had bolder aspirations than 
O'Connell and his immediate followers, and 
he seceded with the Young Irelanders in 
1846. In 18-18 he joined in Smith O'Brien's 
attempted insurrection [see O'Brien, Wil- 
liam Smith]. After its collapse at Ballin- 
garry, co. Tipperary, O'Mahony, with John 
Savage and others, maintained a sort of 
guerilla struggle on the borders of the coun- 
ties of Waterford and K ilkenny . But he, too, 
had to succumb and fly to France, where 
he lived in Paris for several years in great 
poverty. In 1852 he left Paris for New 
York. There, for several years, O'Mahony 
found it impossible to do anything effective 
in the way of organising resistance to the 
English government in Ireland. The Emmet 
Monument Association had been founded 
about 1854 by Michael Doheny, O'Mahony, 
and others, to carry on the struggle, but it 
failed to effect anything. Some time in 1858, 
however, an envoy was sent, from a committee 
in New York composed of O'Mahony and his 
friends, to James Stephens in Dublin, with 
proposals for the foundation of a new secret 
organisation in Ireland, with the object of 
overthrowing the English rule and establish- 
ing an Irish republic. Stephens consented, 
under certain conditions, notably the send- 
ing over of definite sums of money at stated 
times. Thus originated what is commonly 
called the Fenian Brotherhood, a name, how- 
ever, which was not used in America till 
some years afterwards, and was never borne 
at all by the allied body in Ireland. The 
word seems an adaptation of the Irish * Fian 
Fianna ' or ' Fianna Kirionn ' (i.e. champions 
of Ireland). These terms were applied in 
Irish heroic tales to the members of certain 
septs who formed the militia of the ardrig 
or king of Erin. (Fionn was the chief war- 
rior in the Irish legends in which Oisin or 
Ossian [q. v.] figured.) In the * Fenian ' 
movement O'Mahony played the greatest part 
next to that of Stephens. For several years 
the society languished for lack of funds, only 
about 800/. in all reaching Stephens up to 
1863. Between that and 1865 some 8,000/. 
was sent over to Ireland, and this was the 
period of the greatest Fenian activity. Mr. 



Webb estimates the whole sum contributed 
to the Fenian exchequer by the United States 
and Canada at 80,000/., but James Stephens 
sets it down as little over 40,000/. 

During all these years O'Mahony worked 
persistently, though exposed to much oppo- 
sition from many of his colleagues. In the 
later years of the movement, too, there was 
constant conflict of opinion between himself 
and Stephens. In the abortive attempt at in- 
surrection in Ireland in 1867, the old Fenian 
movement, which Lord Kimberley stated in 
parliament to have been the most formidable 
effort since 1798 to sever the connection be- 
tween England and Ireland, may be said to 
have come to an end, and with it the career 
of O'Mahony practically closed. The Fenian 
Brotherhood still dragged on a precarious 
existence. For several years O'Mahony re- 
mained head centre, but neither he nor it 
thenceforward had any appreciable influence 
on Irish or Irish-American politics. Through- 
out this period O'Mahony lived in great 
poverty. He died in New York on 7 Feb. 
1 877. His remains, which were brought back 
to Ireland, were followed to Glasnevin by a 
great concourse of people. O'Mahony was phy- 
sically a very powerful and handsome man. 

[Personal knowledge ; Webb's Irish Biogr. 
Dublin, 1888. The Celtic Magazine of New York 
contains many articles on O'Mahony by his 
friend, Colonel Michael Kavanagh, who, it is 
understood, contemplates a full biography.] 

J. OX. 

O'MALLEY, GEORGE (d. 1843),major- 
general, was a volunteer in the Castlebar 
yeomanry when the town was attacked by 
the French under Humbert on 27 Aug. 1798, 
and was present when the place was attacked 
a fortnight later by a strong rebel force, which 
was defeated by the yeomanry and a com- 
pany of Eraser fencibles. O'Malley was 
confirmed as a lieutenant in the Castlebar 
yeomanry by Lord Cornwallis in recognition 
of his services, and soon after joined the North 
Mayo militia, from which he brought volun- 
teers to the 13th foot. He was appointed en- 
sign on 23 Feb. 1 800 ; served with the 13th at 
Ferrol and in Egypt, where he was severely 
wounded in the action of 13 March 1801, and 
afterwards at Malta and Gibraltar. For his 
success in recruiting in Ireland he received a 
company in the new second battalion 89th 
foot on 25 April 1805, and served with it until 
Colonel Henry Augustus (afterwards thir- 
teenth Viscount) Dillon or Dillon-Lee [q. v.] 
raised the 101st foot, in which O'Malley was 
appointed major. By his activity and local 
connection in Mayo he assisted materially in 
forming the regiment. He served with it in 
Ireland and Jersey, and was despatched 



O'Malley 



169 



O'Malley 



with three hundred men to St. John's, New 
Brunswick, in 1808, when war with the 
United States was imminent, and the Ameri- 
cans were collecting a large force near that 
place. For his services in command of that 
garrison for eleven months, and the exem- 
plary conduct of the troops under his com- 
mand, he received the freedom of the city on 

19 July 1809. As major, he afterwards com- 
manded the regiment four years in Jamaica, 
obtaining the brevet rank of lieutenant- 
colonel 4 June 1813. The regiment was dis- 
banded as the 100th in 1817. His repeated 
applications for employment in Europe were 
unsuccessful, but on 12 June 1815 he was 
appointed to the 2nd battalion 44th foot, and 
commanded it in Picton's division at Quatre 
Bras and Waterloo. On 18 June the battalion 
lost very heavily, being reduced to five officers 
and two hundred men. O'Malley was twice 
wounded and had two horses shot under him, 
but did not leave the field (C.B. and medal). 
He commanded the battalion in France until 
it was disbanded in 1816, when he was placed 
on half-pay. He was appointed major 38th 
foot on 12 Aug. 1819, and lieutenant-colonel 
88th Connaught rangers on 2 June 1825. He 
commanded that corps, which he had in a 
fine state of discipline, until promoted major- 
general on 23 Nov. 1841 . He died in London 
on 16 May 1843. A statue was erected to 
him at Castletown, Isle of Man. 

[Armv Lists ; Naval and Military Gazette, 

20 May 1843. p. 310.] H. M. C. 

O'MALLEY, GRACE (1530 ?-l 600?), 
Irish chieftain's wife, called in Irish writ- 
ings Graine Ui Maille (ui being the femi- 
nine form of ua f grandson or descendant), 
and in the State Papers, Grany O'Mayle, 
Grainne O'Mailley, Grany Ne Male, Grany 
Ny Mayle, Grayn Ny Vayle and Grany Ne 
Midley, was daughter of Dubhdara O'Malley, 
chieftain of Umhaill Uachtrach Ui Mhaille, 
now the barony of Murrisk, co. Mayo, and of 
his wife Margaret, daughter of Conchobhar 
O'Malley, according to her own statement in 
state papers dated July 1593. She is often 
callea in local traditions and songs Graine 
Mhaol. Maol, of which the nominative singu- 
lar feminine after a noun is Mhaol, means 
cropped or docked, as in the well-known 
Irisn tale, ' Eachtra agus imtheact an mhadra 
mhaol ' (' The Adventures of the Dog with 
Docked Ears and Tail '), and hence tonsured, 
as in the name of an ecclesiastic of the 
eleventh century, Maolsuthain, translated by 
himself Calvus perennis. The incident or 
peculiarity which gave rise to the name in her 
case is not related in any of the numerous 
stories about her. The O'Malleys are one of 



the few clans of Ireland celebrated in the 
native histories as sea-rovers, and Graine's 
childhood was spent on the mainland of their 
country and among the islands of Inisbofin, 
Inisclerie, Inisturke, Inissearc, Inisdallduff, 
and Inisdevellan. She married, first, Domh- 
nall-an-chogaidh O'Flaherty, son of Gilla- 
dubh O'Flaherty, chieftain of Bailenahinsi, 
co. Galway, called in the State Papers Bal- 
ly nehenessy, and at the present day Ballina- 
hinch. By him she had two sons, Eoghan, 
who married Catharine, daughter of Ed- 
mund Burke of Castle Barry, and Murchadh. 
Her husband was * assured cousin in nine 
degrees' to the Sir Murrough ne doe 
O'Flaherty (called by the Irish, Murchadh 
na dtuagh, of the axes), whom Queen Eliza- 
beth recognised as head of the O'Flaher- 
ties. She married, secondly, Richard Mac 
Oileverius Burke (called by the Irish, Ris- 
deart an iarain, of the iron), who became 
Mac William Iochtar, or chief of the Burkes 
of Mayo, in 1582 (Annals of Loch C£, ii. 
453). By him she nad one son, Theobald 
(called in Irish, Tibot na long, of the ships), 
who married Medhbh, daughter of O'Connor 
Sligo. She must also have had a daughter, 
if the statement in the state papers is correct 
that she was mother-in-law to Richard Burke, 
called by the English ' the Devil's Hook/ 
and in Irish, Deamhan an Chorrain, fiend of 
the sickle. She made many expeditions by 
sea, and was famous as a bold and active 
leader. In 1576, she, with her second hus- 
band, came to Sir Henry Sidney at Galway, 
and made alliance with him. He knighted 
Richard Burke, with whom he conversed in 
Latin, the only language, except Irish, which 
Burke knew. Her husband died before 
1586 (State Papers). In 1577 she was cap- 
tured oy the Earl of Desmond, and brougnt 
to Dublin soon after 1 July 1578. She was 
released, and in October 1582 was suspected 
of plotting with the Earl of Thomond, Lord 
Birmingham, several Burkes, O'Madden, 
MacMorris, MacDavey, and Sir Murrough 
ne doe O'Flaherty. She was reported to think 
herself no small lady. At the end of the year 
(ib. 27 Jan. 1583), when Theobald Dillon came 
into her country, she swore to have his life for 
coming ; but her husband quieted her. Both 
afterwards came to Sir Nicholas Malby [q. v.] 
to arrange not to pay 600/., arrears of taxes due 
from them to the government. Her husband 
being dead, she went to Carraicanchobhlaigh, 
her castle in Borrisowle, co. Mayo, with a 
thousand cows and mares, and in 1586 ob- 
tained letters of conduct from Sir Richard 
Bingham. He seized her, stating that she 
had plundered Aran Island, tied her with a 
rope, and built a gallows for her. She was 



O'Malley 



170 



O'Malley 



let off on a pledge from the Devil's Hook, 
Richard Burke. When he rebelled, she fled 
to Ulster, and stayed with O'Neill and 
O'Donnell, being unable to return owing to 
loss of her ships. She received Queen Eliza- 
beth's pardon through Sir John Perrot, and 
returned to Connaught. Sir Richard Bing- 
ham, who usually took an unfavourable 
view of the Irish, describes her, on 23 Aug. 
1693, * as a notable traitress and nurse of all j 
rebellions in the province for forty years.' 
On 5 May 1595 she sent a petition to 
Burghlev for the restoration of one-third of 
her nusband's lands to her. She died in 
great poverty a few years later, and local 
tradition states that she is buried on Clare 
Island. 

Numerous current stories of her adven- 
tures are unsupported by records. An old 
tune, known to all Irish fiddlers and pipers, 
is called after her, and is printed in Bunt- 
ing's * Ancient Music of Ireland.' In the 
south of Ireland it was regarded as a tune 
proper to the catholic interest, as is shown 
in Gerald Griffin's [q. v.] ballad, ' Orange 
and Green.' 

[Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, 1574-85, 
1588-92, 1592-6; O'Flaherty's Chorographical 
Description of West or H-Iar Connaught, ed. 
Hardiman, Dublin, 1846.] N. M. 

O'MALLEY, THADEUS (1796-1877), 

E>litical writer, born at Garryowen, near 
imerick, in 1796, completed at the age of 
twenty-three his studies for the Roman 
catholic ministry. He obtained preferment 
in America ; but, strong-willed and inde- 
pendent in spirit, he was in 1 827 suspended 
by his ecclesiastical superior (Life of Bishop 
England). Returning to Dublin, he was at- 
tached to the cathedral in Marlborough Street, 
and officiated as an assistant priest under 
Archbishop Daniel Murray [q. v.] 

Dr. James Warren Doyle [q. v.], in oppo- 
sition to O'Connell, had distinguished him- 
self by his powerful advocacy of a legal pro- 
vision for the Irish poor ; and after the death 
of that prelate his mantle fell upon O'Malley, 
who, in a series of able public letters, resolutely 
demanded a poor law for Ireland. O'Malley 
also supported a system of national educa- 
tion, but was suspended by Dr. Murray be- 
cause he addressed a very caustic letter to 
Archbishop MacHale in vindication of his own 
chief, whose public policy on the question of 
national education Dr. MacHale had severely 
impugned. After a short interval O'Malley 
was restored. To demonstrate his view on 
the subject, he published ' A Sketch of the 
State of Popular Education in Holland, 
Prussia, Belgium, and France ' (2nd edition, 
1840, 8vo). Subsequently he received from 



the government the appointment of rector of 
the catholic university of Malta ; but having 
set on foot some reforms in discipline among 
the ecclesiastical students, he was rebuked 
and dismissed, O'Malley vainly urging that 
he ought not to yield to the behests of pro- 
testant laymen in matters wholly pertaining 
to his ecclesiastical functions. He returned 
to Dublin, and in 1845 started a newspaper 
entitled ' The Social Economist,' which soon 
fell into disfavour with the church in con- 
sequence of some articles deprecating the 
enforced celibacy of clerics. It was a viva- 
cious periodical, one column of face tice being 
headed ' Sips of Punch.' Differing with 
O'Connell on the question of a complete re- 
peal of the act of union, he urged the esta- 
blishment of a federal parliament for Ire- 
land, and the question was orally debated 
by both in public disputation; and in the 
end many former disciples of the Liberator 
nocked to O'Malley's standard. The priest 
followed up his advantage by starting a 
newspaper called ' The Federalist,' in which 
his opinions obtained eloquent advocacy. 
Soon after he engaged in an effort to unite 
Old and Young Ireland. The former, headed 
by O'Connell, advocated moral force ; while 
Young Ireland favoured an appeal to arms, 
and seceded from O'Connell. For the next 
twenty years O'Malley remained in compara- 
tive retirement, living alone in a back lane 
of Dublin. 

In 1870, when Isaac Butt, Q.C., inaugu- 
rated the home-rule movement, he found in 
O'Malley a zealous and energetic ally. The 
priest supported the new movement by voice 
and pen, and rejoiced to see his early opinions 
becoming more widely popular. It was at 
this time that O'Malley issued anonymously 
* Harmony in Religion/ in which some alleged 
divergence of opinion between Cardinals 
Manning and Cullen was pointed out, and 
some modifications in ecclesiastical discipline 
boldly urged. Cardinal Cullen now ruled the 
see of Dublin, and O'Malley was once more . 
visited with archiepiscopal displeasure. His 
last publication, * Home Rule on the Basis of 
Federalism ' (London, 1873, 16mo), went to 
a second edition, and, in a prefatory letter 
of fourteen pages, is inscribed * To the Irish 
Conservative Party.' Though bold in urging 
changes of ecclesiastical discipline, O'Malley 
was unswerving on articles of faith. He died 
at his lodgings in Henrietta Street, Dublin, 
at the age of eighty-one, on 2 Jan. 1877, and 
was buried in Glasnevin cemetery. 

[Personal knowledge; Life of Bishop Eng- 
land ; Life, Times, and Contemporaries of Lord 
Cloncurry, Dublin, 1 855 ; Webb's Compendium 
of Irish Biography.] W. J. F. 



O'Maolmhuaidh 



171 



O'Meara 



CMAOLMHUAIDH, FRANCIS {fl. 
1660), theologian and grammarian. [See 
Mollot.] 

O'MEARA, BARRY EDWARD (1780- 
1836), surgeon to Napoleon I, born in Ireland 
in 1786, was the son of Jeremiah O'Meara, 
a ' member of the legal profession/ by Miss 
Murphy, sister of Edmund Murphy, MA., 
of Trinity College, Dublin, and rector of 
Tartaraghan, co. Armagh. He is supposed to 
have been a descendant of the Irish medical 
family, of which Dermod Meara [q. v.] was 
a member (cf. Cameron, Royal College of 
Surgeons in Ireland, p. 6). The statement 
has been repeated that he was educated at 
Trinity College, and at the Royal College of 
Surgeons, in Dublin ; but his name is not 
borne upon the registers of either society, 
and it is more probable that he studied sur- 

fery in London. He entered the army in 
804 as assistant-surgeon to the 62nd regi- 
ment, served with it in Sicily and Calabria, 
and in General Fraser's expedition to Egypt 
in 1807, and was senior medical officer to the 
troops which held the fortress of Scylla. 
After the conclusion of the expedition of 
1807, he was second in a bloodless duel at 
Messina in Sicily between two military 
officers, one of whom was O'Meara's old 
schoolfellow ; and owing to the intervention 
of Lieutenant-colonel Sir John Stuart, who 
was resolved to suppress the practice of 
duelling, O'Meara and his principal, who was 
the challenger, were both ordered to leave 
the service. Subsequently O'Meara became 
assistant-surgeon on board H.M.S. Victo- 
rious (Captain Sir John Talbot), and later 
was surgeon successively on board the Es- 
piegle, the Goliath, and the Bellerophon 
when it received Napoleon in 1815. In both 
the Goliath and the Bellerophon he served 
under Captain Maitland [see Maitlanp, Sir 
Frederick Lewis], who spoke highly of him. 
During the passage from Kochefort to Ply- 
mouth Bonaparte was attracted by his power 
of speaking Italian, and, when his own sur- 
geon, Mengeaud, declined to follow him 
into exile, he asked that O'Meara should be 
allowed to accompany him to St. Helena as 
his medical attendant. The admiralty readily 
permitted him to join the emperor. Napo- 
leon seems to have felt little confidence in his 
medical skill, but treated him with greater 
friendliness than was agreeable to Montholon, 
Las Cases, and other members of his suite. 

O'Meara had foreseen that his position 
might become delicate and difficult. Lowe 
wished him to act to some extent as a spy 
upon his prisoner, and to repeat to him the 
private conversations of the emperor. He 
recommended that O'Meara's stipend should 



be raised from 365/. to 520/. per annum, and 
for some time their relations were cordial. 
But Lowe soon detected O'Meara in several 
irregularities, for which he reprimanded him 
with asperity. O'Meara retaliated by with- 
holding his reports of Napoleon's conversa- 
tions. The breach rapidly widened, and 
O'Meara lent himself with increasing readi- 
ness to Napoleon's policy of exasperation. 
Lowe asked the government to recall O'Meara. 
Lord Bathurst at first declined, but in May 
1818 evidence of O'Meara's intrigues reached 
him from a source other than the governor's 
despatches, and in July O'Meara was dis- 
missed from his post. He carried with him 
from the island an autograph note from Napo- 
leon, dated 25 July 1818, which ran : ' Je prie 
mes parens et mes amis de croire tout ce que 
le docteur O'Meara leur dira relativement 
h la position ou je me trouve et aux senti- 
mens que je conserve. S'il voit ma bonne 
Louise, je la prie de permettre qu'il lui baise 
la main.' Upon his arrival in England he 
despatched, on 28 Oct. 1818, a letter to 
the admiralty, insinuating that Napoleon's 
life was not safe in Lowe^ hands. The ad- 
miralty, by way of reply, informed O'Meara 
on 2 Nov. that his name had been erased 
from the list of naval surgeons. There seems 
no doubt that his conduct throughout was 
that of an indiscreet partisan, or rather puppet, 
of Napoleon ; and his diagnosis of his patient's 
case as one of liver disease induced by the 
malignity of the climate was falsified by 
Napoleon's subsequent death from a disease 
which is not affected by climate (Arnott, 
Napoleon's Last Illness). 

O'Meara's attitude rendered him extremely 
popular with a large party in England, and 
Byron, in his 'Age of Bronze,' thus mentioned 
the incident of his dismissal : 

The stiff surgeon who maintained his cause 
Hath lost his place and gain'd the world's 
applause. 

O'Meara subsequently attached himself to the 
opposition, and espoused the cause of Queen 
Caroline. Moore the poet, writing in 1 820 in 
his 'Journal,' says that O'Meara devoted him- 
self to the queen's business, and collected her 
witnesses, &c, at her trial. He also became 
an active member of the Reform Club, joining 
the first committee in 1836, and was a warm 
adherent of Daniel O'Connell. 

O'Meara had commenced a pamphlet war 
against his enemy Lowe by the anonymous 
publication in 1817 of ' Letters from the Cape 
of Good Hope,' of which a French version 
appeared two years later. This was written 
in reply to Dr. William Warden's ' Letters 
written on board the Northumberland and 



O'Meara 



172 



O'Meara 



at St. Helena/ 1816. In 1819 an attempt to 
vindicate Lowe's position was made in an 
anonymous pamphlet (assigned to Theodore 
Hook), * Facts illustrative of the Treatment 
of Napoleon Bonaparte/ which was criticised 
severely in the * Edinburgh Review ' (xxxii. 
148-70). Later in the year O'Meara pub- 
lished ' An Exposition of some of the Trans- 
actions that have taken place at St. Helena 
since the appointment of Sir Hudson Lowe 
as Governor/ in which he replied to the 
anonymous pamphlet. His * Exposition ' was 
well received, and in 1822 he produced an 
expanded version as ' Napoleon in Exile ; or 
a voice from St. Helena. The Opinions and 
Reflections of Napoleon on the most import- 
ant events of his life and government, in his 
own words/ 2 vols. 8vo. This work created 
a great sensation, and it soon reached a fifth 
edition, while a French translation appeared 
in three volumes between 1822 and 1825. 
Its most valuable feature was an account 
of Napoleon's outspoken conversations with 
O'Meara ; but the chapters that chiefly ren- 
dered it popular were those that pitilessly 
denounced the treatment meted out to Napo- 
leon by Lowe and the government. Croker 
in the 'Quarterly Review ' (October 1822, 
xxviii. 219-64), and Christopher North in 
'Blackwood's Magazine' (xiv. 172), in re- 
viewing it, assailed O'Meara furiously ; while 
the 'Edinburgh' for June defended him with 
equal warmth (xxxvii. 1G4-204). 

Lowe did not take any steps to defend his 
character from O'Meara's embittered attacks 
till, in Hilary term 1823, he applied for a rule 
for a criminal information. He was then in- 
formed that his case was 'lost in point of 
time/ and he was dissuaded from indicting 
O'Meara, or bringing an action for damages 
against him. But Lord Bathurst advised 
Lowe to draw up a full vindication of his go- 
vernment at St. Helena, and publish it with 
other documents. This counsel Sir Hudson 
did not follow, but, instead, wearied the go- 
vernment with applications for redress. It 
was not until 1853 that the publication of 
William Forsyth's ' Captivity of Napoleon at 
St. Helena, from the Letters and Journals of 
Sir Hudson Lowe,' proved that O'Meara had 
overstated his case, and was largely inspired 
by bitter personal feeline* against Lowe. Be- 
sides a few pamphlets, O Meara's only further 
publication was some ' Observations upon 
the Authenticity of Bourrienne's " Memoirs'" 
(1831). He left in manuscript a journal 
kept at St. Helena, which he bequeathed to 
Mr. Mailliard of Bordentown, New Jersey, 
formerlv Joseph Bonaparte's private secre- 
tary, fie died on 3 June 1836 at his house 
in Edgware Road, of erysipelas in the head, 



contracted, it was said, by attending one 
of O'Connell's meetings. Many relics of 
Napoleon, including a tooth extracted by 
O'Meara, which fetched seven guineas and a 
half, were sold at the sale of his effects on 
18 and 19 July. 

O'Meara was twice married. He became, 
in 1823, the third husband of Theodosia, 
daughter of Sir Edward Boughton of Law- 
ford, Warwickshire. She first married, in 
1777, Captain John Donellan, who was 
hanged at Warwick in 1781 for poisoning 
her brother, Sir Theodosius Edward Allesley 
Boughton. Her second husband was Sir 
Egerton Leigh, bart. (d. 1818), by whom she 
had one son and three daughters. She died 
in 1830 (Gent. Mag. 1830, pt. ii. p. 179). 
Kathleen O'Meara, the granddaugnter of 
O'Meara, is noticed separately. 

[Las Cases' Memorial de Sainte-Helene, pt. vi. 
p. 370 ; * Napoleon a Sainte-Helene,' Rapports 
Oflficiels dn Baron Sturmer ; Firmin-Didot's La 
Captivite de Sainte-Helene d'apres les Rapports 
du Marquis de Montchenu, 1894 ; Thiers's Hist, 
de l'Empire, 1879, iv. 678, 681 ; Alison's Hist 
of Europe ; Moore's Corresp. vol. iii. ; Fagan's 
Reform Club, pp. 27, 30, 35 ; Annual Register, 
1836; Gent Mag. 1836, pt. ii. pp. 219, 434; 
Allibone's Diet. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; information 
kindly given by Charles M. Tenison, esq., of 
Hobart, Tasmania; and see art. Lowe, Sir Hud- 
son.] W. W. K. 

O'MEARA, DERMOD or DERMITIUS 
( fi. 1610), author and physician. [See 
Meara.] 

O'MEARA, EDMUND (d. 1680), phy- 
sician. [See Meara. ] 

O'MEARA, KATHLEEN (1839-1888), 
biographer and novelist, eldest surviving 
daughter of Dennis O'Meara of Tipperary, 
the son of Barry Edward O'Meara [q. v.], was 
born in Dublin in 1839. She accompanied 
her parents to Paris at an early age, and it is 
doubtful whether she afterwards visited her 
native land. She adopted the literary pro- 
fession, and, under the pseudonym of ' Grace 
Ramsay,' became well known as a writer of 
works of fiction, which were remarkable for 
purity of tone, delicacy of feeling, and sym- 
pathetic language. Her biograpnical works 
i also won her a high reputation. For many 
years she was the Paris correspondent of the 
1 Tablet ' newspaper. She died in Paris on 
10 Nov. 1888. 

Among her works of fiction are: 1. 'A 
Woman's Trials,' a novel, 3 vols. London, 
1867, 8vo. 2. ' Iza's Story/ 3 vols. London, 
1869, 8vo, reprinted under the title of ' Iza : 
a Story of Life in Russian Poland/ London, 
1877, 8vo. 3. 4 The Battle of Connemara/ 



Ommanney 



173 



Ommanney 



London, 1878, 8vo. 4. 'Are you my Wife? 
a novel, 3 vols. London, 1878, 8vo. 5. 'The 
Old House in Picardy,' a novel, London, 
1887, 8vo. 6. * Narka/ a novel, 2 vols. Lon- 
don, 1888, 8vo. 

Her biographical works are: 7. 'Frede- 
rick Ozanam, Professor at the Sorbonne, his 
Life and Works/ Edinburgh, 1876, 8vo. 
8. * One of God's Heroines : a Biographical 
Sketch of Mother Mary Teresa Kelly/ New 
York, 1878, 16mo. 9. < The Bells of the 
Sanctuary : Mary Benedicta, Afjnes, Aline, 
One of God's Heroines, Monseigneur Dar- 
boy/ London, 1879, 8vo. Some of these bio- 
graphies had previously been published 
separately. 10. ' Henri Perreyve, and his 
Counsels to the Sick,' being a translation of 
Perreyve's ' Journee des Malades/ with a 
sketch of his life prefixed, London, 1881, 
8vo. 11. 'Madame Mohl, her Salon and 
her Friends. A Study of Social Life in Paris,' 
London, 1885, 8vo ; another edition. Boston, 
Massachusetts, 1886, 8vo; translated into 
French, Paris [1886], 12mo. 12. < Queen by 
Right Divine, and other Tales, being the 
second series of " Bells of the Sanctuary," ' 
London, 1885, 8vo. 13. 'Thomas Grant, 
First Bishop of South wark,' London, 1874, 
8vo ; 2nd edit., with a preface by Dr. 
William Bernard Uilathorne, bishop of 
Birmingham, London, 1886, 8vo. 14. 'The 
Blind Apostle (Gaston de Segur), and a 
Heroine of Charity (Madame Legras), being 
the third series of " Bells of the Sanctuary,"' 
with an introduction by Cardinal Manning, 
London, 1890, 8vo. 15. 'The Venerable 
Jean Baptiste Vianney, Cure d'Ars,' a bio- 
graphy, London, 1891, 8vo. 

[Irish Monthly, October 1889, xvii. />27; 
Times, 13 Nov. 1888, p. 1 col. 1. and 14 Nov. 
p. 6 col. 3 ; Tablet, 17 Nov. 1888, p. 789.] 

T. C. 

OMMANNEY, Sir JOHN ACWORTH 
(1773-1855), admiral, born in 1773, eldest 
son of Rear-admiral Cornthwaite Ommanney 
{d. 1801), entered the navy in 1786 on board 
the Rose frigate, commanded by Captain 
Henry Harvey [q. v.], on the Newfoundland 
station. He afterwards served, 1788-92, in 
the Mediterranean, and in July 1792 was ap- 
pointed to the Lion, which, under the com- 
mand of Sir Erasmus Gower [q. v.], took 
Lord Macartney to China. On 20 May 1793 
Ommanney was promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant, and on returning to England was 
appointed, in October 1794, to the Aquilon 
frigate, cruising in the Channel. In March 
1795 he was moved into the Queen Char- 
lotte, one of the ships with Lord Bridport in 
the engagement off Lorient on 23 June. On 



6 Dec. 1796 he was promoted to be com- 
mander. During the mutiny at the Nore he 
commanded gun-brig No. 28 for the defence 
of the Thames, and in December 1797 was 
appointed to the Busy brig, in which, during 
the next two years, he cruised in the North 
Sea with considerable success. In August 
1799, in company with the Speedwell brig, 
he stopped a fleet of Swedish merchant ships 
under the convoy of a frigate. Ommanney 
had intelligence that some of these ships 
were laden with contraband of war, and 
were bound for French ports, and, as the 
frigate refused to allow them to be searched, 
he sent the whole fleet into the Downs for 
examination. His tact and determination in 
this business received the particular approval 
of the admiralty. In January 1800 he went 
to the West Indies, but was obliged by the 
state of his health to return in July. On 
16 Oct. he was advanced to post rank, and 
during 1801 commanded, in rapid succession, 
the Hussar frigate, the Robust, and the Bar- 
fleur, bearing the flag of Rear-admiral Colling- 
wood, in the Channel fleet. From 1804 to 
1806 he was flag-captain to Sir Erasmus 
Gower on the Newfoundland station. In 
1825 he was appointed to the Albion, in 
which, after some time at Lisbon, he joined 
Sir Edward Codrington [q. v.] in the Medi- 
terranean, and had an important part in the 
battle of Navarino on 20 Oct. 1827, for which 
he was made a C.B., and from the allied 
powers received the crosses of St. Louis, the 
third class of St. Vladimir, and the Redeemer 
of Greece. On 22 July 1830 he was pro- 
moted to be rear-admiral, was knighted on 
23 May 1835, and nominated a K.C.B. on 
20 July 1838. From 1837 to 1840, with 
his flag in the Donegal, he had command of 
the Lisbon station, and from September 
1840 to October 1841 he commanded at 
Malta, during the prolonged absence of the 
commander-in-chief. Sir Robert Stopford 
. v.] He became a vice-admiral on 23 Nov. 
* 1, and admiral 4 May 1849. He was 
I commander-in-chief at Devonport from 1851 
I to 1854, during the latter part of which 
I time the fitting out of the fleet for the Baltic 
; brought a severe strain on nerves enfeebled 
1 by age. He died on 8 July 1855. Ommanney 
! had married in 1803 Frances, daughter of 
, Richard Ayling of Slidham in Sussex, and 
1 had by her four daughters. Lady Ommanney 
; died a few days after her husband, on 1 7 Aug. 
Sir Francis Molyneux Ommanney, the navy 
agent and M.P. for Barnstaple, was the ad- 
miral's brother. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biogr. iii. (vol. ii.), 303 ; 
OTSyrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet.; Gent. Mag. 1855, ii. 
315.] J.K.L. 



&i 



O'Molloy 



174 



O'Moran 



O'MOLLOY, ALBIN, or Alpin 
O'Moelmhuajdh (d. 1223), bishop of Ferns, 
was a native Irishman, who became a 
Cistercian monk at Baltinglass, and even- 
tually rose to be abbot of that house. In 
Lent 1186, when John, archbishop of Dub- 
lin, held a synod at Holy Trinity Church, 
Albin preached a long sermon on clerical 
continency, in which he laid all the blame 
for existing evils on the Welsh and English 
clergy who had come over to Ireland (Gir. 
Camb. Opera, i. 66). Albin was shortly 
afterwards made bishop of Ferns or Wex- 
ford, the see having been previously declined 
by Giraldus Cambrensis. He was present 
at the coronation of Richard I on 3 Sept. 
1189 (Gesta Ricardi, ii. 79). On 5 Nov. 
he was appointed by Pope Innocent III, 
with the Archbishop of Tuam and Bishop 
of Kilmacduagh, to excommunicate the 
Bishop of Waterford, who had robbed the 
Bishop of Lismore ( Cal. Papal 'Registers, i. 
15). In 1205 Albin received 10/. from the 
royal gift, and on 3 April 1206 was recom- 
mended by the king to the chapter of Cashel 
for archbishop (Calendar of Documents rela- 
ting to Ireland, i. 258, 291). In November 
1207 Innocent addressed a letter to Albin 
with reference to persons who had been im- 
properly ordained. On 17 June 1208 Albin 
was sent by the king on a mission to the King 
of Connau^ht. On 15 Sept. 1215 he had pro- 
tection while attending the council at Rome ; 
and on 5 Sept. 1216 received custody of the 
bishopric of Killaloe (ib. i. 385, 658, 721). 
William Marshal, first earl of Pembroke [q. v.], 
while in Ireland between 1207 and 1213, 
seized two manors belonging to the Bishop 
of Ferns. For this Albin excommunicated 
him ; but the earl pleaded that it was done 
in time of war, and retained the manors all 
his life. After Marshal's death, Albin came 
to the king at London and petitioned for the 
restoration of his lands. Henry begged the 
bishop to absolve the dead, but Albin refused 
to do so unless restoration were made. To 
this the younger William Marshal [q. v.] and 
his brothers refused their consent, and Albin 
then cursed them, and foretold the end of their 
race (Matt. Paris, iv. 492). The quarrel 
appears to have been at a crisis in 1218. On 
18 April of that year Albin was prohibited 
from prosecuting his plea against William, 
earl Marshal, and on 25 June Honorius III 
directed the Archbishop of Dublin and the 
legate to effect a reconciliation between the 
bishop and the earl ( Calendar of Documents 
relating to Ireland, i. 823 ; Cal. Papal Re- 
gisters, i. 56). Albin died on 1 Jan. 1223 
(Annals of Loch CS, i. 267). Matthew Paris 
speaks of him as conspicuous for his sanctity. 



Albin consecrated the infirmary chapel at 
the Cistercian abbey of Waverley on 6 Nov. 
1201, and dedicated five altars there on 
10 July 1214. The monks of St. Swithin's, 
Winchester, made him a member of their 
fraternity. He appears as a witness to 
several charters in the 'Chartulary of St. 
Mary, Dublin ' (i. 31, 142-3, 147-8, Rolls 
Ser.) 

[Matthew Paris, iv. 492 (Dr. Luard is clearly 
mistaken in identifying the Bishop of Ferns with 
Albin's successor, John St. John) ; Annales Mo- 
nastici, ii. 253, 282 ; Surrey Archaeological Col- 
lections, viii. 165 ; Annals of the Four Masters, 
ed. O'Donovan ; Cotton's Fasti Eccl. Hib. ii. 
331 ; Ware's Works on Ireland, i. 439-40, ed. 
Harris; Lanigan's Ecclesiastical History of 
Ireland, iv. 264-6, 277.] C. L. K. 

O'MOLLOY, FRANCIS (Jl. 1660), theo- 
logian and grammarian. [See Mollot.] 

O'MORAN, JAMES (1735-1794), lieu- 
tenant-general in the French service, was 
born in 1735 at Elphin, co. Roscommon, 
where his father is said to have been a shoe- 
maker. Domiciled at Morin-le-Montagne, 
Pas-de-Calais, James was appointed a cadet 
in the regiment of Dillon in tne Irish brigade 
on 15 Nov. 1752, and became a lieutenant- 
en-second on 14 Jan. 1759. He served in 
Germany in the campaigns of 1760-1, be- 
came sous-lieutenant on 1 March 1763, sous 
aide-major on 4 Feb. 1769, captain on 16 April 
1771, captain-en-second on 5 June 1776, cap- 
tain-commandant on 30 Jan. 1778, major on 
20 Oct. 1779, mestre-de-camp (colonel) on 
24 June 1780, lieutenant-colonel of Dillon 
on 9 June 1785, and colonel of the regiment 
on 25 Aug. 1791. He served as major in the 
trenches, and was wounded at the siege of 
Savannah in 1779. He was in Grenada, West 
Indies, in 1779-82, and in America in 1783. 
On 6 Feb. 1792 he was appointed mar6chal- 
de-camp (general of brigade), in which capa- 
city he served under Dumouriez in Cham- 
pagne and Belgium. He captured Tournay 
and occupied Cassel. On 3 Oct. 1792 he 
was made a general of division (lieutenant- 
general). On the representations of the 
Division Ferrieres, and apparently under 
suspicion of receiving English gold, he was 
arraigned before the revolutionary tribunal 
of Paris, was condemned as a traitor to his 
countrymen contrarian t les plans au moment 
de l'execution/and wasguillotinedonl6 Ven- 
tose of the year 2 (6 March 1794). 

[O'Callaghan's Irish Brigades in the Service 
of France (Glasgow, 1870) for particulars of the 
regiment of Dillon ; Liste des Generaux . . . 
Paris, year viii ; Prudhomme's Les Crimes de la 
Revolution.] H. M. C. 



O'More 



175 



O'More 



O'MORE, RORY or RURY OGE (d. 
1578), Irish rebel, called in Irish Ruaidhri 
off ua Mordha, was second son of Rory 

More, captain of Leix, by Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Butler, and granddaughter 
of Pierce or Piers Butler, eighth earl of Or- 
monde [q. v.] (cf. Lodge, Peerage of Ireland, 
ed. Archdall, iv. 19; and Harl. MS. 1425, 
f. 119 b). Sir Henry Sidney once called him 

1 an obscure and base varlet,' but his family 
was one of the most important of the minor 
Irish septs, and also one of the most tur- 
bulent. 

Rory O'More (fl. 1554), the father, was 
son of Connell O'More (d. 1537), and early 1 
acquired the character of a violent and sue- ! 
cessful chieftain. On the death of Connell 
a fierce dispute broke out between the three 
sons — Lysaght,Kedagh, and Rory — and their 
uncle Peter the tanist. Peter was for the 
time a friend of the Butlers. Consequently 
the deputy, Lord Leonard Grey, supported 
the sons ; and, although Peter was acknow- 
ledged chief, Grey got hold of him by a ruse, 
and led him about in chains for some time. 
Kedagh then seems to have secured the chief- 
tainship, Lysaght having been killed ; but 
he died: early in 1542, and Rory, the third 
brother, succeeded. He, after a period of 
turmoil, agreed on 13 May 1542 to lead a 
quieter life, and made a general submission, 
being probably influenced by the fact that 
Kedagh had left a son of the same name, 
who long afterwards, in 1565, petitioned 
the privy council to be restored to his 
father's inheritance. Like other Irish chiefs 
of the time, O'More was only a nominal 
friend to the English. In a grant after- 
wards made to his eldest son his services to 
King Edward VI are spoken of : but they 
must have been of doubtful value, as an 
order of 15 March 1550-1 forbade any of 
the name of O'More to hold land in Leix 
(App. to 8th Hep. Dep.-Keep. Publ. Rec. 
Ireland). At some uncertain time between 
1550 and 1557 Rory O'More was killed, and 
was succeeded by a certain Connell O'More, 
who may be the Connell Oge O'More men- 
tioned in 1556 in the settlement of Leix (cf. 
Bagwell, Ireland under the Tudor •s, i. 400, 
and Cal. State Papers, Irish Ser. 1509-73, 

?>p. 135, 414). He was put to death in 1557 
Annals of the Four Masters, ii. 1545). Rory 
left two sons, Callagh and Rory Oge. Callagh, 
who was brought up in England, was called 
by the English ' The Calough,' and, as he de- 
scribes himself as of Gray's Inn in 1568, he 
maybe assumed to be the John Callow who en- 
tered there in 1567 (Foster, Peg. of Gray's 
Inn,v. 39). In 1571 Ormonde petitioned for 
the Calough's return, and soon afterwards he 



came back to Ireland, where in 1582 he 
was thought a sufficiently strong adherent 
to the English to receive a grant of land in 
Leix {Cal. State Papers, Irish Ser. 1574-85, 
pp. 392,412). 

Rory Oge O'More, the second son, was 
constantly engaged in rebellion. He received 
a pardon on 17 Feb. 1565-6, but in 1571 he 
was noted as dangerous, and in 1572 he 
was fighting Ormonde and the queen at the 
same time, being favoured by the weakness 
of the forces at the command of Francis 
Cosby, the seneschal of Queen's County, and 
the temporary absence of Ormonde in Eng- 
land. In this little rebellion the Butlers and 
the Fitzgeralds were united against him; 
but when, in November 1572, Desmond es- 
caped from Dublin, it was Rory Oge O'More 
who escorted him through Kildare and pro- 
tected him in Queen's County (cf. \2th Rep. 
Dep.-Keep. Publ. Rec. Ireland, p. 78). He 
was mixed up in Kildare's plots in 1574, 
and taken prisoner in November. But he 
was soon free, and Sidney, when on his tour 
in 1575, wrote of him : ' Rory Oge O'More 
hath the possession and settling-place in the 
Queen's County, whether the tenants will or 
no, as he occupieth what he listeth and 
wasteth what he will.' However, O'More 
was afraid of the deputy, and when Sydney 
came into his territory, he went to meet him 
in the cathedral of Kilkenny (December 
1575), and * submitted himself, repenting (as 
he said) his former faults, and promising 
hereafter to live in better sort (for worse 
than he hath been he cannot be).' Hence 
we find a new pardon granted to him on 
4 June 1576 (ib. p. 179). But in the next 
year he hoped for help from Spain, and, 
pushed on by John Burke, his friend, he 
made a desperate attack on the Pale. He 
allied himself with some of the O'Connors, 
and gathered an army. On 18 March 1576-7 
the seneschal of Queen's County was com- 
manded to attack Rory Oge and the O'Con- 
nors with fire and sword (13th Rep. Dep.- 
Keep. Publ. Rec. Ireland, p. 25). There was 
good reason for active hostilities, as on the 
3rd the insurgents had burned Naas with 
every kind of norror. Sidney wrote to the 
council the same month : ' Rory Oge O'More 
and Cormock M'Cormock O'Conor have 
burnt the Naas. They ranne thorough the 
towne lyke hagges and furies of hell, with 
flakes of fier fastned on poles ends ' (Cal. 
State Papers, Irish Ser. 1574-85, p. 107; 
cf. Carew MSS. 1575-88, f. 110). Later in 
the year O'More captured Harrington and 
Cosby. They were rescued by a ruse. 
O'More's wife and all but O'More himself and 
one of those who were with him were killed. 



O'More 



176 



O'More 



Infuriated at being caught, O'More fell upon 
Harrington, ' hacked and hewed ' him so 
that Sidney saw his brains moving when 
his wounds were being dressed, then rush- 
ing through a soldier's legs, he escaped prac- 
tically naked (Carew MSS. 1575-88, f. 356). 
He soon afterwards burned Carlow ; but in 
an attempt to entrap Barnaby Fitzpatrick, 
baron of Upper Ossory, into his hands, he 
was killed by the Fitzpatricks in June 1578, 
and his head set up on Dublin Castle. He 
left a son, Owen McRory O'More, whom 
John Burke, son of the Earl of Clanricarde, 
took charge of. The English got hold of him 
after some difficulty, and foolishly allowed 
him to return to his own country. He be- 
came as great a rebel as his father, and, after 
a life of fighting and plundering, in which, 
however, he recovered almost all Leix, was 
killed in a skirmish near Timahoe, Queen's 
County, 17 Aug. 1600. Moryson called him 
' a bloody and bold young man/ * The Four 
Masters' an 'illustrious, renowned, and cele- 
brated gentleman.' After his death the im- 
portance of the O'Mores as a sept was gone. 

[Bagwell's Ireland under the Tudors ; Webb's 
Compendium of Irish Biogr. ; Cal. of State 
Papers, Irish Ser., and of the Carew MSS.; 
State Papers ; Annals of the Four Masters, ed. 
O'Donovan, vols. vi. vii. ; authorities quoted.] 

W. A. J. A. 

O'MORE, RORY (fl. 1620-1652), Irish 
rebel, often called Roger Moore or More, 
son of Calvagh O'More, was descended from 
the ancient chiefs of Leix. After the plan- 
tation of the Queen's County the O'Mores 
raised various rebellions, which were after- 
wards reckoned as nineteen in number. A 
transplantation to Kerry, Clare, and Con- 
naught was undertaken during the reign of 
James I, of which the state papers con- 
tain many details. But they kept always 
drifting back to their own district, and it 
was said that they preferred dying there to 
living anywhere else. Chichester, with a 
reference to Spanish history, called them 
White Moors. One of this harassed clan was 
Roger's father, Calvagh, who had become 
possessed of a castle and lands at Ballina 
in Kildare, and these were not affected by 
the transplantation. Roger, the elder son, 
inherited Ballina, married a daughter of Sir 
Patrick Barnewall [q. v.], the noted catholic 
champion, and was thus connected with the 
best families of the Pale. 

It has been said that O'More, who was in 
poor circumstances, had hopes of recovering 
the lands of his family from Strafford ; but 
there is no trace of any such idea in that 
statesman's correspondence. There was a 
moment of weakness after the great viceroy's ! 



final departure in April 1640 ; the English 
government were busy in Scotland, and the 
time seemed propitious for an effort by the 
Irish catholics to regain their lost territories, 
and to restore the splendour of their religion. 
O'More, who afterwards admitted to an Eng- 
lish prisoner (Temple, Hist, of Irish Rebel- 
lion, p. 103) that a plot had been hatching for 
years, began negotiations with John or Shane 
I O'Neill, the great Tyrone's younger son and 
last surviving heir, who was acknowledged 
by the Irish and on the continent as Earl 
of Tyrone. He sounded some of the dis- 
contented gentry of Connaught and Leinster, 
having an ally among the latter in Colonel 
Richard Plunkett, who was his wife's first- 
cousin. Plunkett, who was a needy man, 
was well known at the English court and 
in Irish society, and had seen service in 
Flanders. The disbanding of Strafford's army 
had left a great many officers and soldiers 
without employment, and these very will- 
ingly listened to the plotter. O'More's means 
of persuasion were mainly two : there was a 
chance for old Irish and Anglo-Irish fami- 
lies to recover their lost estates or to win 
new ones ; and there was something like a 
certainty that the puritan parliament in Eng- 
land would deal harshly with the adherents 
of Rome. Many lent a favouring ear ; but 
all agreed that nothing could be done with- 
out a rising in Ulster. His position made 
O'More the fittest person to mediate between 
the Pale and the native clans. 

In February 1641 O'More applied to Lord 
Maguire [see Maguire, Connor, second 
Baron of Enniskillen], who was in Dub- 
lin for the parliamentary session, with Hugh 
Oge MacMahon [q. v.], and others of the 
northern province. Richelieu promised arms, 
ammunition, and money to the titular Earl 
of Tyrone ; but the latter was killed in Spain 
in the spring of 1641, and the conspirators 
transferred their hopes to Colonel Owen Roe 
O'Neill [q. v.], who was then in Flanders. 
O'More appears throughout as the main- 
spring of the whole plot, and his parish 
priest, Toole O'Conley, was chosen as the mes- 
senger to Owen Roe. It was O'More who 
swore Maguire, Sir Phelim O'Neill [q.v.], and 
the rest to secrecy (Hickson, Ireland m the 
Seventeenth Century, ii. 190). About 1 Sept. 
1641 it was decided to seize Dublin Castle 
on 5 Oct., but the day was afterwards 
changed to the 23rd. O'More was to lead 
the party charged with seizing the lesser of 
the two gates. He visited Ulster at the be- 
ginning of October, shifting constantly from 
place to place to avoid suspicion, and was 
one of the five who made the final arrange- 
ments on the 15th. The place of meeting 



O'More 



177 



O'More 



was his son-in-law's house in Armagh county, 
Sir Phelim O'Neill [q^. v.l and Lord Maguire 
being present there with him. But it is hard 
to be hidden in the country, and Sir William 
Cole, in a letter dated 11 Oct., warned the 
lords justices that there was mischief brewing 
(Nalson, Collections, ii. 619). He did not 
name O'More, and nothing really was known 
until the evening of 22 Oct., when Owen 
O'Connolly made his statement to Lord-jus- 
tice Parsons. Late that night O'More went to 
Lord Maguire and told him that the cause 
was lost. It is from Maguire's often printed 
narrative that we know most of the details. 
O'More, with Plunkett and Hugh O'Byrne, 
escaped over the river, and was perhaps not 
at first suspected, for O'Connolly did not 
mention him, nor does his name occur in the 
first statement made by MacMahon, or in the 
letter of the Irish government to Lord Leices- 
ter. His brother-in-law, Lord Kingsland,was 
one of those on whom the Irish government 
at first relied for the preservation of peace. 

The plot to seize Dublin Castle totally 
failed, but the Ulster rebellion broke out as 
arranged, and O'More almost at once appears 
in the field as colonel with a large, but only 
partially armed, force under him. His brother 
Lewis had the rank at first of captain, and 
afterwards of colonel. O'More fought victori- 
ously at Julianstown, in Meath, on 29 Nov., 
and acted as spokesman for the Ulster Irish at 
the conference held a few days later on the 
hill of Crofty, between their chiefs and the 
gentry of the Pale. The substance of his 
speech, which had been carefully prepared, 
is preserved by Bellings (Gilbert, Hist, of 
Confederation and War, i. 36). In the pro- 
clamation of the lords justices, dated 8 Feb. 
1641-2, a price was put upon his head — 400/. 
for its actual production, and 300/. for satis- 
factory evidence of having slain him. He 
was present when Ormonde defeated the Irish 
at Kilrush on 15 April 1642. Carte says he 
went to Flanders about this time ; and, if so, 
he probably returned with Owen Roe O'Neill, 
who reached Ireland in July. He was serv- 
ing in the King's County at the end of that 
month, the title of general being accorded to 
him by the Irish thereabouts. On the forma- 
tion of the supreme council of the confederate 
catholics at Kilkenny in October he was ap- 
pointed to command in the King's County and 
half the Queen's County, and was present at 
the taking of Birr in January 1642-3 (Hist. 
MS8. Comm. 2nd Rep. p. 218). 

In spite of his many connections, O'More 
was not thoroughly trusted by the Anglo- 
Irish ; he was a Celt, and towards the Celtic 
party he drifted more and more. The gentry 
of the Pale were soon sorry for the war, which 

VOL. XLII. 



ruined most of them; and when O'More con- 
fessed to his brother-in-law Fleming that he 
was the real originator of it, the latter an- 
swered that he found himself mistaken, for 
he thought the devil had begun it (Carte). 
In 1644 O'More's name appears in a list of 
Owen Roe's followers, his title in the Irish 
cipher being 'the shoemaker' (Contemp. 
Hist. i. 605). In the same year he offered 
himself for service in Antrim's Scottish ex- 
pedition [see Macdonnell, Randal, 1609- 
1683], with a half-armed regiment of fif- 
teen "hundred men (ib. i. 652). In 1648 he 
was living at Ballinakill, in the district 
where his clan once ruled (ib. i. 229). In 
the same year he was in arms against the 
Kilkenny confederation, and was employed 
by Owen Roe in abortive negotiations with 
Inchiquin (ib. i. 747, 751). Early in the 
following year the author of the * Aphoris- 
mical Discovery,' who regarded him as a 
mere temporiser, says he was one of O'Neill's 
cabinet council, and that he tried to bring, 
about an understanding between his leader 
and Ormonde, but only succeeded in offend- 
ing both (ib. ii. 21). After the declaration 
of Jamestown on 12 Aug. 1650 O'More and 
his brother Lewis both took arms, and he 
commanded some foot in Connaught in the 
following year (ib. ii. 114, 158). He had 
Clanricarde's commission as commander in 
Leinster, with full civil and military au- 
thority (ib. iii. 1, 15). But the cause was 
quite lost by this time, and O'More was 
driven into the remote island of Bofin. The 
author of the ' Aphorismical Discovery ' says 
that he was basely deserted there by Bishop 
Lynch and others in December 1652 ; that he 
escaped to the Ulster coast, and lived there 
for a time disguised as a fisherman ; and that 
he was reported to have escaped to Scotland 
(ib. iii. 143). It seems quite as likely that 
he perished obscurely in Ireland. Both 
brothers were excepted from pardon for life or 
estate in the Cromwellian Act of Settlement 
12 Aug. 1652, and Lewis was soon after- 
wards hanged as guilty of murder (Ludlow, 
Memoirs, ii. 8). 

O'More was an accomplished man, and 
could speak well both in English and Irish. 
He was undoubtedly the main contriver of 
the rebellion ; but he was not a professional 
soldier, and played no great part in the war. 
He was distantly connected by marriage 
with Ormonde, and Carte gives him credit 
for doing his best to check the barbarities of 
which Sir Phelim O'Neill's followers were 
guilty. That he was considered reasonable 
and humane by the nrotestants may be in- 
ferred from the fact tnat Lady Anne Parsons 
applied to him for protection. His answer 



O'Mulconry 



178 



O'Neill 



has been preserved (Hist MSS. Comm. 2nd 
Hep. p. 218). He wrote like a gentle- 
man, but did not grant the lady's request. 
Popular tradition clings to the name of Rory 
O'More, but it is probable that some of this 
glory really belongs to Rory Oge, who gave 
the government so much trouble in Queen 
Elizabeth's time. 

[Calendar of Irish State Papers, 1603-25; j 
Carte's Life of the Duke of Ormonde, bk. iii. ; 
Nalson's Collection, vol. ii. : Ludlow's Memoirs ; 
Temple's Hist, of Irish Rebellion, ed. 1766 ; , 
Lodge's Peerage, ed. Archdall, art. ' Viscount : 
Kingsland ; ' Hickson's Ireland in the Seventeenth 
Century; Gilbert's Hist, of the Confederation 
and War in Ireland and his Contemporary Hist, 
of Affairs in Ireland ; Carte MSS. in the Bod- 
leian Library, passim.] R. B-l. 

O'MULCONRY, FEARFEASA (Jl. 
1036), Irish chronicler. [See O'Mablcko- 

NAIRE.] 

O'NEAL or O'NEALE. [See also 
O'Neill.] 

O'NEAL, JEFFREY HAMET (fl. 1760- 
1772), miniature-painter, was a native of Ire- 
land. He practised for many years, in London 
as a miniature-painter, and exhibited occa- 
sionally with the Incorporated Society of 
Artists, of which he was a fellow, being one 
of the artists who signed the declaration roll 
in 1 766. O'Neal is also stated to have painted 
landscapes, natural history, and * Japan ' 
pieces, the last for a printseller in Cheapside. 
In 1772 he was living in Lawrence Street, 
Chelsea. 

[Pasquin's Artists of Ireland ; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-1880; Catalogues of the Soe. of 
Artists.] L. C. 

O'NEIL, O'NEALE, and O'NEAL. 

[See also O'Neill.] 

O'NEIL, HENRY NELSON (1817- 
1880), historical painter, was born of British 

?arentage at St. Petersburg on 7 Jan. 1817. 
le came to England at the age of six, and 
in 1836 entered the schools of the Royal 
Academy, where he formed a close friend- 
ship with Alfred Elmore [q. v.], with whom 
he afterwards visited Italy. His first pic- 
ture, ' A Student/ appeared at the Royal 
Academy in 1838, and was followed in 1840 
by * Margaret before the Image of the Virgin/ 
and in 1841 by 'The First Thought on 
Love ' and ' Theckla at the Grave of Max 
Piccolomini.' In 1842 he exhibited 'Paul 
and Francesca of Rimini/ and ' Peasants re- 
turning from the Vineyard ; ' in 1843, ' Jeph- 
thah's Daughter: the last day of mourning/ 
which was engraved in line by Peter Light- 
foot for the Art Union of London ; in 1844 > 



' Boaz and Ruth/ which was purchased by 
the prince consort ; and in 1846, ' By the 
Rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, 
we wept, when we remembered Zion.' Sub- 
sequently his chief contributions to the 
Royal Academy were ' Mozart's Last Mo- 
ments/ 1849 ; « Esther/ 1850; ' The Scribes 
reading the Chronicles to King Ahasuerus/ 
1851; 'Katharine's Dream/ 1853; 'The 
Return of the Wanderer/ a work which 
marked great progress, and was engraved 
in mezzotint by W. H. Simmons, 1855; 
' Eastward Ho ! ' the most popular of 
all his works, engraved in mezzotint by 
W. T. Davey, 1858; 'Home again/ also 
engraved by W. T. Davey, 1859; ' A Volun- 
teer/ an incident connected with the wreck 
of the Royal Charter, 1860, in which year 
he was elected an associate of the Royal 
Academy; ' The Parting Cheer/ 1861 ; 'The 
Landing of H.R.H. the Princess Alexandra 
at Gravesend/ 1864 ; ' The Lay of King 
Canute/ 1865 ; and ' The Last Moments of 
Raffaelle/ 1866. He exhibited alBo at the 
British Institution, where he had in 1840 ' A 
Musical Party ' and ' La Biondina in Gondo- 
letta/ and in 1843 a ' Scene from Twelfth 
Night/ and at the Society of British Artists. 
Latterly his work became very unequal, and 
it was often coarse of touch and crude in 
colour. He painted also landscapes and some 
portraits, among which were those of the 
Duke of Newcastle, John Phillip, R.A., Ro- 
bert Keeley, and William Mackworth Praed. 
Some interesting portraits by him belong to 
the Garrick Club. 

O'Neil published in 1866 his ' Lectures on 
Painting delivered at the Royal Academy,' 
and afterwards made some other attempts 
in literature. ' Two Thousand Years hence ' 
appeared in 1868; 'Modern Art in England 
and France' in 1869; 'Satirical Dialogues/ 
in verse, in 1870 ; and ' The Age of Stucco : 
a Satire in three Cantos/ in 1871. He was 
also an amateur musician and a good violin 
player. He died at 7 Victoria Road, Ken- 
sington, London, on 13 March 1880, and was 
buried in Kensal Green cemetery. 

[Art Journal, 1880, p. 171 ; Times, 15 March 
1880, notice by Anthony Trollope ; Athenaeum, 
1880, i. 384; Academy, 1880, i. 220; Royal Aca- 
demy Exhibition Catalogues, 1838-79 ; Exhibi- 
tion Catalogues of the Society of British Artists, 
1838-43; British Institution Exhibition Cata- 
logues, 1839-1861.] R. E. G. 

O'NEILL, CON BACACH, i.e. Claudus 
or the Lame, first Earl of Tyrone (1484?- 
1559 ?), grandson of Henry O'Neill, lord of 
Tyrone (d. 1489) [q. v.], and youngest son of 
Con O'Neill and Alice, daughter of Gerald 



O'Neill 



179 



O'Neill 



Fitzgerald, eighth earl of Kildare [q . v.], was 
born about 1484, and succeeded his elder 
brother, Art Oge O'Neill, as chief of Tyrone 
in 1619. His connection with the house of Kil- 
dare rendered him naturally hostile to Henry's 
policy of anglicising Ireland, and immediately 
on the arrival of the Earl of Surrey in 1520 
he invaded the English Pale. His attempt to 
obstruct Surrey's government was not, how- 
ever, very successful, owing to the hostility 
of Hugh ' Black ' O'Donnell, and the support 
which the Earl of Ormonde rendered to the 
viceroy, and before long he submitted. In the 
hope of retaining him in his obedience, Henry 
sent him ' a collar of gold of our livery/ and 
authorised Surrey to make him a knight, and, 
if possible, to induce him to repair to Eng- 
land. In the following year he consented to ac- 
company the viceroy against 0'Melaghlin,but 
was compelled, much to Surrey's annoyance, 
to return to defend his own country against 
O'Donnell, with whom his strife was in- 
cessant. He retaliated in 1522 by invading 
Tyrconnel, and was successful in capturing 
Bally shannon, Bundrowes, and Belleek ; but 
in a pitched battle at Knockavoe, near Stra- 
bane, he was utterly defeated by O'Donnell. 
In 1524 Kildare succeeded Ormonde asvice- 
Toy, and at his installation O'Neill carried the 
sword of state before him. In 1628, during 
Kildare's detention in England, O'Neill and 
Brian O'Connor [q. v.] did their utmost, 
acting on Kildare s instructions, to obstruct 
the government of the Earl of Ormonde. 
Some stronger hand than Ormonde's was 
needed to suppress them, and in 1530 the 
deputyship was transferred to Sir William 
Skeffington [q. v.] 

The restoration of Kildare, and his sub- 
stitution for Skeffington in August 1532, 
established things on their old footing, 
and complaints were soon rife that O'Neill 
was allowed to plunder the Pale at his 
pleasure. He supported the rebellion of 
4 Silken Thomas,' but, after the capture of 
Maynooth, submitted to Skeffington at 
Drogheda on 26 July 1535. He renewed 
his submission to Lord Leonard Grey in 
the following year ; but the deputy, though 
he found him 'very tractable in words,' 
could not, without employing force, * where- 
unto time serveth not,' persuade him to put 
in hostages for his loyalty. The result was 
that next year (1537) O'Neill attacked 
Ardglass. Grey wished to retaliate by in- 
vading Tyrone, but he was overruled by 
the council, and commissioners were sent 
to treat with O'Neill, who found him * very 
reasonable,' but obstinate in his refusal to 

give hostages for his loyalty. He renewed 
is assurances of loyalty in the following 



year, but early in 1539 he concluded an 
alliance with Manus O'Donnell [q. v.] at 
Donegal, the object of which was supposed 
to be the restoration of Gerald Fitzgerald, 
the young heir to the earldom of Kildare. 
Failing to induce O'Neill to surrender Fitz- 
gerald, Grey invaded Tyrone, and ravaged 
much of his country. O'Neill and O'Don- 
nell in the autumn invaded the Pale with the 
greatest army, as some thought, that had ever 
been seen in Ireland. After burning Navan 
and Ardee,and accumulating immense booty, 
they were on their way homewards when 
they were overtaken and utterly defeated 
by Grey at Ballahoe. In May 1540 O'Neill 
consented to parley with the lord justice, 
Sir William Brereton, at the Narrow- water, 
and promised to observe the conditions of 
the treaty made with Skeffington in 1535. 
But his agents were at the time in Scotland 
negotiating for assistance, and there was a 
plot on foot to inveigle the lord justice to 
Fore in Westmeath, under pretence of par- 
leying, preparatory to a general attack on 
the Pale. 

The plot was frustrated by Brereton ; 
but the hollowness of O'Neill's professions 
was sufficiently apparent, and after vainly 
endeavouring ' by all honest persuasions to 
bring him to conformity,' St. Leger deter- 
mined to prosecute him with fire and sword. 
He was fortunate to detach O'Donnell and 
some of his urraghs or vassal chiefs from 
him, and in September 1541 he invaded 
Tyrone. O'Neill made an unsuccessful 
counter-attack on the Pale, and the lord 
deputy, after destroying ' miche of his cornis 
and butters, whiche is the grete lyvinges of 
the said Oneil and his followers,' retired. 
A few weeks later he again invaded Tyrone, 
and carried off several hundred head of 
cattle. A third invasion in December 
brought O'Neill to his knees. He sent 
letters to St. Leger at Armagh, offering un- 
oualified submission, and promising, as no 
O'Neill had ever done before, to surrender 
his son as hostage for his loyalty. It was 
doubtful if his submission would be ac- 
cepted, for the propriety of extirpating him 
and planting his country with English set- 
tlers had been seriously mooted. But the 
difficulties in the way of such a plan were 
insuperable, and St. Leger thought it wise 
to accept his offer, and * to beate him, and 
siche like as he is, with the same rodde 
that they have often betenyour subjects here ; 
that is, to promyse theim faier, to wynne 
tyme, whereby other enterprises more beni- 
ficiall for your poore subjectes here mought 
be acheved.' Accordingly O'Neill, having 
promised to become a loyal subject, to re- 

n2 



O'Neill 



1 80 



O'Neill 



nounce the pope, to attend parliament, to 
cut down the woods between him and the 
Pale, and to rebuild the ruined churches 
in his country, was received to mercy. He 
renewed his submission to St. Leger on 
19 May 1642, attended a parliament at Trim, 
and shortly afterwards repaired to England, 
St. Leger lending him two hundred marks 
' rather to adventure the losse thereof, then 
he should lette to come to your Majestic* 

On 24 Sept. he submitted to Henry at 
Greenwich, and a week later was created 
Earl of Tyrone for life, with remainder to 
his supposed son Mathew, alias Ferdorach 
O'Neill, alias Kelly, who was created at 
the same time Baron of Dungannon, with 
remainder to the eldest son of the Earl of 
Tyrone for the time being. The expenses 
01 his installation were borne by Henry, 
who also gave him a gold chain of the value 
of ' three score pounds and odde,' and one 
hundred marks in ready money. Subse- 
quently, on 7 May 1543, Tyrone was ad- 
mitted a privy councillor of Ireland, and on 
9 July received a grant of lauds in Dublin 
for his maintenance during his attendance 
on parliament. His submission produced a 
profound sensation in Ireland, and St. Leger 
was in hopes that, if the arrangement could 
only be continued for two generations, the 
country would be for ever reformed. It was 
afterwards urged by Tyrone's eldest legiti- 
mate son, Shane, that, in surrendering his 
lands and consenting to hold them by Eng- 
lish tenure, Tyrone exceeded his rights as 
chief of his clan ; and it was doubtless true 
that, in theory at least, an Irish chief possessed 
merely a life interest in the lands of his tribe. 
But it pleased Shane to forget that the ar- 
rangement was one established at the point of 
the sword, and that Tyrone's submission im- 
plied the submission likewise not only of 
his immediate followers, but of his urraghs 
as well. It was not here that the real 
difficulty lay, but in the attempt to substi- 
tute succession by primogeniture for that by 
tanistry, and in the unfortunate accident 
that led to the choice of Mathew as Tyrone's ' 
heir. Still, his acceptance of an English ' 
title did unquestionably impair Tyrone's 
authority. It was felt to be a degradation, 
and it only wanted that some ambitious 
rival, such as ultimately presented himself 
in Shane O'Neill, should arise to oust him 
from his position, and restore things to their 
old footing. 

For some time, however, the arrangement 
worked fairly well, and in 1544 Tyrone fur- 
nished ninety kerne to the Irish contingent 
for service in France. But rumours were rife 
of intrigues with Rome ; the claims of Tyrone 



over his urraghs led to constant breaches of the 
peace, and there were not wanting signs that 
Tyrone himself was growing discontented 
with his position, to which he was not recon- 
ciled by the impolitic behaviour of subordinate 
officials, like Andrew Brereton, in calling him, 
a traitor. The government fixed its hopes on 
the Baron of Dungannon, but it was inevi- 
table that as power slipped from Tyrone's 
grasp, it should fall into the hands of Shane. 
Still the result was not at first so apparent, 
and the baron was by no means a despicable 
rival. One consequence of the struggle was 
that the country suffered severely. 'The 
contre of Tyrone,' Cusack wrote on 27 Sept. 
1551, ' is brought throughe warre of the 
Erie and his sonnes (oon of them silves 
against other) to suche extream myserie as 
there is not ten plowes in all Tyrone.' 
' H undreddis,' he calculated, 'this last yere 
and this somer died in the field throghe 
famen.' At the request of the Baron of 
Dungannon, Tyrone was persuaded to go to 
Dublin, and an attempt was made to restore 
the country to some sort of order. But even 
with the assistance of government, the baron 
was barely able to hold his own against 
Shane, and after a year's trial Tyrone was, 
in December 1552, restored, in the vain hope 
4 that quiet and tranquillity would follow, 
and that the Scots could be the more easily 
expelled from the northern parts.' But 
practically Shane was master of the situa- 
tion, and in 1557 Tyrone and the Baron of 
Dungannon were obliged to seek shelter in 
the Pale. After Shane's defeat by Calvagh 
O'Donnell [q. v.], they were restored by the 
Earl of Sussex ; but in 1558 the baron was 
murdered by Shane's orders, and Tyrone 
once more fled for safety into the Pale, where, 
worn out with age and injuries, he died, 
apparently, in 1559. 

Con O'Neill married, first, Mary, a daughter 
of Hugh Boy O'Neill, lord of Clandeboye, 
who was mother of Shane [q. v.] ; secondly, 
a daughter of O'Byrne, by whom he had a 
son, Niall Riach, the father of Turlough 
Breaslach. In addition to his putative son 
Mathew or Ferdorach, he had among other 
illegitimate children Henry, Con, a priest, 
and Shane Glade, and two daughters, one of 
whom was married to Sorley Boy MacDon- 
nell, and the other to Hugh Oge MacMahon, 
lord of the Dartrie. 

[State Papers, Henry VIII (printed); Cal. 
State Papers, Irel. ed. Hamilton ; Cal. Carew 
MSS. ; Ware's Annals ; Annals of the Four 
Masters, ed. O'Donovan ; Annals of Loch Ce\ ed. 
Hennessy ; Marquis of Kildare's Earls of Kil- 
dare ; Irish Genealogies, Harl. MS. 1 425.1 

R. D. 



O'Neill 



181 



O'Neill 



O'NEILL, DANIEL(1612 P-1664), soldier, 
royalist, and postmaster-general, elder son of 
Con M'Neill M'Fachartaigh O'Neill, by his 
wife, a sister of Owen Roe O'Neill [q. v.], was 
born in Ulster about 1612. His father must 
be distinguished from another Con O'Neill 
who was nephew of Hugh O'Neill [q. v.], the 
great earl of Tyrone, was younger brother 
of Owen Roe O'Neill, and also had a 6on 
Daniel (Burke, Extinct Peerage, p. 415). 
Con M'Neill M'Fachartaigh O'Neill was 
very distantly related to the Tyrone branch 
of the O'Neills {Montgomery MSS. ed. Hill, 
p. 14); he possessed lands in Ulster called 
Upper Claneboys or Clandeboye, Ards, and 
Sliocht or Slut O'Neill, worth 12,000/. a 
year, and had served during Elizabeth's reign 
on the English side. In 1605, owing either 
to a difference with Lord-deputy Chiches- 
ter and dealings with the rebels, or to a 
riot in which his servants came into colli- 
sion with the English troops, Con was im- 
prisoned at Carrickfergu8. Thence he es- 
caped to Scotland, where he entered into an 
agreement with James Hamilton, afterwards 
viscount Claneboye [cj. v.], and Hugh Mont- 
gomery, afterwards viscount Ards, to grant 
them two-thirds of his lands on condition of 
their obtaining his pardon. This was done, 
and Con afterwards lived quietly on his re- 
maining estates. He left two sons, Daniel 
and Con Oge ; the latter took an active part 
in the rebellion of 1641, became a colonel, 
and was killed in an action at Clones in 
1643 by a presbyterian minister after quar- 
ter had been given (Henry O'Neill's Diary 
in Lodge, Desiderata Cur. Hibemica, ii. 
492; Castlehaven, Memoirs, ed. 1753, p. 
63). 

Daniel, the elder son, was early introduced 
at the court of Charles I, and, unlike the rest 
of his family, became a protestant. He spent 
'many years between it [the court] and the 
Low Countries, the winter seasons in the 
one, and the summer always in the army in 
the other, which was as good an education 
toward advancement in the world as that 
age knew any; he had a fair reputation in 
both climates, having a competent fortune of j 
his own to support himself without depend- 
ence or beholdingness, and a natural insinua- 
tion and address which made him acceptable 
in the best company' (Clarendon, Rebellion, 
bk. viii. §§ 268 et seq.) Before 1635 he 
took service as a volunteer under Sir Horace 
Vere, and was also employed on missions to 
the titular queen of Bohemia and the elec- 
tor-palatine. Soon after his father's death 
Viscounts Claneboye and Ards managed to 
secure the remaining third of Con's property, 
leaving Daniel and his brother little more 



than 160/. a year. In 1635 O'Neill endea- 
voured to recover his heritage, and, armed 
with letters of recommendation from Arch- 
bishop Laud and the elector-palatine, pressed 
his suit at Dublin on Wentworth, who or- 
dered the two viscounts to treat with him. 
Nothing, however, came of the negotiation. 
Wentworth resented O'Neill's importunity, 
and threatened to put him in prison. This 
led to bitter animosity between the two, and 
O'Neill was henceforth one of Wentworth's 
most active enemies. In 1636 O'Neill was 
again in the Netherlands, and next year served 
at the siege of Breda, being wounded in the 
thigh in an assault (Hexham, Siege of Breda, 
1637, pp. 28-31, &c.) When the troubles 
broke out with Scotland in 1639 he was given 
the command of a troop of horse, * to which 
he was by all men held very equal, having 
had good experience in the most active armies 
of that time, and a courage very notorious' 
(Clarendon, viii. 268). After the retreat 
Irom Berwick in May 1639 O'Neill returned 
to the Netherlands with letters for the queen 
of Bohemia, and is mentioned as a devoted 
servant to Northumberland and Conway. 
When the Scots again took up arms early in 
1640 Sir John Conyers eagerly pressed upon 
O'Neill a command in his regiment (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1639-40, p. 422). 
At the rout of Newburn on 28 Aug. he was 
ordered to protect the rear, but after a sharp 
skirmish was surrounded and taken prisoner, 
being reported as dead. He was well treated 
by the Scottish officers, some of whom he 
had known in the Netherlands, and was re- 
stored to liberty at Riponin October (Baillie, 
Letters, Bannatyne Club, i. 257 ; Nalson, i. 
426; Rushworth, n. ii. 1238; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1640-1, p. 5 ; Cal. Claren- 
don State Papers, ed. Macray, i. 204 ; Wel- 
ford, Newcastle and Qatesheadin Seventeenth 
Century, p. 400). 

During the ensuing winter he was with 
the army in the north of England; early 
next year he made another attempt to re- 
cover his lands by petitioning the House of 
Lords, which referred the matter to the ordi- 
nary courts of law ; the civil war stopped 
further proceedings. At the same time he 
was implicated in the first army plot, being 
early taken into consultation by Percy, Gor- 
ing, and others ; he was also, under the pseu- 
donym ' Louis Lanois,' in communication 
with his relatives in Ulster, who were plan- 
ning the Irish rebellion, and his brother 
Con O'Neill was sent over to secure his ser- 
vices. In May he went down to York in con- 
nection w T ith the second armv plot, to sound 
Conyers and Sir Jacob Astley [q. vj as to 
the possibility of bringing the army to London 



O'Neill 



182 



O'Neill 



(D'Ewes, Diary in Harl. MS. 164, f. 167). 
Neither Conyers nor Astley would hear of 
that plan, and meanwhile the secret com- 
mittee of the House of Commons had re- 
ported on the first plot. On 14 June O'Neill 
was summoned to answer for his share in it, 
but fled from York, and, in spite of his re- 
ported capture in Norfolk, escaped to Brussels 
in safety. 

A committee of the house was appointed 
to inquire into his proceedings, and in August 
his pay was stopped ; in September O'Neill re- 
turned to Wey bridge with Sir John Berkeley, 
and surrendered himself at Pym's house in 
Chelsea during the recess. Alter an exami- 
nation bail was refused, and he was taken 
into custody by the sergeant-at-arms. On 
20 Oct. he was committed to the gatehouse, 
and on 4 Dec. was brought to the bar of the 
house. He pleaded the act of oblivion, but 
this was disallowed ; it was resolved to 
impeach him, and articles of high treason 
were passed on 13 Dec. After further exami- 
nation by the House of Lords, his trial was 
Postponed by a difference between the two 
ouses ; in January 1642 he was removed, on 
the plea of ill-health, to the Tower, whence 
on 6 May he escaped in female attire, and 
made his way to Brussels in spite of pro- 
clamations for his arrest ( Treason Discovered, 
or the Impeachment of Daniel Oneale, 1641 ; 
Oneale'8 Escape out of the Tower, 1642 ; 
Commons' Journals, ii. 175, &c. ; Lords' 
Journals, iv. 399, &c. ; Evelyn, Diary, ed. 
Bray, App. passim). 

On the outbreak of the civil war O'Neill 
returned to England; his first commission 
was that of major in Colonel Osborne's regi- 
ment (Masson, Life of Milton, ii. 442 ; Pea- 
cock, Army Lists, p. 17) ; in October he was 
with Rupert at Abingdon, complaining of 
the bad discipline of his troops (Warbur- 
ton, Prince Rupert, ii. 82). His promotion 
was retarded by Charles I, who could not 
forgive O'Neill's hostility to Strafford. In 
June 1643 he was lighting at Gloucester, 
and on 27 Sept. was at the first battle of 
Newbury. During the winter he was at Ox- 
ford (Carte, Original Letters, &c. i. 26). In 
January 1643-4 he was selected to accom- 
pany Randal MacDonnell, second earl of An- 
trim [q. v.], on his mission to Ormonde, with 
the object of procuring ten thousand Irish 
troops for England and three thousand for 
Scotland. O'Neill was on good terms with 
Ormonde, and had great influence over An- 
trim, with whom he was distantly connected. 
By a court intrigue of Digbv's, detailed at 
great length by Clarendon, 0*Neill was pre- 
vious to his departure made groom of the bed- 
chamber by Charles, under the impression 



that it would be long before he returned to 
assume his duties. He arrived at Kilkenny 
on 23 Feb., and superintended the despatch 
of fifteen hundred troops for Scotland, but 
otherwise the mission was unsuccessful. 

O'Neill had returned to Beaumaris by 
25 June, and joined Rupert's army in time to* 
take part in the battle of Marston Moor on 
2 July; he commanded Rupert's regiment 
of foot (Sanford, Studies of the Great Re- 
bellion, p. 595 ; Markham, Life of Fairfax, 
pp. 161-9). He then joined the army of 
the west, at Bath, on 17 July, and marched 
into Devonshire ' Essex-hunting ' (O'Neill to> 
Trevor in Carte, Original Letters, i. 58-61); 
he was present in September when Essex 
allowed nimself to be surrounded in Corn- 
wall, and fought at the second battle of New- 
bury on 27 Oct. He was again at Oxford 
during the winter, and fought at Naseby on 
14 June 1645; he was then directed, on 
27 June, to proceed to Falmouth to procure 
ships, probably in order to secure a retreat 
for Prince Charles (Husband, A Collection 
of Ordinances, 1646, pp. 855-6 ; Ludlow, 
Memoirs, ed. 1753, iii. 306). Thence he was 
sent with a letter of recommendation from 
Charles I to Ormonde, and landed at Pas- 
sage, co. Waterford, on 24 Aug. 

For the next few years O'lSeill was prin- 
cipally engaged in fruitless negotiations be- 
tween his uncle Owen Roe and Ormoude, 
and in endeavours to save the royalist cause 
in Ireland. In 1647 he was treating with 
Sir James Turner and the Scots (Turner, 
Memoirs, Bannatyne Club, p. 47); and in 
October of the same year he was despatched 
by Ormonde to seek aid at St. Germains, 
when he took part, as second, in the duel 
between Digby and Wilmot (O'Neill to Or- 
monde in Carte, Original Letters,!. 146-59). 
Returning to Ireland, he was made governor 
of Ormonde's horse-guards, and served with. 
Castlehaven in Carlow (Castlehaven, Me- 
moirs, ed. 1753, pp. 87, &c.) In July 1649, 
as governor of Trim, he defended that town 
against the parliamentarians, and in the 
autumn he brought to a successful issue the 
fresh negotiations with Owen Roe, which 
had been started early in the year. Soon 
after he was sent with two thousand foot 
and four hundred horse to recover places in 
Down and Antrim, but retired on finding 
the country completely in the power of the 
parliamentarians. O'Neill was now promoted 
major-general, a step which subsequently 
formed one of the charges brought by the 
bishops against Ormonde (Cox, Hibemia 
Angl. vol. ii.) For a short time during his 
uncle's illness he actually commanded the 
Ulster army, being the only man from whom 



O'Neill 



183 



O'Neill 



its various sections were willing to receive 
orders ( The Marquess of Ormondes Answer 
to the Declaration, &c, in Cox, vol. ii.) He 
endeavoured to bring the army to Ormonde's 
assistance while Cromwell was marching on 
Wexford. Owen Roe died on 6 Nov. Daniel 
was proposed as his successor, and the nobility 
and gentry were generally in his favour ; he 
was also supported by Ormonde, but as a 
protestant he was obnoxious to the papal 
party, and Heber or Emer MacMahon [q. v.], 
bishop of Clogher, who had promised, if 
elected general, to hand over the command 
to O'Neill, made his conversion an absolute 
condition (Henry O'Neill's Diary in Lodge, 
Desiderata Cur. Hib. ; Carte, Life of Or- 
monde, iii. 532). O'Neill declined to abjure 
his faith ; the royalist cause in Ireland was 
now hopeless, and O'Neill sought terms from 
Ireton, who gave him permission to enlist 
five thousand Irish troops for the service of 
Spain or the States-General (O'Neill to the 
Marchioness of Ormonde in Cabte, Original 
Letters, i. 384-90). 

O'Neill arrived at the Hague just in time 
to accompany Charles II, who embarked at 
Terheyden on 2 June 1650 for Scotland. As 
in the case of most of Charles's followers, his 
expulsion had been already voted bv the 
Scottish parliament. Falling into the hands 
of the Scots, he was accordingly expelled, 
but was first forced to sign a document con- 
senting to his death if ever he returned. In 
October he was back at the Hague pressing 
his services upon the Spanish ambassador. 
He stipulated for the command of all the 
Irish in the Spanish dominions, with the rank 
of colonel-general. This was apparently re- 
fused; and after a visit to Paris, O'Neill, in 
April 1651, again joined Charles in Scotland 
(Nicoll, Diary of Transactions, Bannatyne 
Club, p. 62). Charles was now practically j 
at liberty to choose his own followers. 
O'Neill remained in Scotland throughout the : 
summer, and joined in the Scottish invasion 
of England ; he was at Penrith on 8 Aug., 
but he ridiculed the idea of invading Eng- ; 
land while Charles was utterly unable to 
hold Scotland (Cary, Memorials of the Civil 
War, ii. 305). After the battle of Worces- 
ter on 3 Sept. he made his escape to the 
Netherlands. 

From this time he was the busiest of the 
exiled intriguers, and his journeys in Hol- 
land, Flanders, France, and Germany were 
incessant. He was principally attached to 
the princess royal, but as groom of the bed- 
chamber to Charles II his influence was con- 
siderable ; at one time Nicholas complained 
that O'Neill directed all the correspondence 
of the court. In 1652 he was in England ; 



in March 1654-5 he paid another visit to 
estimate the prospects of a royalist rising 
Landing at Dover, he proceeded to London, 
where, after interviewing the principal 
royalists, he was arrested, but soon made his 
escape to Holland. In the same year his 
expulsion from France was stipulated in the 
treaty between Cromwell and Mazarin. In 
February 1657-8 he set out with Ormonde 
from Cologne, landed at Westmarch in Essex, 
and, leaving Ormonde at Chelmsford, pro- 
ceeded to London, whence he returned in 
safety to Flanders. In August 1659 he ac- 
companied Charles through France to Fuen- 
tarabia, and returned with him to Brussels 
in November. 

At the Restoration O'Neill received nu- 
merous rewards for his loyal exertions ; he 
was made captain of the king's own troop 
of horse-guards, became M.P. for St. Ives, 
and was admitted a member of Gray's Inn. 
His numerous grants of land, in London and 
elsewhere, included one of fourteen hundred 
feet in length and twenty-three feet broad 
between St. James's Park and Pall Mall ; he 
was also sole manufacturer of gunpowder to 
the crown, and accountant for the regulation 
of alehouses. He received a pension of 500/. 
and a grant of the profits of all mines north 
of the Trent, the working of which he had 
investigated as early as 1641 (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1641-3, pp. 12, 13, 1660-1). 
In March 1662-3 he became postmaster- 
general ; he paid 21,500/. annually for the 
lease, in return for which he had a monopoly 
of carrying letters, with liberty to make as 
much as he could from it provided he ad- 
hered rigidly to the rates fixed by parliament ; 
he was also empowered to make contracts 
with foreign postmasters for the transmission 
of letters abroad (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1661, &c. ; Jotce, Hist, of Post Office, pp. 
33-4). With the wealth he thus acquired he 
built Belsize House, Hampstead, ' at vast ex- 
pense ' (Evelyn, Diary, ed. Bray, ii. 106) ; 
he also had a country house at Boughton- 
Malherbe, Kent. He died on 24 Oct. 1664. 
Charles II, writing to the Duchess of Orleans, 
said : ' This morning poor O'Neill died of an 
ulcer in the guts ; he was as honest a man 
as ever lived. I am sure I have lost a good 
servant by it.' Pepys writes : * This day the 
great Oneale died ; I believe to the content 
of all the Protestant pretenders in Ireland ' 
(Diary, ed. Wheatley, iv. 273-4; cf. also 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1664-5, pp. 43, 49 ; 
Edward Savage to Dr. Sancroft in Karl. MS. 
3785. f. 19). He was buried in Boughton- 
Malherbe church, and his tomb was subse- 
quently removed within the altar rails, but it 
no longer exists; a full inscription on it stated 



O'Neill 



184 



O'Neill 



that he died in 1663, aged 60, both of which 
assertions are erroneous. 

Clarendon draws an elaborate portrait of 
O'Neill : * A great observer and discerner of 
men's natures and humours, and very dex- 
terous in compliance when he found it use- 
ful/ he had, * by a marvellous dexterity in 
his nature, an extraordinary influence ' over 
those with whom he was brought in contact. 
Naturally inclined *to ease and luxury, his 
industry was indefatigable when his honour 
required it, or his particular interest; * * he 
was in subtlety and understanding much 
superior to the whole nation of the old Irish' 
■ — qualities which earned him the nickname 
of * Infallible Subtle/ and the distinction of 
being the first Irishman to occupy a conspi- 
cuous position at the court and in the Eng- 
lish administration. In 1(542 he was described 
as being 'of a sanguine complexion, of a 
middle stature, light brown hair, about the 
age of thirty years, little or no beard.* A 
number of letters from O'Neill are printed in 
the works mentioned below, especially Carte's 
'Collection of Original Letters/ the Claren- 
don State Papers/ and Gilbert's ' Contem- 
porary History of Affairs;' many letters, 
memoranda, and plans are among the Carte 
MSS. in the Bodleian Library. 

He married Catherine, eldest daughter of 
Thomas, second baron Wotton, and widow 
of (1) Henry, second baron Stanhope, by 
whom she was mother of Philip, second 
earl of Chesterfield; and (2) John Polian- 
der Kirckhoven, lord of Henfleet, Holland, 
by whom she had Charles Henry, subse- 
quently created Baron Wotton and Earl of 
Bellamont. For her services at court she 
was created Countess of Chesterfield for 
life ; she died in 1666, and was buried at 
Boughton-Malherbe. O'Neill had no issue 
by her, to whom he left all his wealth ; but 
apparently he had by a previous marriage a 
son Harry, whom he educated as a protes- 
tant ; nothing more is known of him, and he 
probably died young. 

[There is considerable confusion in the O'Neill 
genealogy, and O'Hart makes two persons of 
Daniel O'Neill, giving each a separate pedigree. 
For the genealogy and for Con O'Neill see Cal. 
State Papers, Irish Ser. 1603-6, passim; Laud's 
Works, ed. 1860, vii. 226 ; Montgomery MSS. ed. 
Hill, p. 41 ; Reeves's Eccl. Antiq. of Down, Con- 
nor, and Dromore, pp. 343-7 ; Morrin's Cal. Pa- 
tent Rolls (Charles I), passim ; Ulster Journ. of 
Archaeology, in, 135, &c. ; Richey's Lectures on 
Irish Hist. ii. 464-72; Lodge's Peerage, ed. 
Archdall, iii. 2-4 ; O'Hart s Irish Pedigrees, ed. 
1887, i. 724, 734. For Daniel O'Neill see, be- 
sides authorities quoted, Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
passim; Hist, MSS. Comm. Appendices to 3rd 
Rep. p. 429, 4th Rep. passim, 6th Rep. passim, 



6th Rep. p. 771 6, 7th Rep. pp. 74, 456, 9th and 
10th Rep. passim, 12th Rep. ix. 264, 495, 13th 
Rep. v. 99 ; Nalson, Rushworth, and Thurloe's 
Collections, throughout ; Journals of the Lords 
and Commons for 1641-2 ; Clarendon *s Hist, of 
the Rebellion; Clarendon Sute Papers, ed. 
1786, vol. iii. and Cal. by Macray, passim; 
Strafford Papers, passim ; Nicholas Papers 
(Camden Soc), passim; Hatton Corr. (Camden 
Soc), i. 42 ; The Kind's Packet of Letters, 1645, 
pp. 8-11 ; D'Ewes's Diary in Harl. MS. 164, f. 
1676; Pythouse Papers, ed. Day, pp. lv-lvii, 25; 
Lloyd's Memoi rs, 1 668, pp. 664-5 ; Burton's Diary, 
ed. Rutt, vol. i. p. cxxxviii ; The Warr of Ireland, 
p. 114; Sir John Temple's Hist, of the Rebellion, 
1646, p. 74; Borlase's Hist, of the Execrable 
Rebellion, 1662, pp. 152, 227; Col. Henry 
O'Neills Diary in Lodge's Desiderata Curiosa 
Hibernica, ii. 492, &c. ; Castlehaven's Memoirs, 
ed. 1753, pp. 53, 87 ; Rinuccini's Embassy in 
Ireland, ed, Huphes, p. 325 ; Pepys's Diary, ed. 
Wheatley, ii. 274, iv. 273-4, ed. Braybrooke, i. 
279, ii. 175; Evelyn's Diary, ed. Bray, passim; 
Cox's Hibernia Anglicana, vol. ii. App. pp. 179, 
191, 202 ; Somers Tracts, v. 654 ; Rapin's Hist. 
of England, ii. 400; Carte's Life of Ormonde, 
throughout, especially vol. iii. and Letters, &c, 
throughout; Dalrymple's Memorials of Great 
Britain and Ireland, ii.27 App.; Laud's Works, 
ed. 1860, vol. vii. 122.226-7; Warburtona Prince 
Rupert and Rupert MSS. ; Gilbert's Confedera- 
tion and War, and Cont. Hist, of Affairs, through- 
out; Gardiner's Hist of England, vols. ix. and x , 
Civil War, and Commonwealth, vol. i. passim ; 
Cary's Memorials of the Civil War, ii. 126, 164 ; 
Leland's Hist, of Ireland, vol. iii.; George Hill'* 
Montgomery MSS. and Macdonnells of Antrim ; 
Joyce's Hist, of the Post Office, pp. 33-4; Ulster 
Journal of Archa?o'ogy, ii. 57, iv. 37, v. 275, &c; 
Official Returns of Members of Pari. ; Dircks's 
Life of the Marquis of Worcester, 1865, p. 113; 
Foster's Register of Gray's Inn, p. 291 ; Peer- 
ages by Burke (Extinct). Collins, iii, 316, and 
Lodge, ed. Archdall ; Ha>ted's Kent, ii, 431, 437 ; 
Dalton's English Army Lists, 1661-1714, i. 4-5; 
Notes and Queries, 6th ser. ii. 48.] A. F. P. 

O'NEILL, ELIZA (1791-1872), actress. 
[See Becher, Eliza, Lady.] 

O'NEILL, Sir FELIM (1604P-1653). 
[See O'Neill, Sir Phelim.] 

O'NEILL, FLAITHBHEARTACH (d. 
1036), king of Ailech, son of Muircheartach 
(d. 943) [q. v.], and grandson of Niall (870 ?- 
919) [q. v.J, is^sometimes called Flaithbhear- 
tach an trostain, i.e. of the pilgrim's staff— a 
name given to him because he went on a pil- 
grimage to Rome. He first appears in the 
chronicles in 1004, when he ravaged the dis- 
trict of Lethchathail, now Lecale,co. Down, 
and then part of the kingdom of Lesser Ulster 
or Ulidia. He slew the king of Lethchathail, 
and in a second battle overthrew the Uli- 



O'Neill 



185 



O'Neill 



dians and killed the heir of the chief of the 
Ui Eathach, their allies. In 1005 he plun- 
dered Conaille Murtheimhne, a level district 
of Louth, but was attacked and defeated with 
great loss by Maelseachlainn II [cj. v.], king 
of Ireland ; but next year he again invaded 
Ulidia, and slew another lord of Lethchathail, 
Cuuladh Mac Aenghasa, taking home seven 
hostages. In 1008 he plundered the rich 
plain called Magh Breagh, in the south of 
Meath, and in 1010, in alliance with Munster- 
men under Murchadh, son of Brian (926- 
1014) [q. v.], king of Ireland, and with some 
of the southern O'Neills from Meath, he at- 
tacked Cinel Luighdheach, now the barony 
of Kilmacrenan, co. Donegal, then the patri- 
mony of the O'Donnells, and carried off three 
hundred cows. Later in the year he demolished 
Dun Eathach, a fortress in Ulidia. He invaded 
the Cinel Conaill as far as Moy, co. Donegal, 
in 1012, and later marched right through it 
to Drumcliff, co. Sligo. In his absence, Mael- 
seachlainn invaded Tyrone, but retired, and 
Flaithbheartach attacked the Ards, co. Down, 
and again obtained a great spoil from the 
Ulidians. In 1013 he attacked Meath by 
way of Maighin attaed, a place not hitherto 
identified, but which is clearly Moynalty, 
co. Meath, since the chronicle adds, ' i ttaobh 
Ceanannsa ' (near Kells), a phrase which, by 
a misprint in O'Donovan's translation of the 
'Annals of the Four Masters/ is rendered 
' by the son of Cenanus/ The pass by which 
the U lstermen came down may still be traced 
in the hills on the right bank of the river 
Borora, which here divides Cavan from 
Meath. He slew Muireadhach Ua Duibh- 
eoin, chief of Ui Micuaisbreagh in Meath, in 
1017, and in 1018 was at war with Mael- 
seachlainn, the king of Ireland. Next 
year he again ravaged O'DonnelFs country. 
He was defeated by the people of Magh 
Breagh in 1025, but again invaded Meath in 
1026. In 1030 he went on a pilgrimage to 
Rome, and came back in 1031. It was a 
year of plenty, and he was able to lead a 
force into Inishowen. In 1036 he died, ' 
' iar ndeighbheathaidh agus iar bpennain ' 1 
(* after a good life and penance '), says the \ 
chronicle. He had two sons : Domhnall, who 
died in 1027; and Muireadhach, who was 
slain by the Ui Labhradha, a sept of the , 
Ulidians, in 1039. 

[Annala Rioghachta Eireann, ed. O'DonovaD, 
vol. ii.; Annals of Ulster (noils Ser.), ed. Hen- 
nessy and MacCarthv ; Annals of Loch Ce (Rolls 
Ser.), ed. Hcunessy.] N. M. 

O'NEILL, HENRY (d. 1392), Irish chief, 
called by Irish writers Enri aimhreidh or 
the Contentious, was son of Niall mor O'Neill, 



chief of the Cinel Eoghain, son of Aedh 
reamhar or the Fat, also chief, who died in 
1364, and was descended from Brian O'Neill, 
who was slain at the battle of Down in 1260, 
and was twelfth in descent from Muirchear- 
I tach (d. 943) [q.v.], son of Niall (870P-919) 
[q.v.] These points of descent explain seve- 
ral references to him in poetry. Some verses 
by Brian ruadh Mac Conmidhe [q. v.] in the 

Soem ' Temair gach baile i mbi ri ' (' Any 
emesne whatever in which there is a king 
may justly be held to be Tara'), addressed 
to Henry O'Neill (d. 1489) [q. v.], great- 
nephew of Enri aimhreidh, suggest that the 
Irish Enri is not Henricus, but enri, sole king. 
Enri aimhreidh is the earliest O'Neill of the 
name. The * Annals of Loch C6 ' state that 
he was called the Contentious by antiphrasis 
because he was so peace-loving. His de- 
scendants were among the most turbulent 
of the Ulstermen. He lived at Ardsratha, 
now called Ardstraw, co. Tyrone, not far 
from Strabane, where a gateway, flanked by 
towers and other fragments of his castle, is 
still to be seen, at the foot of Slieve Truim, 
a mountain often marked on maps as Bessy 
Bell. He never became chief of Cinel 
Eoghain, as he died in 1392, before his elder 
brother, Niall 6g, whose son, Owen Eoghan, 
is noticed separately. Enri married his 
cousin Aiffric, daughter of Aedh O'Neill. 
She died in 1389, having borne him six sons: 
Domhnall, Brian, Niall, Ruaidhri, Seaan, and 
Enri. The six sons, their followers, and de- 
scendants formed a sept known as Clann Enri, 
and afterwards as Sliocht Enri aimhreidh, 
most of whose lands at the plantation of Ul- 
ster became the property of the Earl of Aber- 
corn. Domhnall was taken by the English in 
1399, and sent a prisoner to England, but was 
ransomed in 1401, and in 1403 became chief 
of Cinel Eoghain. He was slain at Keenaght, 
co. Derry, by Domhnall and Aibhne O'Cahan 
in 1432. Brian made an expedition into 
Donegal in 1401. He was met by the Cinel 
Conaill under Toirdhealbhach, son of Niall 
garbh O'Donnell, and hard pressed while 
driving off his spoil of cattle. At last he was 
surrounded, and after killing Enri O'Gairm- 
leaghaidh with one stroke of his sword, was 
himself killed by Toirdhealbhach O'Donnell. 

[Annala Ricghachta Eireann, ed. O'Donovan, 
vols. iii. and iv. ; Bishop William Reeves's Acts 
of Archbishop Colton, Dublin. 1850 ; Annals of 
Loch Ce, ed. Hennessy, vol. ii. (Rolls Ser.) ; Fitz- 
gerald's Statistical Account of Ardstraw ; Lewis's 
Topographical Diet, of Ireland, vol. i.; Egerton 
MS. Ill (Brit. Mus.),fol. 38 b.] N. M. 

O'NEILL, HENRY (d. 1489), chief of 
Cinel Eoghain, called in Irish Enri Mac 
Eoghain UaNeill, was son of Owen or Eoghan 



O'Neill 



1 86 



O'Neill 



O'Neill [q. v.] and his wife Caitriona, daugh- 
ter of Ardghal MacMahon, and was twentieth 
in descent from Niall (870P-919) [q. v.], king 
of Ireland. He was a young man in 1431, 
when he was taken prisoner by Neachtan 
O'Donnell, who released him as one of the 
conditions of a peace with Eoghan O'Neill. In 
1436 Neachtan O'Donnell, in alliance with 
Brian 6g O'Neill, decided to attack Eoghan 
O'Neill and his sons Enri and Eoghan 6g. As 
soon as the news arrived, Eoghan, with Enri 
and his brother, marched into the heart of 
O'Donnell's country by the pass now known 
as the bridge of Duchary to the Rosses, the dis- 
trict between the Gweebara and Gweedore, 
co. Donegal, and there encamped. That a hos- 
tile army was able to live there shows that 
the district can hardly have been less produc- 
tive then than it is now. O'Donnell attacked 
the O'Neills, drove them out, and occupied 
the camp. Enri O'Neill, after a short retreat, 
made a speech to his clansmen and to his 
gallowglasses, or hired men at arms, the Mac- 
Donnells, and again led them against the 
camp. He led the assault, and drove O'Don- 
nell out. Mac Suibhne of Fanad, leader of 
the gallowglasses of O'Donnell, obstinately 
resisted MacDonnell, and seems to have led 
off his men in good order. He retreated 
eastwards, probably with the intention of 
marching north along the Foyle, and so 
reaching Fanad, but was overtaken near 
Slieve Truim, co. Tyrone, by Enri O'Neill. 
In the action which ensued MacSuibhne was 
defeated and taken prisoner. Brian O'Neill 
tried to get into favour by giving up O'Don- 
nell's castle of Ballyshannon, and coming to 
O'Neill with his two sons. O'Neill cut off 
one foot and one hand from each, and one 
of the sons died at once. In 1439 he marched 
to Portora on Lough Erne, and released the 
chief of the Maguires, who had been made a 
prisoner in his own castle by one of his 
vassals. With some English allies he again 
defeated Neachtan O'Donnell in 1442, and 
obtained from him Castle Finn, co. Donegal, 
the territory of Cinel Moain, and the tribute 
of Inishowen. In the same year he fought 
for MacQuillin against Aedh Buidh O'Neill, 
and in 1444 sustained a severe defeat fight- 
ing with MacQuillin against O'Neill of Clane- 
boy, co. Down, and had to give up his son 
Aedh as a hostage. He again helped Mac- 
Quillin in 1460, and in the same year his 
son Niall was slain while on a foray by his 
cousin Enri, great-grandson of Enri aimh- 
reidh. He aided his father in 1452 in ob- 
taining an eric from MacMahon, who had 
slain MacDonnell, the chief of O'Neill's gal- 
lowglasses. Enri O'Neill had married the 
daughter of MacMurchadha, a stepsister of 



the Earl of Ormonde, but had for some time 
been living with the daughter of Mac Wil- 
liam Burke, widow of Neachtan O'Donnell. 
The Earl of Ormonde marched against him, 
and compelled him to send away Bain- 
treabhach O'Donnell, and to take back his 
lawful wife. He deposed his father, who 
was probably in a state of senile decay, in 
1465, and was inaugurated O'Neill at Tulla- 
hoge, in the presence of the Archbishop of 
Armagh and of all the O'Neills. He went 
to war with the O'Donnells in 1466, and 
established Toirdhealbhach Cairbrech as their 
chief, with whom in 1468 he successfully 
plundered Lower Connaught and Breifne. 
In 1459 he tried, with English allies, to take 
the castle of Omagh from the Sliocht Airt 
Ui Neill, but failed, and made peace with 
them. The king of England sent him forty- 
eight yards of scarlet cloth, a chain of gold, 
and other presents in 1463, thus recognising- 
him a chief king of the Irish. In 1464 he 
plundered and burned Donegal as far as 
Ballyshannon, and in 1467 ravaged Oireacht 
Ui Cathain or O'Cahan's country, co. Derry. 
His alliance with MacQuillin still subsisted, 
and they invaded Claneboy in 1470, and 
captured the castle of Sgathdeirge on Sket- 
rick Island in Strangford Lough. In 1471, 
after a siege of six months, he took the castle 
of Omagh, and later in the year plundered 
Tirbreasail, co. Donegal. Five years later 
he again attacked the O'Neills of Claneboy, 
and demolished their castle of Belfast. In 
1479 and 1480 he plundered Donegal. These 
were his last expeditions, and in 1483 he had 
his son Con inaugurated chief of the Cinel 
Eoghain in his stead, and after six years of 
retirement died in 1489. The poet Brian 
ruadh Mac Conmidhe [q. v.], who also praised 
his enemy, Neachtan O'Donnell, praises him 
as chief king of the Irish in a poetical 
address of which there is a late copy in the 
British Museum (Egerton MS. 111). 

[Annala Rioghachta Eireann, ed. O'Donovan, 
vol. iv. ; Annals of Loch Ce, ed. Hennessy, 
vol. ii. ; Transactions of Iber no-Celtic Soc. 
(O'Reilly), Dublin, 1820 ; S. H. O'Grady's Cat. of 
Irish MSS. in British Museum.] *N. M. 

O'NEILL, HENRY (1800-1880^, Irish 
archaeologist, born at Dundalk in 1800, issued 
two works which are held in high estima- 
tion by Irish antiquaries. The first of these, 
entitled * The Most Interesting of the sculp- 
tured Crosses of Ancient Ireland, drawn to 
scale and lithographed by II. O'Neill,' an im- 

fierial folio, containing thirty-six fine tinted 
ithographs with descriptive letterpress and 
an essay on ancient Irish art, was published 
by the author, London, 1857. It was fol- 
lowed by * The Fine Arts and Civilisation of 



O'Neill 



187 



O'Neill 



Ancient Ireland, illustrated with chromo and 
other lithographs, and several woodcuts/ 
London, 1 863. This ambitious work attempts 
to prove the existence of advanced civilisa- 
tion in Ireland at a prehistoric period, and 
to refute the conclusions of Dr. George Petrie 
[q. v.] in his ' Ecclesiastical Architecture of 
Ireland ' (1846). O'Neill maintained that 
the round towers were of pagan origin, but 
this view is now discredited ; nor have his 
other contentions borne the test of criticism 
as well as those which he attacked. He also 
wrote in 1808 a brochure claiming * Ireland 
for the Irish ' and attacking ' landlordism. ' 
His last production was a lithograph, with 
a careful description of the twelfth-century 
metal cross known as the * Cross of Cong.' 
O'Neill died at 109 Lower Gardiner Street, 
Dublin, on 21 Dec. 1880, in the same year 
as his namesake the artist, Henry Nelson 
O'Neil [q. v.], leaving a family in straitened 
circumstances. 

[Irish Times, 24 Dec. 1880 ; Athenaeum, 1881, 
i. 27 (where, and also in the Academy, O'Neill is 
wrongly credited with a separate work on the 
Round Towers) ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

O'NEILL, HUGH (d. 1230), lord of Cinel 
Eoghain, often called less accurately lord of 
Tyrone, was perhaps a son of the Aedh or 
Hugh O'Neill whom the * Annals of Ulster' 
relate to have been slain in 1 177. The younger 
Hugh O'Neill seems to have become chief of 
the Cinel Eoghain about 1197. In 1199, 
while John de Courci was plundering in Ty- 
rone, Hugh went to some place near Larne, 
and was in the act of burning the town when 
the English took him by surprise. Hugh, 
however, defeated the English, and so forced 
De Courci to come back from Tyrone. Later 
in the same year O'Neill was engaged in war- 
fare with the Cinel Connell and O'Heignigh 
the chief of Fermanagh, but in the end some 
sort of peace was made. In 1201 Hugh and 
O'Heignigh went to help Cathal O'Connor 
(1160 P-l 224) [q. v.l in Connaught against 
Cathal Carrach and William Burke [see 
under Fitzaldhelm, William]. They raided 
as far as Tebohine in co. Roscommon ; but 
when Cathal Crobhderg wanted to proceed 
against Cathal Carrach and William Burke, 
the northern Irish refused, and turned home- 
wards. Burke and Cathal Carrach pursued 
them, and overtook them near Ballysadare. 
At first the men of Connaught would not 
join battle, but eventually they defeated and 
slew O'Heignigh, and compelled H ugh to give 
hostages to Cathal Carrach. It was perhaps 
in consequence of this defeat that Hugh was 
deposed Dy the Cinel Eoghain in favour of a 
MacLochlainn. O'Neill, however, soon re- 



covered his lordship ; in 1207 Hugh deLacy, 
earl of Ulster [q. v.], made a raid into Tyrone, 
but could exact no pledges from O'Neill. In 
1209 Hugh O'Neill was plundering Inish- 
owen, and had a great fight with the elder 
0'Donnel,but eventually the two made peace, 
and united against the English. In 1211 Hugh 
defeated the English at Narrow- Water in co. 
Down, and next year repulsed an invasion of 
Tyrone by John de Gray, and afterwards 
burnt the castle of Clones, which the justiciar 
had lately erected. In 1214 he defeated the 
English with great slaughter, and burnt Car- 
lingford, and next year was again raiding in 
Ulster. In 1222 Hugh de Lacy returned to 
Ireland against the king's consent, and, join- 
ing with Hugh O'Neill, destroyed the castle 
of Coleraine, and ravaged Meath and Lein- 
ster. O'Neill also supported De Lacy in his 
later warfare, which led to the despatch of 
William Marshal, second earl of Pembroke 
and Striguil [q. v.], to Ireland in 1224. In 
1225 O Neill went to the aid of the sons of 
Roderic O'Connor (1116-1198) [q. v.lagainst 
Hugh, son of Cathal O'Connor callea Croibh- 
dhearg [q. v.], and set up Turlough O'Connor, 
Roderic s third son, as prince of Connaught. 
O'Neill himself evaded the English, but Tur- 
lough was soon expelled and forced to take 
refuge in Tyrone. Hugh O'Neill died a natu- 
ral death in 1230, though he was 'the person 
that it was least thought would find death 
otherwise than by the foreigners ' {Annals of 
Ulster, ii. 28o). 

The Irish annalists speak of Hugh O'Neill 
with much exaggeration, as * a king who had 
never rendered nostages, pledges, or tribute 
to English or Irish ; who had gained victories 
over the English, and cut them off with great 
slaughter ; who had never been expelled or 
exiled, and was the most hospitable and de- 
fensive that had come of the Irish for a long 
period ' (Annals of Kilronan). The * Annals 
of Loch C6 ' call Hugh the * most generous 
king and very best man that had come of the 
men of Erinn for a long time.' Hugh O'Neill 
is spoken of as ' worthy future arch-king of 
Ireland ' (Annals of Ulster, ii. 285) ; and in 
a solitary reference to him in the English re- 
cords, he is said to have styled himself king of 
all the Irish of Ireland ( Calendar of Docu- 
ments relating to Ireland, i. No. 1840). In 
the same place reference is made to his having 
been brought into the English king's peace. 

[Annals of the Four Masters, ed. O'Donovan ; 
Annals of Loch Ce (Rolls Ser.), and Annals of 
Ulster, ed. Heuncssy (the dates are given in 
accordance with the Ulster Annals; the chrono- 
logy of the Annals of the Four Masters is gene- 
rally ayear earlier) ; Webb's Irish Biography, pp. 
405-6.] : C. L. K. 



O'Neill 



188 



O'Neill 



O'NEILL, HUGH, third Baron of Dun- 
gannon and second Earl of Tyrone (1540?- 
1616), the second son of Mathew or Fe- 
doragh O'Neill, first baron of Dungannon, the 
reputed son of Con O'Neill, first earl of Ty- 
rone [q. v.], was born about 1640. After 
the murder of his elder brother Brian by 
Turlough Luineach O'Neill [q. v.], on 12 April 
1662, he became Baron of Hungannon, and, 
being taken under the special protection of 
the state, was for greater security removed 
to England. Beyond the fact recorded by 
Gainsforde that 'he trooped in the streets of 
London with sufficient equipage and orderly 
respect,' nothing particular is known of his 
life at court, though from certain expressions 
in his letters it seems probable that he at- 
tached himself to the household of the Earl 
of Leicester. After the death of Shane 
O'Neill [q. v.l in June 1567, and the inaugu- 
ration of Turlough Luineach as O'Neill, go- 
vernment began to regard Hugh as a sort of 
counterpoise to the latter. He returned to 
Ireland early in 1568, and was established 
by Sir Henry Sidney in that part of Tyrone 
which corresponds with the modern county 
of Armagh. At first he found it no easy 
matter, even with the assistance of Sir Ni- 
cholas Bagenal, to maintain himself against 
O'Neill, who, on one occasion, was said to have 
robbed him of thirty thousand head of cattle, 
and is believed to have instigated more than 
one attempt to murder him. In 1574 he as- 
sisted Walter Devereux, earl of Essex [q. v.], 
against Sir Brian Mac Phelim O'Neill, and 
the earl spoke strongly in favour of advanc- 
ing him to the earldom of Tyrone. But 
after the failure of Essex's enterprise, feeling 
that he was unequally matched against Tur- 
lough, he accepted his overtures for a recon- 
ciliation, and was reported to be about to 
marry his daughter. 

The government strongly remonstrated 
against this change of policy; and Hugh 
was easily dissuaded from pursuing it be- 
cause Turlough's age and ill-nealth rendered 
it probable that his death was at hand. In 
that event Turlough's position as O'Neill 
would fall into Hugh's hands in the natu- 
ral course of events. But Sir William 
Drury, who thought he detected in Hugh an 
ambition to follow in the footsteps of his 
predecessors, advised, as a further precau- 
tion, that Henry MacShane O'Neill, one 
of Shane's sons, should be maintained as a 
check on him. After returning to his alle- 
giance, Hugh wrote piteously on 3 Sept. 1580 
to the lord deputy, Arthur, lord Grey of 
Wilton, that he had been driven by Turlough 
to take refuge in the woods, and that unless 
he was speedily relieved he would be com- 



pelled to submit to him. Later in the year 
he was given a troop of horse, and served 
against the Earl of Desmond in Munster. 
Subsequently, in January 1582, he did good 
service by capturing John Cusack, of Allis- 
ton-read, co. Meath, who had taken a promi- 
nent part in the rebellion of William N ugent 
[q. v.] The fact that, on a report of Tur- 
lough Luineach's supposed death during a 
drunken debauch in May 1583, he rode post- 
haste to the stone at Tulloghoge, with the 
intention of having himself elected O'Neill, 
does not appear to have come to the ears of 
government, or, if it did, did not shake their 
confidence in him ; for about this time the 
defence of the northern marches was en- 
trusted to him, and the appointment was 
confirmed from England. But Sir Nicholas 
White and Sir Nicholas Bagenal agreed that 
the state was raising up for itself a formidable 
enemy, and that he would never rest satisfied 
with less than Shane possessed. Their 
opinion received some confirmation from a 
rumour early in 1584 that he had been elected 
tanist, and that he, Turlough, and O'Donnell 
had arrived at an understanding. 

But whatever the object of the combination 
may have been, it ceased to exist, or at any rate 
sank into abeyance, on the arrival of Sir John 
Perrot. Dungannon's name is attached to an 
order for a general hosting issued on 22 June, 
and he accompanied Perrot on his expedition 
against the Ulster Scots. His request to be 
admitted Earl of Tyrone was allowed, and 
he sat by that title in the parliament of 1585. 
About the same time Turlough, at Perrot's 
instance, consented to an arrangement by 
which Tyrone was put in possession of that 
portion of Tyrone which lies between the 
Blackwater and the Mullaghcarne moun- 
tains, at an annual rent of one thousand 
marks, to which Perrot added the command 
of all the urraghs or vassal chiefs lying be- 
tween the Pale and Slieve Gullion. The ar- 
rangement, which was to hold good for seven 
years, but to be terminable at Turlough's 
option at the end of three, worked badly 
froin the first. Tyrone's treatment of Sir 
Hugh Magennis, one of his iirraghs, aroused 
suspicion as to his ulterior intentions, and in 
January 1587 it was noted that * generally 
all men of rank within the province are be- 
come his men, receive his wages, and pro- 
mise him service according to the usual 
manner of that country.' With Turlough 
Luineach, his only really formidable rival, he 
was on particularly bad terms. Accusations 
of aggressions on the one side, of non-pay- 
ment of rent on the other, were bandied to 
and fro. In March Tyrone obtained permis- 
sion to go to England to petition for a regrant 



O'Neill 



189 



O'Neill 



of all the lands contained in the patent granted 
by Henry VIII to his reputed grandfather 
Con. But the government thought enough 
had already been conceded to him, and he 
was obliged to accept a patent which prac- 
tically confirmed the settlement arrived at 
by Perrot. 

Returning to Ireland, Tyrone was soon 
involved in fresh disputes with Turlough 
and Sir Ros MacMahon. In March 1588 
Perrot, who was beginning to lose con- 
fidence in his professions of loyalty, pro- 
claimed a general hosting against him ; but 
Tyrone at once submitted, went to Dublin, 
and put in two of his best pledges as guaran- 
tee to keep the peace. Commissioners Ben- 
yon and Alerriman were sent to settle his 
differences with Turlough, but he resented 
their intrusion, and in April invaded Tur- 
lough's territory with a large army. He took 
Turlough by surprise, and harried his country 
up to tne very walls of Strabane. But at 
Carricklea, on 1 May, he was utterly routed by 
the combined efforts of Turlough, Niall Garv 
O'Donnell [q. v.], and Hugh Mac Deaganach, 
and forced to seek safety in flight. The news 
of his defeat was received with great satis- 
faction in Dublin. ' Nothing/ according to 
Perrot, * had done so much good in the north 
these nine years.' But it required some- 
thing like a threat of instant war to compel 
him to desist from attempting to revenge his 
defeat by a fresh invasion. Later in the 
year Turlough took advantage of the pro- 
viso in his agreement to demand the restora- 
tion of his lands between the Mullaghcarne 
mountains and the Blackwater. The privy 
council were inclined to concede his demand; 
but Tyrone swore he would lose his life 
sooner than surrender them. Lord-deputy 
Fitzwilliam was afraid that Shane O'Neill's 
sons, who had found a patron in Turlough, 
and had a strong following in the country, 
would seize the opportunity to assert their 
claims. Turlough was consequently induced 
in May 1589 to waive his demand, and to 
consent to a renewal of the lease for the 
remaining four years at an increased rent of 
five hundred fat beeves. 

The new arrangement was equally distaste- 
ful to Tyrone and to Turlough, and served to 
embitter still further the relations between 
them. Depredations occurred on both sides, 
and Tyrone complained that Turlough was ' 
instigating Shane's sons, Hugh Geimhleach | 
and Con, to plunder him. Fitzwilliam, who 
went to Newry to inquire into the matter, 
thought that Turlough was the principal 
sufferer, but he agreed in laying the blame 
on Shane's sons. About the end of the year 
Tyrone bribed Hugh Maguire [q. v.] with 



some cattle and horses to surrender Hugh 
Geimhleach, and if he did not, as was asserted, 
hang Hugh with his own hands on a thorn 
tree, he procured a hangman from Cavan to 
execute him. Fitzwilliam was indignant, 
and summoned Tyrone to Dublin. But the 
earl merely said he thought he had done well 
to execute him, ' being the son of a traitor and 
himself a traitor ;' and having given surety 
in 2,000/. to appear whenever he was wanted, 
he was allowed to return home. But he sub- 
sequently professed sorrow for what he had 
done ; and Fitzwilliam, who was inclined to 
regard him with favour, gave him permission 
to go to England. On arriving at court in 
March 1590, he was for some time placed under 
restraint. But the deputy wrote eloquently 
in his behalf, urging that of his own know- 
ledge the Pale had ' felt great good and secu- 
rity in his neighbourhood/ and that so long 
as Turlough lived he was not really dan- 
gerous, though ' when he is absolute and 
hath no competitor, then he may shew him- 
self to be tne man which now in his wis- 
dom he hath reason to dissemble.' He was 
accordingly * purged with mercy,' and re- 
turned to Ireland on 20 Aug. For some 
time he caused the government little or no 
anxiety. 

In January 1591 his wife, the daughter of 
O'Donnell, died, and Tyrone, who had been 
attracted by the personal charms of Mabel 
Bagenal, daughter of Sir Nicholas Bagenal, 
made overtures to her brother, Sir Henry, for 
an alliance with her. But Bagenal repulsed 
his overtures with contempt. Tyrone, how- 
ever, found opportunities to speak with the 
young lady in private, and, having succeeded 
in winning her affections, persuaded her to 
elope with him ' to an honest gentleman's 
house within a mile of Dublin . . . when I did 
not once touch her until I had sent to Dublin 
and had entreated the Bishop of Meath to 
marry us together in honest sort, which he 
did' in August. The elopement caused a 
great sensation. Sir Henry refused to pay 
his sister's dowry, which henceforth became 
a principal grievance with Tyrone. Accord- 
ing to a statement attributed to Tyrone himself 
( Trevelyan Papers, ii. 101 ), Mabel herself be- 
fore long regretted her rashness, and ' because 
I did affect two other gentlewomen, she grew 
in dislike with me, forsook me, and went unto 
her brother to complain upon me to the 
council of Ireland, and did exhibit articles 
against me/ She died a year or two later, 
and so did not live to see her brother killed 
in battle by her husband. As for Tyrone, he 
declared that his chief object in marryimr 
her was ' to bring civility into my house and 
among the country people ' — a specious plea, 



O'Neill 



I90 



O'Neill 



and likely to carry weight with the govern- 
ment. 

In July 1592 Tyrone was instrumental in 
persuading Hugh Roe O'Donnell [q. v.] to go 
to Dundalk and suhmit to the deputy. But 
as the year drew to a close rumours of a dis- 
quieting nature reached Fitzwilliam's ears. 
Hitherto Tyrone's ambition had been limited 
to crushing his rival, Turlough Luineach, and 
asserting his supremacy as head of the 
O'Neills. Hostility towards Turlough rather 
than towards the government was the motive 
of his conduct. Afterwards, when he was 
seen to be aiming at the separation of Ireland 
from England, it became the fashion to ascribe 
to him a degree of astuteness and duplicity 
of which he was certainly innocent. Private 
ambition, the influence of Hugh Roe O'Don- 
nell, and Spanish intrigues, rather than any 
statesmanlike interest in the welfare of his 
country or regard for the catholic religion, 
were at the bottom of his revolt. Cautious 
even to timidity, he resorted to a system of 
duplicity, to call it by no more offensive title, 
which, while it proved wholly ineffective, has 
served sufficiently to perplex his biographers, 
and to give rise to a view of his character 
which has no foundation in fact. In May 
1593 he came to terms with Turlough 
Luineach, and the latter having resigned the 
chieftainship in his favour, he was inaugu- 
rated O'Neill. Something of what had hap- 
pened reached the ears of the deputy, who, 
failing to inveigle him to Dublin, ordered him 
to repair to Dundalk on 20 June, * so that, 
under pretence of border causes, we might lay 
hold on him there/ Tyrone obeyed the sum- 
mons, expressed profound grief at having been 
falsely accused of disloyalty, and consented 
to concede a life interest in the district of 
Strabane to Turlough. He was allowed to 
return home, Fitzwilliam explaining that he 
had not sufficient ground to proceed against 
him on a charge of foreign conspiracy as 
directed in her majesty's letters. 

It was deemed advisable to overlook his 
delinquencies, and to employ him to recover 
Hugh Maguire [q. v.], who in June had invaded 
Connaught and defeated the president, Sir 
Richard Bingham, at Tulsk, co. Roscommon. 
It was a hazardous proceeding if, as there 
were good grounds for believing, Maguire 
was only acting on secret instructions from 
Tyrone and O'Donnell. Tyrone readily under- 
took the task committed to him, but failed 
to induce Maguire to submit. Accordingly, 
in September 1593, Sir Henry Bagenal, 
with 143 horse and 208 foot, invaded Fer- 
managh from the side of Monaghan. At 
Enniskillen he was joined by Tyrone with 
two hundred horse and six hundred foot. On 



10 Oct. they encountered Maguire at Belleek, 
and gained ' a splendid victory ' over him. 
During the fight Tyrone was wounded in 
the leg, of which he did not fail to make the 
most ; but it was noticed in his disparage- 
ment that he * made earnest motion to be 
gone the day before the conflict.' He pro- 
tested that Bagenal and Fitzwilliam nad 
conspired to rob him of the honour that was 
due to him ; but the impression that he had 
assisted unwillingly at Maguire's discom- 
fiture was shared by the Irish (O'Clery, 
Life of O'Donnell, p. 65). After the battle 
he retired to Dungannon, where he awaited 
the further development of events. In March 
1594 Archbishop Loftus, Chief-justice Gar- 
diner, and Sir Anthony St. Leger, being 
persona} gratae, were sent to Dundalk to 
treat with him. Tvrone, after keeping the 
commissioners waiting some days, handed in 
a list of his grievances (Cat. Carew MSS. iii. 
87), chiefly to the effect that Fitzwilliam and 
Bagenal were knit together to take his life 
and deprive him of all honour. Official 
opinion was divided, the commissioners sug- 
gesting the removal of Bagenal ; Sir Richard 
Bingham and Solicitor-general Wilbraham 
urging that Tyrone's country should be shired 
and partitioned as Monaghan had been. 
Eventually, on 15 March, ' a kind of truce ' 
was concluded, 'to last till her majesty's 
pleasure touching the earl's griefs and peti- 
tions may be ascertained.' 

On 11 Aug. Fitzwilliam surrendered the 
sword of state to Sir William Russell. A 
day or two later Tyrone, in fulfilment of a 
promise he had made to Ormonde, but to the 
evident astonishment of the council, appeared 
in Dublin, and, having deluded the deputy 
with the belief that he was the most loyal 
of subjects, was allowed to slip quietly 
away again. The deputy had soon good 
reason to regret his short-sighted leniency. 
Proof was forthcoming that he was secretly 
supporting Maguire, and had arrived at an 
understanding with Fiagh MacHugh O'Byrne 
[q. v.] Spanish gold was current in Tyrone, 
and rumours were rife of a Spanish invasion, 
supported from Scotland by the Earl of 
Huntly. The government deemed an imme- 
diate attack on Tyrone essential. Reinforce- 
ments under Sir John Norris [q. v.] were ad- 
vertised as being on the way ; but Tyrone had 
prior information, and struck the first blow 
by invading Louth, which he burned up to 
the very walls of Drogheda. When Norris 
landed at Waterford on 4 May 1595, the 
fort at the Black water had fallen into 
Tyrone's hands, and a day or two later En- 
niskillen was recaptured by Maguire. Be- 
fore Norris could take the field, Sligo Castle 



O'Neill 



191 



O'Neill 



had fallen, and its commander, George Bing- 
ham, been slain. On 24 June Tyrone was 
proclaimed a traitor in English and Irish at 
Dundalk. There was plenty of skirmishing 
and considerable loss ofiife; but Norris failed 
to hring him to an open engagement, and 
Cecil, who thought the situation dangerous, 
advised a compromise. 'Her majesty/ he 
wrote, ' would be content to see what was in 
the traitor's heart, and what he would offer/ 
But Tyrone insisted on a general pardon all 
round, and to this Norris refused to consent. 

In the midst of the struggle old Turlough 
Luineach died, and Tyrone assumed the title, 
as he had for some time past possessed the 
authority, of O'Neill. ' The coming to the 
place of O'Neill/ wrote Norris, * hath made 
the rebel much prouder and harder to yield 
to his duty, ana he flattereth himself much 
with the hope of foreign assistance.' As if 
to confirm Norris's statement, letters were 
shortly afterwards intercepted from him and 
O'Donnell to Philip II and Don John d'Aquila, 
soliciting speedy assistance. But Tyrone pro- 
tested that he had never corresponded with 
Spain before 20 Aug., which was probably 
true enough, and, the government being wil- 
ling to accept his assurances, a truce was 
concluded on 2 Oct. for a week, but was sub- 
sequently extended to 1 Jan. 1596. Gardiner 
and Wallop were sent to Dundalk to come to 
some terms with him ; but Elizabeth thought 
their languago too subservient to him, and 
substituted Norris and Fenton. On 9 April 
Maguire, MacMahon, and O'Reilly sub- 
mitted on their knees in the market-place of 
Dundalk. But Tyrone and O'Donnell re- 
fused to meet the commissioners anywhere 
except in the open fields, and, this being re- 
garded as undignified, intermediaries were 
appointed. ' Free liberty of conscience ' and 
local autonomy were the points chiefly in- 
sisted on. But there were explanations, and 
Elizabeth having professed herself satisfied, 
a hollow peace was signed on 24 April. 

A day or two later a messenger arrived from 
Spain with a letter from Philip to Tyrone, 
encouraging him to persevere in his valiant 
defence of the catholic cause. There 
can be no question as to the nature or 
Tyrone's answer, for it is extant in the 
archives at Simancas, and has been pub- 
lished (O'Clert, Life of O'Donnell, p. lxxviii). 
But to Norris Tyrone declared that he had 
told the Spaniard who brought the letter 
that he and O'Donnell had been received 
into the favour of their own princess, and 
therefore could not answer Philip's expecta- 
tions. To put the matter at rest, he sub- 
mitted Philip's letter to Russell's inspection. 
But in this he rather overshot his mark, 



for Russell retained the letter, and caused it 
to be transmitted to Philip, who was indig- 
nant at Tyrone's breach of faith. Tyrone 
excused himself by saying his secretary had 
run away with it. 

For the next two years it is impossible to 
describe the relations between Tyrone and 
the government as those either of settled 
peace or open war. So far as Tvrone was 
concerned, it was, of course, to his interest 
to avoid coming to an open breach with the 
government until the arrival of Spanish as- 
sistance was assured. The unfriendly rela- 
tions existing between Sir William Russell 
and Sir John Norris, and the obstinate blind- 
ness of the latter to Tyrone's real inten- 
tions, favoured his design. He manifested 
no eagerness to sue out his pardon, but when 
it arrived he received it, according to Fenton, 
* most dutifully, and, as a public token of his 
rejoicing, caused a great volley of shot to be 
discharged in his camp.' He proffered his as- 
sistance to restore order in Connaught ; but 
nothing came, as it was meant nothing should 
come, of his intervention. To everybody ex- 
cept Norris it was evident that he was merely 
spinning out the time. At the end of August 
1596 two ' barks of adviso ' were announced to 
have arrived at Killy begs, and Tyrone, O'Don- 
nell, and O'Rourke at once posted thither. 
Letters addressed by them to the king of 
Spain, the infante, and Don John d'Aquila, 
calling for instant support, were betrayed by 
Tyrone's secretary, Nott, but it was some 
time, * owing to the handling of the matter 
by the Earl of Tyrone/ before any absolute 
knowledge of the correspondence came into 
the possession of the government. After 
this, further dissimulation on his part might 
have seemed impossible. Nevertheless, he 
was highly indignant at what he called 
Russelrs breach of faith in attacking his ally, 
Fiagh MacHugh O'Byrne, and threatened 
instant war unless the deputy desisted from 
I his purpose. But Russell treated his threats 
I with contempt, and Tyrone, after making a 
I demonstration on the borders of the Pale 
I and cutting off all supplies from the garrison 
j at Armagh, abandoned his ally. 
I In January 1597 Norris moved down to 
I Dundalk, and the earl, ' contrary to the minds 
I of his brethren and chief followers, who 
would have him still remain Irish/ consented 
to parley. He could not deny having written 
letters to Spain, but he laid the blame partly 
on O'Donnell, partly on the government. He 
protested his loyalty with * oaths deep and 
vehement.' But Norris doubted whether his 
I words corresponded with ' his heart or in- 
ward meaning/ and refused to assure him of 
! the queen's pardon, though agreeing to an* 



O'Neill 



I92 



O'Neill 



other parley in March. A few days later 
Tyrone wrote to O'Donnell that he had re- 
fused to make peace, and advised him to 
strengthen himself in Connaught. The day 
appointed for the parley arrived, but Tyrone 
asked that it might be postponed, ' pretend- 
ing that his pledges were not changed ac- 
cording to covenant, nor restitution made 
him by those that had purged his country, 
and that his confederates could not come so 
soon.' Norris, Bourchier, and Fenton, who 
had been appointed to treat with him, re- 
plied that they were not to be deluded with 
Lis excuses, and fixed 16 April as the last 
day of grace. Meanwhile, a ship from Spain 
arrived in Donegal, and Tyrone hastened to 
Lifford to learn the news. He asserted at 
the same time that, ' if all the Spaniards in 
Spain should come into Ireland, thev could 
not alter his mind from being a dutiful sub- 
ject to her majesty, if promise was kept 
with him ; ' but by this time neither Norris 
nor Fenton believed him, and Tyrone thought 
it prudent not to go to Dundalkon 16 April. 
On 22 May Russell surrendered the sword 
of state to Thomas, lord Borough, and on the 
same day Norris wrote to Tyrone, offering a 
final meeting for 20 June. The new deputy, 
who declared that he was ' not so covetous 
of action that he would not most willingly 
hearken to terms of humiliation,' refused to 
be deluded by Tyrone's excuses, and sternly 
reproved him for his disloyalty. A general 
hosting was proclaimed for 6 June, and a 
day or two later Captain Turner attacked 
Tyrone between Newry and Armagh. The 
earl was completely taken by surprise, but 
managed to escape, with the loss of his horse 
and hat, into a neighbouring bog. Armagh 
was revictualled dv Turner, and Tyrone 
withdrew across the Blackwater. On 14 July 
the lord deputy captured the fort on the j 
Blackwater, and, having placed a strong gar- 
rison in it, returned to Dublin. But Tyrone, , 
who ' hanged twenty of his knaves that were ' 
appointed for the defence of the sconce/ 
pressed the garrison so closely that Borough ' 
was compelled to return to their relief. Suc- 
ceeding in this, but failing to come to ' prick 1 
proke ' with Tyrone, he was pushing forward 
to Dungannon, when he was taken suddenly . 
ill, and compelled to retire to Newry. There | 
he died, a few days later, on 13 Oct. It was 1 
anticipated that Tyrone would seize the op- 
portunity to overrun the Pale, which, accord- 
ing to Loftus, he could very easily have done, 
' even to the gates of Dublin.' But instead 
of doing so, he wrote submissively to the 
state, and on 22 Dec. humbly submitted him- 
self to the Earl of Ormonde at Dundalk, 'and 
upon the knees of his heart professed most 



hearty penitence for his disloyalty, and espe- 
cially his foul relapses thereinto.' He pro- 
mised to renounce the title of O'Neill, to 
refrain from putting obstacles in the way of 
victualling the fort on the Blackwater ; and 
undertook not to correspond with Spain or 
any other foreign nation. Ormonde promised 
to transmit his grievances and petitions, in 
which * free liberty of conscience for all the 
inhabitants of Ireland ' held the foremost 
place, to Elizabeth, and on these terms a truce 
for eight weeks, subsequently renewed to 
7 June 1598, was concluded. 

His pardon passed the great seal on 11 April 
1598; but, feeling that the demands of the 
crown, if yielded to,would completely destroy 
his authority over his urraghs, he took advan- 
tage of the expiration of the truce to besiege 
the fort on the Blackwater. His efforts to 
capture it were not successful, but lack of 
provisions before long reduced the garrison to 
the direst extremities. In August a strong 
force, under the command of Marshal Sir 
Henry Bagenal, was sent to relieve it ; but 
on 14 Aug. it was cut to pieces and almost 
annihilated by Tyrone at Beal-an-atha- 
| buidhe,ortheYellowFordon the Blackwater. 
The government was panic-stricken at the 
news. But Tyrone, who might have marched 
directly on Dublin, showed no ability to profit 
by his unexpected victory, and was content 
to allow the remnants of Bagenal's army to 
retreat to Newry, 'so that the fort might be 
delivered him, to the governor whereof, Cap- 
: tain Williams, and his soldiers, he would give 
no better conditions than to depart in their 
1 doublets and hose only with rapier and dagger / 
As a result of the victory, the smouldering 
elements of discontent burst everywhere 
I into open activity. Nowhere was the effect 
more visible than in Munster, which, in the 
expressive language of the Irish annalists, 
again became ' a trembling sod.' But three 
months elapsed before Tyrone showed any 
appreciation of the advantage he had won, or 
manifested any design of extending his opera- 
tions beyond the limits of a provincial revolt. 
In October he sent a strong force into Mun- 
ster under Tyrrell, and Cecil was informed 
' that the very day they set foot within the 
province, Munster to a man was in arms before 
noon.' The general estimation in which Ty- 
rone was at this time held may be gathered 
from the fact that the king of Spain was said 
to have stayed all Irish ships that had not 
the earl's pass. Under his protection James 
Fitzthomas Fitzgerald, commonly called the 
Sugan Earl [q. v.], assumed the title of Earl 
of Desmond, and before long found himself 
at the head of eight thousand clansmen. 
Donald MacCarthy, Florence MacCarthy's 



O'Neill 



193 



O'Neill 



rival, seized the opportunity, with Tyrone's 
consent, to have himself proclaimed Mac- 
Carthy mor. The English planters fled with- 
out striking a blow, and the settlement on 
which English statesmen had set such store 
vanished like the unsubstantial fabric of a 
vision. 

But Tyrone possessed few of those quali- 
ties, of which foresight and breadth of 
aim are not the least essential, that go to 
constitute generalship, and months of pre- 
cious time were lost during which he might 
have made himself master of Ireland, and 
welded into one homogeneous mass all those 
scattered elements of hostility towards Eng- 
land, to which recent events had imparted 
extraordinary vigour. When Essex landed 
at Dublin on 15 April 1599, the situation, so 
far as Tyrone was concerned, was practically 
unaltered. Essex's plan of first securing the 
three provinces of Munster, Leinster, and 
Connaught, 'that thereby the main action of 
Ulster may be proceeded with with less dis- 
traction/ whether his or the council's, has 
been harshly criticised ; but it was rather the 
'manner of its execution than the plan itself 
that was mainly responsible for his failure. 
After a fruitless expedition into Munster, he 
returned to Dublin on 3 July with his forces 
'weary, sick, and incredibly diminished.' 
The wisdom of postponing further operations 
for that year was manifest to every one on 
the spot. But towards the end of July letters 
arrived from Elizabeth with peremptory 
orders to attack Tyrone with all speed. Ac- 
cordingly, on 28 Aug., Essex left Dublin with 
a wholly inadequate force of 2,500 men. As 
he approached the borders of Ulster there 
was some skirmishing between him and Ty- 
rone's outposts, but nothing like a general 
engagement. Tyrone, according to his wont, 
made overtures for a parley, and on 7 Sept. 
he and Essex met at a ford on the river Lagan, 
identified as Anagh-clint. What passed at 
this meeting has been much disputed, for 
Tyrone, according to Essex, flatly refused to 
commit to writing the conditions on which 
he was willing to submit, and Essex, un- 
wisely as the event proved, consented to 
humour him. There is an interesting account 
of the meeting in the ' Trevelyan Papers ' (ii. 
101-4), in which Essex is made to 6ay 'If I 
was sure you would not violate your oath 
and promise, as heretofore you have already 
done, I would be very well content to speak 
unto the Queen's majesty, my mistress, for 
you ' (cf. Addit. MS. 5495, f. 16). The gist 
of Tyrone's demands appears in a document 
called ' Tyrone's Propositions/ printed in 
Winwood's ' Memorials' (i. 119); but a fuller 
copy of the same, contained in a letter from 

VOL. XLII. 



Captain Warren, has been printed in Gil- 
bert's ' Account of the National Manuscripts 
of Ireland/ p. 249. The suggestion of trea- 
son on Essex's part may be dismissed as mere 
calumny. It was surely enough to condemn 
him in Elizabeth's eyes that he had shown so 
little regard for the dignity of the crown by 
consenting to treat on equal terms ' as best be- 
comes soldiers ' with aproscribed traitor. Sus- 
sex and Sidney would have shown themselves 
much more sensitive in this respect. It 
was agreed that commissioners should be ap- 
pointed to arrange the details of the pacifica- 
tion, and that in the meantime there should 
be a truce for six weeks to six weeks, until 
1 May 1600, either side being at liberty to 
break it on giving fourteen days' notice. 

On 8 Nov. Tyrone in a letter signed 
O'Neill — the style he now openly adopted — 
announced his intention not to renew the 
cessation, but in December he was induced 
by the Earl of Ormonde to consent to a truce 
for one month. The interval was employed 
in completing his preparations for an expedi- 
tion into Munster. Letters, little less than 
regal in style, were sent to MacCarthy Mus- 
kerry, to Florence MacCarthy, to Lords Barry 
and Roche, the 'White Knight/ and the 
' Sugan Earl of Desmond/ appointing a meet- 
ing at Holy Cross in Tipperary ' to learn the 
intentions of the gentlemen of Munster with 
regard to the great question of the nation's 
liberty and religion.' For the benefit of the 
catholics of the towns in Ireland a mani- 
festo was drawn up and scattered broadcast, 
calling on them to join Tyrone's standard, and 
threatening punishment if they refused. For 
himself, he declared that he had only the in- 
terests of religion at heart, and protested • that 
if I had to be king of Ireland without having 
the catholic religion, I would not the same 
accept.' Early in January 1600 he began his 
march southward. Proceeding slowly through 
the central districts, scrupulously observing 
his promise to plunder all those who refused 
to join his standard, he reached Holy Cross 
on the appointed day. Saluting with all re- 
verence the sacred relic preserved there, he 
proceeded to Cashel, where he was joined 
by the ' Sugan Earl.' Passing the Blackwater 
on 18 Feb., he fixed his camp at Innis- 
carra, on the river Lee, where he received 
the homage of the principal magnates of the 
province, and caused Florence MacCarthy 
fq.v.] to be inaugurated MacCarthy Mor. 
He pillaged the country of Lord Barry, who 
defied him ; but, on the whole, the expedition 
was a failure. His principal henchman, Hugh 
Maguire, lost his life in a skirmish with Sir 
Warham St. Leger on 1 March. The loss 
was irreparable, and Tyrone, hearing that Sir 



O'Neill 



194 



O'Neill 



George Carew was on his way to Cork with 
reinforcements, thought it prudent to de- 
camp. He returned by forced marches to Ul- 
ster, and by doing so avoided Mountjoy, who 
was preparing to intercept him in Westmeath. 
Shortly after his return he received wel- 
come intelligence that a ship from Spain had 
arrived at Donegal bearing on board Mathew 
de Oviedo, titular archbishop of Dublin, with 
letters from Philip in, and considerable sup- 

Elies of money and ammunition to be divided 
etween him and O'Donnell, together with a 
phoenix feather (penna phcenicis) from Cle- 
ment VIII for himself, and indulgences for 
all who should rise in defence of the faith. On 
15 May Sir Henry Docwra [q. v.] landed with 
four thousand foot and two hundred horse on 
the shores of Lough Foyle ; and, in order to 
assist him in establishing himself firmly at 
Derry, Mountjoy drew down with the army 
to Newry. These tactics were successful, and 
the continued efforts of Tyrone and O'Donnell 
during the summer proved inadequate to dis- 
lodge Docwra, who was assisted by Sir Art 
O'Neill, Turlough's eldest son, and later by 
Niall garv O'Donnell [q. v.] During the 
summer Mountjoy was occupied in settling 
the disturbed districts of Leix and Offaly, 
but in September he established his camp at 
Faughard, near Dundalk, w